Final Exam Study Guide
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MANAGEMENT 302 Study Guide Exam 1 For the first exam you should be able to Chapter 1 Strategic Humpn Resource M lgement Provide some examples of the discrepancies between academic research findings and HRM practice What implications do these have for performance Academic Research Findings Recruitment Quantitative analysis of recruitment sources using yield rations can facilitate e iciencies in recruitment Staffing Realistic job previews can reduce turnover Weighted application blanks reduce turnover Structured behavioral or situational interviews are more valid Usually actuarial model of prediction with multiple measures Graphology is invalid and should not be used Performance Appraisal Do not use traits on rating forms Train raters for accuracy observation bias Make appraisal process important element of manager s job Compensation Meritbased systems should not be tied into a base salary Gainsharing is an e ective PFP system HRM Practice Recruitment Less than 15 calculate yield rations Less than 28 know how Staf ng Less than 20 of companies use RJPs in highturnover jobs Less than 35 know what WAB is lt5 use them 40 of companies use structured interviews lt50 use behavioral interviews Less than 5 use actuarial model Graphology use is on the increase in the US Performance Appraisal More than 60 still use traits Less than 30 train raters Less than 35 of managers are evaluated on performance appraisal Compensation More than 75 tie merit pay into base Less than 5 of companies use it where they could What implications do these discrepancies have on performance Performance can be rated di erently at various companies or branches of a company The fact that academic research findings is saying very dijferent things than HRM Practice may not be a good thing HRM Practice may need to rethink how they evaluate performance to methods that have been proven to work by other companiesacademic findings Identify the major HR domains or functions and some of the most common activities involved With each Have some general sense of What they entail Four Major Domains of HRM I Acquiring human resource capability 2 Developing human resource capability 3 Rewarding and compensating human resources 4 Managing human resources and enhancing productivity and quality of worklife The Human Resource Management Functions Middle HRM Outside of Octagon I Sta ing the process through which an organization ensures that it always has the proper number of employees with the appropriate skills in the right job at the right time to achieve organizational objectives Involves 0 Recruitinginterviewinghiring 0 A irmative action 0 Promotiontransferseparation 0 Outplacement services 0 Inductionorientation 0 Employee selection methods 0 HR Planning the systematic process of matching the internal and external supply of people with job openings anticipated in the organization over a specified period 0 Job analysis the systematic process of determining the skills duties and knowledge required for planning jobs in an organization 2 Compensation and Benefits and Reward Systems includes the total of all rewards provided employees in return for their services The rewards may be one or a combination of the following Direct Financial Compensation Indirect Financial Compensation Benefits andor Nonfinancial Compensation A wellthoughtout compensation system provides employees with adequate and equitable rewards for their contributions to meeting organizational goals 0 Healthmedical services 0 Compensation administration 0 Wagesalary administration 0 Insurance benefits administration 0 Unemployment compensation administration 0 Pensionprofitsharing plans 3 Safety and Health S involves protecting employees from injuries caused by workrelated accidents H refers to the employees freedom from physical or emotional illness 0 Safety programsOSHA compliance 4 HRD a major HRM function consisting not only of training and development but also of career planning and development activities organizational development and performance management and appraisal Training designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs Development learning that goes beyond today s job and has a more longterm focus Career Planning an ongoing process whereby an individual sets career goals and identifies the means to achieve them According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics today s employees will work for approx nine companies during their careers Career Development a formal approach used by the organization to ensure that people with the proper qualifications and experiences are available when needed Individual careers and organizational needs are not separate and distinct Organizations should assist employees in career planning so the needs of both can be satisfied Organizational Development OD planned and systematic attempts to change the organization corporate culture typically to a more behavioral environment OD applies to an entire system such as a company or a plant A number of OD methods are discussed that serve to improve a firm s performance Performance Management a goaloriented process that is directed toward ensuring that organizational processes are in place to maximize the productivity of employees teams and ultimately the organization 0 Performance appraisal a formal system of review and evaluation of individual or team task performance It ajfords employees the opportunity to capitalize on their strengths and overcome identified deficiencies thereby helping them to become more satisfied and productive employees 5 Employee and Labor Relations businesses are required by law to recognize a union and bargain with it in good faith if the firm s employees want the union to represent them Complaintdisciplinary procedures Recognition of uniongoodfaith bargaining What does management by measurement mean Provide some examples Management by Measurement is a system ensuring all functional business units subscribe to guidelines for sound strategic measurement Criteria to measure 0 00000000 Performance e g individual team unit Quantity quality timeliness coste ectiveness ejfects on others Productivity Customer satisfaction Absenteeism Turnoverretentiontenureintentions to stayleave Employee theft Violence in the workplace Job stress e g role con ict ambiguity Job satisfactionmotivationattitudescommitment Creativity Perceived fairness