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Exam Study Guide

by: Caitlin Notetaker

Exam Study Guide PHI115

Marketplace > University of Miami > PHI115 > Exam Study Guide
Caitlin Notetaker
GPA 3.0
Social and Ethical Issues in Computing
Bartlomiej Chomanski

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This is a study guide for the PHI115 Exam
Social and Ethical Issues in Computing
Bartlomiej Chomanski
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlin Notetaker on Monday February 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHI115 at University of Miami taught by Bartlomiej Chomanski in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 206 views.

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Date Created: 02/02/15
PHI151 Ardumentation What is an argument 0 A piece of reasoning where you assert a conclusion on the basis of premises What are premises 0 The supporting claims that lead to our conclusion 0 Premises are supposed to give us reason to think the conclusion is true 0 Premises come from judgments about imagined cases common sense generally accepted scientific theories judgments about cases you and your opponent could agree about and conclusions of other arguments What is a conclusion 0 The claim you make about the case based on reasoning Why is argumentation crucial to ethical disputes o Argumentation is crucial because one must be able to provide rational reasoning to back up their claim and prove it to be true What kinds of arguments are there 0 Deductive Arguments One where the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion 9 Most common 0 Materially valid arguments easily translated into deductive arguments o Arguments from analogy How to evaluate arguments 0 You determine whose right be examining what reasons the two opponents have for their claims What is a conditional Why is important When is it true 0 Conditional Sentences expressing factual implications or hypothetical situations and their consequences m o What versions of relativism are there How do they differ o No universal norms of right and wrong 0 Subjective Relativism and Cultural Relativism 0 Cultural Relativism What is right and wrong depends upon a society s actual moral guidelines 9 A particular action may be right in one society at one time and wrong in another society or at another time o Subjective Relativism Each person decides right and wrong for himself or herself 9 What s right for you may not be right for me Subiective Relativism What does Subjective Relativism maintain 0 Each person decides right and wrong for himself or herself What reasons are there to think Subjective Relativism is true 0 Wellmeaning and intelligent people disagree on moral issues 0 Ethical debates are disagreeable and pointless What reasons are there to think it is false 0 Blues line between doing what you think is right and what you want to do 0 Makes no moral distinction between the actions of different people 0 Subjective relativism and tolerance are two different things 0 Decision may not be based on reason Cultural Relativism What does it say 0 What is right and wrong depends upon a society s actual moral guidelines What reasons are there to think it s true 0 Different social contexts demand different moral guidelines 0 It s arrogant for one society to judge another What reasons are there to think it s false O 0 Because two societies do have different moral views doesn t mean they ought to have different views It doesn t explain how moral guidelines are determined What if there are no cultural norms It doesn t account for evolution of moral guidelines It provides no way out for cultures in conflict Existence of many acceptable practices does not imply all practices are acceptable Societies do in fact share certain core values Only indirectly based on reason Divine Command Theorv What does it say 0 Based on the idea that good actions are those aligned with the will of God and bad actions are those contrary to the will of God What reasons are there to believe it s true 0 O 0 We owe obedience to our creator God is allgood and allknowing God is the ultimate authority What reasons to believe it s false 0 O O 0 There are many holy books and some of their teachings disagree with each other It is unrealistic to assume a multicultural society will adopt a religionbased morality Some moral problems are not addressed directly in scripture It is fallacious to equate the good with God The theory is based on obedience not reason Ethical Edoism What does it say 0 The philosophy that each person should focus exclusively on his or his own selfinterest o The morally right action for a person to take in a particular situation is the action that will provide that person with the maximum longterm benefit What reasons are there to think it s true 0 Ethical egoism is a practical and moral philosophy 0 It s better to let other people take care of themselves 0 The community can benefit when individuals put their wellbeing first 0 Other moral principles are rooted in the principle of selfinterest What reasons are there to think it s false 0 An easy moral philosophy may not be the best philosophy 0 We do in fact know what is good for someone else 0 A selfinterested focus can lead to blatantly immoral behavior 0 People who take the good of others into account live happier lives m o What does it say 0 People s actions ought to be guided by moral laws and that these moral laws are universal 9 In order to apply to all rational beings any supreme principle of morality must itself be based on reason How does one evaluate an ethical claim in a Kantian way 1 Categorical Imperative First formulation Act only from moral rules that you can at the same time will to be universal laws a To determine whether it s okay we have to see whether the rule would make sense if everyone believed it and acted on it b Why is generalizing important lt s important because reasons are