procedural interactional Error rates Accidents healthrelated variables worker stress injuries 0 Organizational citizenship behavior Describe competitive advantage know the two bases of competitive advantage customer value and uniqueness Competitive Advantage the ability of an organization to formulate strategies that place it in a favorable position relative to other companies in the industry Based on 0 Customer value customers feel that they receive more value from their transaction with an organization than from its competitors 00000 0 Factors in understanding the customer s needs and expectations 0 Particular product or service ex Nordstrom s customer service is great o Intangible variables corporate responsibility environmental impacts diversity policies political issues ex ChickfilA and gay issue a iliation with other products or services 0 Uniqueness o ering a product or service that your competitor cannot easily imitate or COPY 0 Financial or economic capability a business receives special access to financial funding or is able to produce a good or service cheaper than someone else 0 Strategic or product capability a business needs to o er a product or service that di erentiates it from other products or services 0 Technological or operational capability a business can have a distinct way of building or delivering its product or service 0 Organizational capability the business s ability to manage organizational systems and people in order to match customer and strategic needs Explain a SWOT analysis The purpose of a SWOT analysis is to 0 Identify environmental opportunities and threats 0 Understand how the mix of these forces interact with each other and the rm s internal strengths and weaknesses 0 Predict their future ejfects 0 Provide a means to control their impact Organizational Capabilities Environmental Conditions Strengths Opportunities Weaknesses Threats Effective HR Planning Explain What The Cracked Water Pot has to do With competitive advantage The Cracked Water Pot has to do with competitive advantage in both aspects Customer Value and Uniqueness The customer value that was involved in this was the followingdespite the water pot having a crack as a aw the water bearer the manager saw the advantage of it dripping its water out as he carried the pot back to his master s house The water bearer then planted seeds along the path and as they walked back the cracked water pot helped those owers grow The customer value was increased because the water bearer was then able to put owers on the master s table The uniqueness aspect of this was that even though the water pot was cracked the water bearer used the strategicproduct capability of the crack in the water pot which allowed it to water all of the seeds and grow the owers Explain damage control can prevent failure but it Will never elevate you to excellence By doing damage control a company is just xing what needs to be xedwhat went wrong Fixing what is currently wrong is great but it will not help in the future if this incident were to occur again A company needs to come up with a plan so that this failure doesn t occur again and other failures like it will not occur as well The company should also develop a plan in order to continue raising the bar rather than just xing the problem and continuing with their dayto day activities In order to elevate to excellence a company must use Human Resource Development and traindevelop their employees so their can improve their skills increase their knowledge and utilize their abilities to be the best employees possible and therefore increasing the value and of the company Chapter 2 Diversitv and the Legal Environment Define discrimination and Whom Title VII covers Discrimination the employment decision making or working conditions that are advantageous or disadvantageous to members of one group compared to members of another group Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of race color religion sex or national origin in all aspects of employment amended in 1991 0 Covers 0 O O 0 All private and public employers of 15 people All private and public educational institutions State and local governments Public and private employment agencies Labor unions with 15 members 0 EEOC Equal Opportunity Commission an agency of the US Department of Labor created to monitor and enforce compliance with Title VII 5 members 5 year term the President appoints them approved by Congress 0 0 File suits against orgs For violations of the law Issues interpretive regulations regarding employment practice 39 Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures 1978 I Interpretative Guidelines on Sexual Harassment 1980 I Policy Guidance on Reasonable Accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act 1999 Distinguish between a BFOQ and business necessity BFOQ Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications Business Necessity Distinguish between disparate or adverse treatment and disparate or adverse impact Disparate Adverse Treatment discrimination that occurs when individuals are treated dijferently because of their membership in a protected group Disparate Adverse Impact discrimination that occurs when the equal application of an employment standard has an unequal e ect on one or more protected groups Explain the fourfifths rule Given sample data calculate and explain Whether there is disparate impact F ourF ifths Rule a practice has an adverse impact if the success rate of a protected class is less than fourfifths the success rate of the most successful group Success Rate of Most Successful x 45 Thresholdcuto point that you must meet 0R Pass otal of Least Successful PassT otal of Most Successful gtor 80 Ex Describe sexual harassment and the two types of sexual harassment As an HR consultant to a local CEO how would you advise her to deal With this issue in her own company Be able to apply this to a sample scenario Sexual Harassment Under Title VII unwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when 1 Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment harassment that occurs when sexual activity is required in return for getting or keeping a job or jobrelated bene ts 0 Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of employment 0 Submission to or rejection of such conduct is used as a basis for employment decisions a ecting the individual 2 Hostile Work Environment Sexual Harassment harassment that occurs when the behavior of anyone in the work setting is sexual in nature and is perceived by an employee as o ensive and undesirable 0 Such conduct has the purpose or e ect of unreasonably interfering with an individual s work performance or creating an intimidating hostile or o ensive working environment ex questionable posters hanging in an o ice giving people s as they walk by How to deal with sexual harassment issues 1 Develop a written policy Conduct Training Inform employees Detail sanctions for violations Establish a grievance procedure Investigate claims made by victims NRPISKS OEV Discipline violators Discuss the Age Discrimination in Employment Act Who isis not covered Age Discrimination in Employment Act ADEA prohibits discrimination in pay bene ts or continued employment for employees age 40 and over unless an employer can demonstrate that age is a BF 0Q bonafide occupational qualification amended in 1978 and 1986 Covers employees 40 applies to employers with 15 employees Explain the Americans With Disabilities Act reasonable accommodation undue hardship and essential functions Provide some examples of Who isis not covered Americans with Disabilities Act ADA prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities who are able to perform the essential functions of the job with or without reasonable accommodation Disability 0 A physical or mental impairment that sustainably limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual 0 A record of such impairment or 0 Being regarded as having such an impairment ex someone has a heart attack they re alright and cleared to work but their supervisor is nervous about him returning to work and still regards him as having an impairment Reasonable Accommodation 0 Making existing facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities and 0 Job restructuring parttime or modified work schedules reassignment to a vacant position acquisition or modification of equipment or devices appropriate adjustment or modifications of examinations training materials or policies the provision of qualified readers or interpreters and other similar accommodations for individuals with disabilities Undue Hardship 0 Means an action requiring significant di icult or expense 0 In determining whether an accommodation would impost an undue hardship on a covered entity factors to be considered include 0 The overall size of the business 0 The type of operation 0 The nature and cost of the accommodation Covered o Alcoholics o HIVAIDS o Autism bipolar cancer diabetes schizophrenia PTSD 0CD etc Not Covered 0 Current drug users between now and two years ago Describe the issues to be mindful of in the Hiring the Bank Teller case how do the terms pertinent to ADA apply to this specific situation How does GINA apply 0 She is able to perform the essential functions of the job There is no undue hardship to the company based on the size of the company NOT the size of the branch They could have made accommodations for her putting in a ramp restructuring the job setting up her station with everything she would need 9 physically restructuring her workspace lowering the counter at her station The interviewermanager can ONLY look at can she perform the essential functions of the job now NOT based on the fact that she has MS 9 cannot look at GINA Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act which prohibits the use of genetic information in making decisions in any aspect of employment prohibits requesting requiring or purchasing genetic information makes it illegal to harass a person because of hisher genetic info makes it illegal to retaliate against an application or employee for filing a discrimination charge participating in such proceedings or otherwise opposing such discrimination Chapter 3 Job Analysis and HR Planning What is job analysis and What is it used for Job Analysis the systematic process of collecting information about the skills knowledge and duties required to perform specific jobs What is it used for it is a basic HRM tool HR Planning Recruitment Selection Training and Career Development TQM Programs Job Designrestructuring Succession Planning Performance Appraisal Compensation and Benefits Safety Audits and Health Organizingreorganizing Employee and Labor Relations Legal Considerations Job Analysis for Teams Job Analysis TasksResponsibilitiesDuties 9 Job Description KnowledgeSkillsAbilities 9 Job Specifications Discuss the legal importance of Griggs vs Duke Power and Albemarle Paper Co vs Moody Legal Importance of Job Analysis job analysis is necessary to demonstrate the job relatedness and business necessity of selection devices Griggs vs Duke Power Griggs won Duke Power required a high school diploma for employment An AfricanAmerican Griggs applied for a job didn t get it 9 caused disparate impact High school diploma didn t determine whether or not a person could do the job Establishedsystemizedetc the way it is decided if a qualification is job related through a job analysis Albemarle Paper Co vs Moody Distinguish between a job description and a job specification Job Description Tasks Responsibilities and Duties Job Specification Knowledge Skills and Abilities Explain the common sources of error in job analysis Inadequate Sampling don t haveget all of the information they need don t get full range of tasks required in job Response Sets Employee Behavior Changes an employee s responses will re ect where they are in their careers just starting out vs a person with tenure Reliance on heuristics and job stereotypes lengthy questionnaires they get tired don t think through their answers and just come up with response rules Impression Management the employee makes it sound like their job is the most importantvital to the company Have passing familiarity with the different techniques for collecting job analysis information Know when it is appropriate or helpful to use each of the techniques and specific questionnaires Methods of Collecting Information Observation Performing the Job Interviews Diarieslogs Background Records Critical Incidents 0 Critical Incident Technique CIT qualitative approach for obtaining specific behaviorally focused descriptions of work or other activities Originally developed as a training needs assessment and performance appraisal tool In this regard individuals recalled and reported specific behavioral examples of incidents that re ected exceptionally good or exceptionally poor