general 9 Something that s a good reason for me is a good reason for others in my situation I am not an excep on 2 Categorical Imperative Second formulation Act so that you always treat yourself and other people as ends in themselves and never only as a means to an end a You should allow other people to set their own goals and choose the means appropriate to those goals rather than manipulate them to do things you want them to do 9 because other people are also rational and by disrespecting their means you disrespect their rationality What reasons are there to think it s true 0 The Categorical Imperative aligns with the common moral concern What if everybody acted that way 0 Kantianism produces universal moral guidelines 0 All persons are treated as moral equals What reasons are there to think it s false 0 Sometimes no single rule fully characterizes an action 0 Sometimes there is no way to resolve a conflict between rules 0 Kantianism allows no exceptions to perfect rules Utilitarianism What kinds of Utilitarianism are there 0 Utility The tendency of an object to produce happiness or prevent unhappiness for an individual or a community 0 Morality of an action has nothing to do with the intent o Focuses on the consequences 9 A consequentialist theory 0 Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism How do they differ 0 Act Utilitarianism The ethical theory that an action is good if its net effect overall affected beings is to produce more happiness than unhappiness 9 Applies principle of utility to individual ac ons 0 Rule Utilitarianism The ethical theory that holds we ought to adopt those moral rules that if followed by everyone lead to the greatest increase in total happiness over all affected parties 9 Applies principle utility to moral rules ActUtilitarianism What does it say 0 The ethical theory that an action is good if its net effect overall affected beings is to produce more happiness than unhappiness 9 Applies principle of utility to individual actions What reasons are there to think it s true o It focuses on happiness 0 It s practical o It is comprehensive What reasons are there to think it s false 0 When performing the utilitarian calculus it is not clear where to draw the line yet where we draw the line can change the outcome of our evaluation o It is not practical to put so much energy into every moral decision 0 Act utilitarianism ignores our innate sense of duty 0 We cannot predict with certainty the consequences of an action 0 Act utilitarianism is susceptible to the problem of moral luck RuleUtilitarianism What does it say 0 The ethical theory that holds we ought to adopt those moral rules that if followed by everyone lead to the greatest increase in total happiness over all affected parties 9 Applies principle utility to moral rules What reasons are there to think it s true 0 Not every moral decision requires performing utilitarian calculus o Moral rules survive exception situations 0 Avoids the problem of moral luck 0 Reduces the problem of bias 0 Appeals to a widecross section of society What reasons are there to think it s false 0 All consequences must be measured on a single scale 0 lgnores the problem of an unjust distribution of good COHSGQUGHCGS Despite weaknesses they are both workable theories Social Contract Theorv What does it say 0 Thomas Hobbes Everybody living in a civilized society has implicitly agreed to two things 1 the establishment of such a set of moral rules to govern relations among citizens and 2 a government capable of enforcing these rules James Rachels Morality consists in the set of rules governing how people are to treat one another that rational people will agree to accept for their mutual benefit on the condition that others follow those rules as well What reasons are there to think it s true 0 0 It is framed in the language of rights Explains why people act in selfinterest in absence of common agreement Explains why under certain circumstances the government may deprive some people of some rights criminals Explains why under certain circumstances civil disobedience can be the morally right decision What reasons are there to think it s false 0 O O No one signed the social contract Some actions can be characterized in multiple ways Doesn t explain how to solve a moral problem when the analysis reveals conflicting rights May be unjust to people who are incapable of upholding the social contract Workable ethical theory What s the relationship between the social contract and individual rights 0 Negative Right A right that another can guarantee by leaving you alone to exercise your right 9 The right of free expression Positive Right A right that obligates others to do something on your behalf 9 The right to a free education Absolute Right A right that is guaranteed without exception 9 Negative rights such as the right to life are usually considered absolute rights Limited Right A right that me be restricted based on the circumstances 9 Positive rights such as American states guarantee their citizens the right to an education are usually considered limited rights Advocates of social contract theory evaluate moral problems from the point of view of moral rights What s the relationship between the social contract and justice 0 John Rawls s Principles of Justice 1 Each person may claim a full adequate number of basic rights and liberties so long as these claims are consistent with everyone else having a claim to the same rights and liberties 2 Any social and economic inequalities must satisfy two conditions 1 they are associated with positions in society that everyone has a fair and equal opportunity to assume and 2 they are to be to the greatest benefit of the lestadvantaged members of society the difference principle Social contract theory Kantianism Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism are all workable ethical theories


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