performance 0 Questionnaires 0 Position Analysis Questionnaire PAQ standardized questionnaire which assesses activities using 194 items in six categories Items on the FAQ are rated using several dijferent scales including importance amount of time required extent of use possibility of occurrence applicability and dijficulty Management Position Description Questionnaire MPDQ standardized instrument designed specifically for use in analyzing managerial jobs The 274 item questionnaire contains I 5 sections In most sections respondents are asked to indicate how significant each item is to the position Functional Job Analysis FJA workeroriented job analytic approach which attempts to describe the whole person on the job This includes the functional specific content and adaptive skills needed by an individual to perform a job satisfactorily Job Compatibility Questionnaire JCQ designed as a job analysis method to be used primarily in the development of personnel selection instruments Unlike other job analysis methods the JCQ gathers information on all aspects of a job which are hypothesized to be related to employee performance absences turnover and job satisfaction Not most commonly used but if you can hire an expert to do it it is great For low wagehourly jobs List of items coworker and leader characteristics task variability etc Explain Why HRP Human Resource Planning is important Human Resource Planning HRP the process of systematically reviewing human resource requirements to ensure that the required numbers of employees with the required skills are available when and where they are needed Strategic focus and problemsolving process Why is it important establishes a state of readiness reduces financial costs highlights need for contingent plans having a Plan A B C D etc Brie y explain the techniques you would use to forecast labor demand and labor supply Be prepared to work through examples using trend analysis a replacement chart and a transition matrix Labor Demand Forecast 0 Qualitative Methods 0 O O O Centralized vs Decentralized Delphi Technique Nominal Group Technique Zerobase Forecasting 0 Quantitative Methods 0 Trend Analysis 0 Mathematical Models 39 Simple and multiple linear regression 39 Simulation Labor Supply Forecast 0 Internal Supply 0 Skills inventories o Succession planningreplacement charts 0 Markov Analysis 0 External Supply 0 Government Documents and websites 0 Business publications You have been selected to present a session at orientation for new freshmen Your session is entitled The Path to Big Bucks But First You Have to Ace the Tests You have been given no materials but you know that you are going to use the CIT to help them perform better in class Explain how this is going to work and why Provide some examples that you believe would be helpful to these freshmen Step 1 Establish the General Aims 0 Keep up your grades while still having fun enjoying college making new friends etc Step 2 Establish Plans and Speci cations 0 Use your free time during the day to study 0 Don t go out every night have designated nights to stay in and study for upcoming test get ahead in your schoolwork so you are less stressed on weeks that are packed with testsquizzesprojectsetc 0 Get tutors early if you think you will need help in a certain course ASK FOR HELP Step 3 Collect the Data 0 See what past freshman student study habits were and ask them what worked for them and what didn t Make a questionnaire about how much they went out how many hours a week they studied how many hours of homework was average for them per night etc 0 Compare this data with their gradesGPAs from their freshman year Step 4 Analyze the Data 0 See how the data that you collected from each student compared to their GPA vs their study habits Step 5 Interpret and Report the Data 0 By seeing these results you can tell the freshman how to study keep their grades up and succeed Describe the main problems in the Comptech case and what steps you would take to start to solve them Hint I see 2 main problems the others are more minor and result from these two I Turnover Rate is extremely high 2 What you can nd out on 0NET 9 experience requirements occupational requirements occupationspecific requirements occupational characteristics worker characteristics worker requirements Recruitment Provide a reasonable definition of recruitment Involves searching for and obtaining qualified applicants for the organization to consider when filling job openings Describe time lapse data What does this tell you and why do you care Time lapse data is It tells you You care about time lapse data because Time Lapse Data Example From To Post Job Sort through applicants Review Resumes Decide who to invite Invitation Interview Interview Decide on offers Make Offers Acceptance Acceptance Report to work Total length of pipline Distinguish between internal and external methods of recruiting and identify their advantages and disadvantages Internal Methods and Sources of Recruiting Job Posting TalentSkill Inventories PromotionSuccession Planning Transfers Employee Referrals Advantages 0 less costly 0 better knowledge of applicants skills 0 enhance morale Disadvantages o inbreeding 0 best qualified not necessarily considered 0 politics come into play External Sources of Recruiting High Schools and Vocational Schools Community Colleges COIIeges and Universities Competitors and Other Firms Unemployed Older Individuals 0 Military Personnel 0 Selfemployed Workers External Methods of Recruiting 0 Advertising Employment Agencies Private and Public Recruiters Job FairsVirtual Job Fairs Executive Search Flrms Internships Professional Associations WalkIn Applicants Open Houses Event Recruiting Signon Bonuses 0 WWW Advantages o Brings new blood into the firm 0 Potential to bring in the BEST talent Disadvantages 0 May have negative impact on existing employees 0 More costy 0 Less reliable performance data 0 Learning curve Know the difference between the flypaper and the matching philosophies of recruiting o Flypaper Philosophy 0 Focus is on quantity 0 Appropriate when 0 Selection ratios I Job openingsapplicants 0 Matching Philosophy 0 Focus is on quality 0 Appropriate when 0 Useful approaches I Realistic Job Previews RJP I Job Compatibility Questionnaires JCQ Calculate yield ratios and explain what they mean For example if you were given the necessary data could you determine how many applicants you would have to generate to ensure X 6month survivors Also given the necessary data could you determine how many 6month survivors you would end up with if you had Y applicants In other words be able to work your way from top to bottom and from bottom to top What purpose is served by having yield ratio information Selection Define HR selection and the goals involved HR Selection The process of gathering and assessing information about job candidates to make personnel decisions Goals 0 Select qualified competent people 0 Who will work as long as we want 0 Who will not engage in counterproductive behaviors Distinguish between reliability and validity between the two types of validity Reliability consistency of measure refers to whether a specific technique applied repeatedly to the same concept would have the same result each time 0 High reliability is a necessary condition for high validity but high reliability does not ensure validity 0 Level of reliability represented by a correlation coefficient 1 to 1 showing the direction and strength of the relationship 0 Coefficients of reliable selection methods are 8 or higher indicating a degree of consistency in scores Validity refers to the extent to which a selection method predicts some important criterion eg turnover absenteeism job performance theft 0 ContentValidity o Criterion Validity shows the statistical relationship between scores on a selection method predictor such as a test or interview and performance on a criterion such as job performance sales or turnover Validity is shown with a correlation coefficient ranging from 1 to 1 As the correlation gets closer to 1 the selection device predicts performance 0 Concurrent Validity o Predictive Validity Answer basic questions about each of the types of selection devices How much of a problem is adverse impact Selection Devices 0 Preliminary Interviews most commonly used method for selection 0 Telephone o Videotaped 0 Computer Types of Interviews 0 Unstructured Structured Grouppanel S ua onal Behavioral Stress o Resumes Job Applications 0 Preferable Alternatives I Weighted Application Blanks WABs 0 Question Examples 0 O O 0 How many jobs have you held in the last 5 years What distance must you travel from your home to work Each answer is given a score I Biographical Information Blanks BIBs 0 Examples of Biographical Information Blanks 0 How often have you set long term goals or objectives for yourself How often have you had to persuade someone to do what you wanted How often have you felt awkward about asking for help on something How often do you work in study groups with other students How often have you had difficulties in maintaining yourpnon es How often have you felt pressured to do something when you thought it was wrong I Accomplishment Records 0 ReferenceBackground Checks Information most commonly sought in a reference check Reason for Leaving Previous Employer 47 Overall Employability 49 Job Qualifications 56 Eligibility for Rehire 65 Dates of Employment 96 o Standardized Personnel Testing 0 Cognitive Ability Test measures mental aptitude or mental capacity to O acquire knowledge I Examples 0 Wonderlic Personnel Test 0 General Aptitude Test Battery GATB 0 Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Tests of Specific Abilities include clerical physical psychomotor abilities I Examples 0 Bannett Mechanical Comprehension Test 0 Minnesota Clerical Test PersonalityMotivation Tests I Projective Tests 0 Rorschach inkblot test 0 Miner Sentence Completion Scale 0 Thematic Apperception Test 0 Graphology I Selfreport Tests 0 Big Five Test 0 MMPI o Myers Briggs o 16 PF Type Indicator Miscellaneous Tests focus on particular problems or criteria I Examples 0 Honestyintegrity tests 0 Sample Items for Integrity Tests Do you believe a person who writes a check for which he knows there is no money in the bank should be refused a job in which honesty is important Do you think a person should be fired by a company if it is found out that he helped the employees cheat the company out of overtime once in awhile Do you believe that an employee who regularly borrows small amounts of money from the place where he works without permission but always pays it back is honest On the 20th of each month an old employee 0 Performance Tests took company money to pay on his mortgage On the 30th of each month payday he paid it back No shortage was found but the boss fired him anyway Do you think the boss was right Safety Locus of Control Service Orientation Index Job Compatibility Questionnaire Drug Testing 0 Work Samples consists of tasks which represent the type complexities and difficulty level of activities required on the job Example typing test 0 Assessment Centers I Usually used to evaluate how well applicants or current employees might perform in a managerial or higherlevel position Uses trained observers as evaluators Assesses leadership interpersonal skills organizing amp planning skills perception amp analysis decisionmaking oral amp nonverbal communication adaptability decisiveness and written skills I Exercises include inbasket business games leaderless discussion groups paperandpencil tests I Description of Assessment Center Exercises Rewrite a set of interview questions in a manner that would not be unlawful Customer Situation meet in groups to devise a consensus strategy for dealing with the problem Employee Situation 30 minutes to review information then have 15 minutes to prepare a brief report InBasket 90 minutes to review information to identify priorities and group related issues as well as indicate courses of action to be taken Then take part in a 15 minute interview with an assessor to clarify the actions taken and logic behind decisions made Problem Analysis the participant will have 90 minutes to review information and prepare a written recommendation The participants will then meet in groups to derive a consensus Eg instead of What child care arrangements do you have say The normal working hours are from 9 am until 600 pm Monday through Friday Are you able to work those times I might even have you provide an example of an unlawful question and the same question reworded so that it is acceptable Also be prepared to explain whya set of questions might be unlawful or inappropriate that is cite the relevant law Distinguish between situational and behavioral interview questions and provide examples of each Situational Interview Questions 0 Sample Questions 0 A customer comes into the store to pick up a watch he had left for repair The repair was supposed to have been completed a week ago but the watch is not back yet from the repair shop The customer is very angry How would you handle the situation I 1 low Tell the customer the watch is not back yet and ask him to check back with you later I 3 average Apologize tell the customerthat you will check into the problem and call him or her back later I 5 high Put the customer at ease and call the repair shop while the customer waits o For the past week you have been consistently getting the jobs that are the most time consuming eg poor handwriting complex statistical work You know it s nobody s fault because you have been taking the jobs in priority order You have just picked your fourth job of the day and it s another loser What would you do I 1 low Thumb through the pile and take anotherjob I 2 average Complain to the coordinator but do thejob I 3 high Take the job without complaining and do it Behavioral Interview Questions 0 Sample Questions 0 Describe an experience where you dealt with an irate customer 0 Can you think of a time when you disagreed with your supervisor on an important issue and you tried to convince her that your position was correct Explain how you would improve the validity of the interview Base interview on job information Standardize the interview environment Conduct interviewer training Use structured semistructured situational or behavioral interviews 0 Use group or panel interviews Distinguish among negligent hiring negligent referral and negligent retention What are the implications of these According to the article Facebook and job performance what does information found on your Facebook page have to do with yourjob Think Question Your selection process includes a backgroundreference check a work sample test a cognitive abilities test and a structured interview If there is evidence of disparate impact with your cognitive abilities test what do you do Explain the issues you would consider Training and Development Distinguish between training and development Provide an example of each Training any attempt to improve employee performance on a currently held job or one related to it 0 Examples Development learning opportunities designed to help employees grow 0 Examples Distinguish among organization jobtask and person analysis in conducting a thorough needs assessment The purpose of a needs assessment is to identify discrepancies between actual and required performance Organization Analysis 0 Where is training needed Short and longterm goals 0 Labor Supply Forecasts o Gap Analysis 0 Efficiency lndices 0 Organizational Climate JobT ask Analysis 0 What should be taught in training 0 Workeroriented approach plus 0 Taskoriented approach Person Analysis 0 Who needs training 0 Actual performance compared to expected performance 0 o is ability the problem Is training the answer Explain the criteria you would use to develop an effective set of learning objectives Be prepared to either a provide your own example of an objective that includes the three criteria not the one used in class including identifying the criteria OR b to identify the three criteria in a sample learning objective provided to you 0 Instructional learning Objectives 0 Observable actions or performance 0 New performance criteria 0 Conditions under which performance will occur I Ex By the end of the training program each trainee will be able to calculate within 3 cents 9 sales tax on all purchases without the use of a tax table or calculator at least 98 of the time 0 Uses of Learning Objectives 0 Uses of Learning Objectives I Help identify approporiate training methods Inform trainees of usefulness of the training keep trainers focused on important aspects of training Indicate appropriate evaluation criteria lnform managers of the value of the training program Describe why learning objectives are important or useful Explain the conditions of practice Differentiate between informational and experiential methods of training List the five levels of evaluation and explain what information each provides Explain the questions these levels of evaluation are designed to answer Describe the experimental designs used to measure behavior change associated with training Be sure to include what each design tells you and what it does not tell you Additions to Selection Study Guide Explain why the findings reported in the article Facebook and job performance are so critical or relevant from an HR perspective What is the lesson to take away from the TedTalk with Susan Cain MANAGEMENT 302 Study Guide Exam 3 Performance Appraisal Distinguish between performance appraisal and performance management Performance Appraisal system of review and evaluation of job performance assesses accomplishments and evolves plans for development Performance Management process that significantly affects organizational success managers and employees work together to set expectations review results and reward performance What are the uses of performance appraisal information Human Resource Planning Recruitment and Selection Training and Development Career Planning and Development Compensation Programs Internal Employee Relations Assessment of Employee Potential Explain the performance criteria that might be included in the performance appraisal Slide 7 Traits Behaviors Competencies Goal Achievement Improvement Potential Discuss the various types of rating instruments and be able to distinguish among them Straight or Simple Ranking 0 all employees from group ranked in order of overall performance 0 comparison is based on single criterion such as overall performance 0 also alternative ranking Paired Comparison 0 variation of ranking method 0 compares performance of each employee with every other employee in the group Forced Distribution 0 rater assigns individual in work group to a limited number of categories similar to a normal distribution 0 assumes all groups of employees have the same distribution butil d listil il Graphic Rating Scales 0 rates according to defined factors 0 judgments are recorded on a scale 0 many employees are evaluated quickly Quantityquot not meet nniniirnzu ml requirements Em Quantity Critical Incidents Three Sampll 9 E E m E r n E m m 3 n E a E D 393 m 3 E a a E a g 9 antiugh tn getby In rating will quantitym give cali I amount of rm lmed iIfI if lli aiu application to thajnh nmplloara i an tln and will in Ihantllin pa t c aseignnmanm For quntity also innlu lea Ellltilll i n gniliiirgi null poor 1 in E pninte if to 16 links I 0 written records of highly favorable and unfavorable work actions 0 appraisal more likely to cover entire evaluation period 0 does not focus on last few weeks or months Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales BARS o combines traditional rating scales and critical incidents methods 0 job behaviors derived from critical incidents and described more objectively Personal like Milenaentit39mpany 4 g 39 using tl mern tor Er S I EI use I ll rials K I III wart Hands gimp liar custamm Eribery39 Emmi alndaocepting glimmer quot to gifts from since am he would Emiliarm it lfhmE v i ltuts Succeeded i111 Mining39s by giving the agent a 360Degree Valuation o Multirater evaluation 0 input from multiple levels with firm and external sources 0 focuses on skills needed across organizational boundaries 0 more objective measure of performance 0 process more legally defensible 0 Brief narrative describing performance 0 tends to focus on extreme behavior 0 depends heavily on evaluator s writing ability 0 comparing essay evaluation might be difficult Work Standards 0 compares performance to predetermined standard 0 Standards normal output of average worker operating at normal pace 0 time study and work sampling used 0 workers need to know how standards were set ResultBased System 0 manager and subordinate agree on objectives for next appraisal 0 evaluation based on how well objectives accomplished Assessment Centers 0 adjunct to appraisal system 0 predict employee potential for advancement Describe the common problems or errors in performance appraisal Lack of objectivity Halo error Leniencystrictness Central tendency Recent behavior bias Personal bias Manipulating the evaluation Explain the ways you might go about evaluating whether your performance appraisal system is effective User reactions lnferential validity Discriminating power Adversedisparate impact Characteristics of an Effective Appraisal System jobrelated criteria performance expectations standardization trained appraisers 0 continuous open communication 0 performance reviews 0 due process Be prepared to evaluate a sample of a graphic rating scale performance appraisal instrument Direct and Indirect Compensation What is compensation Compensation the HR function that deals with every type of reward individuals receive in exchange for performing organizational tasks What are the differences between financial and nonfinancial compensation Between direct and indirect compensation Provide a couple of examples of each Financial Direct basic wagessalary performancebased pay 0 wages o salary o commissions o bonuses Indirect legally required and discretionary benefits 0 Legally Required Benefits 0 Social Security 0 Unemployment COmpensation 0 Workers Compensation 0 Family amp Medical Leave 0 Voluntary Benefits Payment for Time Not Worked Health Care Life Insurance Retirement Plans Employee Stock Option Plans Supplemental Unemployment Benefits Employee Services Premium Pay Unique Benefits Nonfinancial ex Teacher of the Year parking spot 0 The Job Sill Variety Task Identify Task Significance Autonomy 000000000 0000 0 Feedback 0 Job Environment 0 Sound Policies 0 Competent Employees 0 Congenial Coworkers 0 Suitable Status Symbols 0 Working Conditions 0 Workplace Flexibility o Flextime Compressed Work Week Job Sharing Flexible Compensation Telecommuting Parttime Work Modified Retirement 000000 What is the strategic importance of compensation that is what are the objectives 1 Attract and retain qualified employees Comply with government regulations Motivate employees Communicate organization s culture and values Cost structure the organization can afford P J WN Distinguish between internal and external equity Equity fair pay treatment for employees External equity exists when firm s employees are paid comparably to workers who perform similarjobs in other firms 0 Conduct a wage survey 0 Who is the relevant labor market I occupationskill I geographic area I industryspecific skill o What is the competition paying 0 What sources for market data 0 What benchmarkjobs should be included 0 Choose a pay policy 0 Regression line to illustrate market comparability o Reflects company culturephilosophy I Lead Match LagFollow 0 Develop a pay structure I single rate I productivitybased eg piecework I base performance incentive I tenurebased I tenurebased merit I combination Internal Equity exists when employees are paid according to the relative value of theirjobs within the same organization 0 Job Evaluation 0 a systematic process of assessing the value of each job in relation to otherjobs in an organization 0 results in a rational orderly hierarchy ofjobs based on their worth to the company 0 focus is on duties and responsibility of the job not on the characteristics of the person 0 Process I 1 Job Analysis I 2 Job rating using evaluation method I 3 create job hierarchy What are the job evaluation methods Be able to explain them 1 Ranking ordering jobs from highest to lowest 0 simple or straight o alternate ranking 0 paired comparison 2 Classification job classes established based on important dimensions of the jobs 0 Define number of classes or grades to describe group ofjobs 0 Compare job description with class description 0 Class description that most closely agrees with job description determines job classification 3 Point Method uses compensable factors differential weights and degrees to determine worth of a job 1 Identify factors and subfactors the company is willing to pay for 2 Weight the factors according to importance to the company 3 Write the degree statements extent to which factor is present 4 For each job compare the degree to each factorsubfactor to identify the most appropriate degree 5 Assign the points of each degree statement of the job 6 Sum the points across all factors and subfactors to determine the total number of points each job earns o 7 Arrange the jobs in a hierarchy jobs with the most points are the most important OOOO Procedure for Establishing the Point Method of do Evaluation Select liniiiial Jobs BE liril Establishing Method 39 l Frep aradlub lEtillLiE i i Manual 4 Hay Guide ChartProfile method Knowhow Problem Solving Accountability Additional compensable elements such as working conditions 0000 How do you establish external equity What does the wage curve graph illustrate this is the one that results from regression analysis Be prepared to answer some basic questions about a simplified wage curve iagmm ef Evelu quotl Jlebe illlux 2 mg Wage curve Fay and Fay Ran 39 Average Peg r Heur Current Ftalee er Market Katee 1951 1350 J quot quot3quot 1593 a fa 14m 7 HHS 1f i l 5 12919 Euquot 12 i 1 u Uri Evaluated Paints 39 Summw Fag Grades Evele Peinle Fey Gracie Mnimum l hl39lidpeir El 95 ll ill il39 111330 In ll199 2 1334 lll l 39 E lll23 3 flail 11153 Elm3 4 THE l1 TIRE lmElli 5 illif lfll 1113351 What s the difference between lead match and lag Why might you or might you not use each Lead Match Lag Explain the point factor method ofjob evaluation Given the necessary job descriptions degree statements and degree points make the calculations necessary to rankjobs Overview of the Point System lljS l Pei39nt System Degree ef Faetm deb Feeter Weight quotll 2 3 1 Edueetien 50 l e 3 Reepeneibility 30 l 2 3 Physical effent 112 t 2 3 4 Wenking eenditiens t 2 3 Overview of the Point System SOBPoint System Degree of Facth Job Factor quotl 2 3 4 5 l Education so quot1 150 2GB 259 2 Responsibility an m 1m 153 3 Physical effort 1 21 2 4 36 4B 4 Working conditions a 24 4i Describe the Fair Labor Standards Act and the Equal Pay Act Fair Labor Standards Act 1938 establishes minimum wage regulates overtime pay for nonexempt workers restricts child labor Equal Pay Act 1963 equal pay for equal work Distinguish between legally required and voluntary benefits from Slide 3 Components of a Total Compensation Program Indirect legally required and discretionary benefits 0 Legally Required Benefits 0 Social Security 0 Unemployment COmpensation 0 Workers Compensation 0 Family amp Medical Leave 0 Voluntary Benefits 0 Payment for Time Not Worked Health Care Life Insurance Retirement Plans Employee Stock Option Plans Supplemental Unemployment Benefits Employee Services Premium Pay Unique Benefits OOOOOOOO Safe and Healthy Work Environment Distinguish between safety and health Safety protecting employees from injuries caused by workrelated accidents ex faulty equipment hazardous chemicals etc Health Employees freedom from physical or emotionalpsychological illness ex cancer etc Explain what workers compensation is and the benefits it provides 0 Federallymandated program 0 Provides a nofault system 0 not worried about blame just wanted to give employee treatment they need 0 Benefits 0 wages medical costs death benefits reasonable accommodation under ADA no limitsceiling gt in terms of dollar amount number of visits time limit 0000 List and very briefly describe the primary focus or responsibility of the three OSHA agencies OSHA The Occupational Safety and Health Act 0 Mandate is to prevent workrelated injuries illnesses and deaths 0 Covers all businesses that affect interstate commerce regardless of size 0 interstate commerce crossing state lines gt almost every business is o regardless of size gt even if it s only two people you re covered by OSHA o Enforced by Occupational Safety and Health Administration 3 OSHA Agencies 0 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA establishing and enforcing the standards 0 The Occupational Safety and Health Review Commision agency where you d go to contest an investigation 0 The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH does research to establish these standards Understand the role of OSHA and who is covered Explain some of the components of developing a safety program 0 Job Hazard Analysis key to determining and implementing the necessary controls procedures and training Specifically looking at each task of the job and looking for potential hazards gt can provide training etc o The Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act Title III SARA requires businesses to communicate more openly about the hazards associated with the materials they use and produce and the wastes they generate Employee Involvement include employees gives sense of accomplishment Safety Engineer staff member who may coordinate overall safety program Accident Investigation safety engineer and line manager investigate accidents 0 Investigation communicates that the company cares aobut the employees and their safety and health 0 Evaluate Safety Program to make sure you re accomplishing what you want 0 Rationale for Safety and Health Trends Profitability Employee and Public Relations help in recruiting and keeping employees Reduced Liability Marketing allows you to be more competitive Productivity employees know you care leads to higher morale OOOOO Have a superficial knowledge of specific safetyhealth issues eg identify theft RSls ergonomics etc enough to answer multiple choice questions 0 Identify Theft one of the nation s fastestgrowing whitecollar crimes social security s etc are stolen can take years to resolve o Repetitive Stress Injuries RSI o Carpal Tunnel Syndrome CTS caused by repetitive flexing and extension of the wrist o CTS Controversy recent studies ask is it real gt does what you do at work actually cause it or is it what you re doing outside of work that s causing it o Ergonomics study of human interaction with tasks equipment tools and physical environment 0 Congress and OSHA Congress rescinded OSHA s ergonomics standards in 2001 OSHA to develop new standards 0 Fitting the job to the person ie adjustable chairs computer keyboard wrist guardspads adjustable desks etc o Workplace Violence 0 Vulnerable Employees who work alone with cash at night and in dangerous neighborhoods I gas station and liquor store employees I taxi drivers I police officers working overnight shifts 0 Legal Consequences of Workplace Violence I Everpresent threat of legal action I Negligent hiring I Negligent retention I Likely to get sued by employee who was injured from family of deceasedinjured coworkers who witnessedhad to work with the violent employee sued by OSHA 0 individual and organizational characteristics to monitor 0 preventive actions Explain what negligent hiring and negligent retention have to do with workplace safety Jenn cries a lot and is moody sometimes She says That s just the way I am Are you concerned or alarmed What if anything will you do now What will you look out for Expect a return appearance of disparate impact and yield ratios In other words bring your calculators Yield Ratios Disparate lmpact ths Rule
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