Popular in Abnormal Psychology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shaina Silverman on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY240 at University of Miami taught by Caroline Ehrlich in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
Reviews for CH-1-PSY240-Test-1
Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Shaina!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/03/15
CHAPTER 1 What is Abnormal Psychology 0 The scienti c study of abnormal behavior in order to describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns of functioning 0 Also known as psychopathology maladjustment mental illness emotional disturbance o Psychopathology examines the nature and development of abnormal behavior thoughts and feelings 0 De nitions vary over time and change with cultural amp societal shifts The 4 D smost commonly accepted de nition 0 Deviant statistically different extreme unusual Distressing upsetting or unpleasant Dysfunctional impairing or interfering with daily life Dangerous possible risk of harm Deviance 0 Statistical deviance rare behaviors are abnormal 15 iiiquotLE an ai d Eav ll i IGEEHE ES Fl 35 1Il 11EI 1 1435 0 Deviant from o What is considered normal societal and cultural norms 0 Developmental norms 0 Lifetime prevalence of any psychological disorder48 disorders are not that rare Distress 0 Behavior should be personally distressing to be considered abnormal 0 Ice breakers What about abnormal behavior that is not distressing Dysfunction Impairing or interfering in activities of daily life 0 Work 0 Selfcare o Socializing Dysfunction that is not abnormal o Hunger strikes 0 Other examples Necessary but not suf cient Dangerous 0 Dangerous to oneself or others 0 Myth Someone with a mental illness is unstable and potentially dangerous 0 Reality This is the exception rather than the rule it is the occasional mental patient who commits a crime Myth is perpetuated by the media Abnormality is Elusive 0 Thomas Szas 0 Mental illness is a myth invented to control those with unusual patterns of functioning Our de nitions are subjective and vague so don t expect clear cut discrete categories What is treatment 0 Designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior 0 Therapy comes in many shapes and sizes but all forms have these essential features 0 A sufferer patient o A healer trained socially accepted with expertise accepted by sufferer amp social groups 0 A series of contacts 0 Once you sort through the vagueries and subjectiveness and have identi ed someone suffering from some psychological abnormality then comes the treatement Abnormality is an illness sufferer is a patient Therapist is a teacher trying to impart more functional behaviors Ancient Views and Treatments 0 Stone Age Historians who have examined remnants of ancient societies have concluded that these societies probably regarded abnormal behavior as the work of evil spirits Believed that all events around and within them resulted from the actions of magical sometimes sinister beings who controlled the world They viewed the human body and mind as a battleground bw external forces of good and evil Abnormal behavior was interpreted as a victory by evil spirits and the cure for such behavior was to force the demons from a victim s body Treatment Evidence of an operation known as trephination in which a stone instrument or trephine was used to cut away circular section of the skull Early operation was performed to treat severe abnormal behavior eg hallucinations epilepsy melancholia Purpose of opening the skull was to release the evil spirits that were supposedly causing the problem Exorcism Treatment for abnormality in early societies was often exorcism The idea was to coax the evil spirits to leave or make the persons body an uncomfortable place to live A shaman or priest might recite prayers plead w the spirits or have the person drink bitter poisons If they failed they performed a more extreme form such as whipping or starving the person 0 The Greeks and Romans 0 O O 500 BC 500 AD Shift away from demonology to alternative explanations Hippocrates father of modern medicine taught that illnesses had natural causes He saw abnormal behavior as a disease arising from internal physical problems Believed that some form of brain pathology was the culprit and that it resulted from imbalance among the four humors Yellow bile Black bile Blood Phlegm Treatment balance the humors An excess of yellow bile for example caused mania a state of frenzied activity whereas an excess of black bile was the source of melancholia a condition marked by unshakable sadness Ex Melancholia treated by living a quiet life eating vegetables no drinking no sex lots of exercise a Europe and the Middle Ages 0 Demonology returns 0 As the role of the clergy increased so did superstition abnormal behavior proof of Satan 0 Religious beliefs which were highly superstitious and demonlogical came to dominate all aspects of life 0 Behavior was usually interpreted as a con ict between good and evil Deviant behavior was seen as evidence of Satan s in uence 0 Mass Madness Outbreaks of mass madness in which large numbers of people apparently shared delusions and hallucinations Tarantism Saint Vitus Dance groups of people would suddenly start to jump dance and go into convulsions All were convinced that they had been bitten and possessed by a wolf spider tarantula and they sought to cure the disorder by performing a dance Lycanthropy people thought they were possessed by wolves or other animals 0 Treatment Return to exorcism and other more prehistoric treatments 0 Key to the cure was to rid the persons body of the devil that possessed Toward end of Middle Ages hospitals emerged medical views regained favor Shared delusionshallucinations Believed they were bittenpossessed by wolf spider tarantula or believed they were possessed by wolves o The Renaissance o Johan Weyer founder of modern study of psychopathology First physician to specialize in mental illness Believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body 0 Around this time in the beginning of the Renaissance religious shrines were devoted to the humane treatment of people with mental disorders 0 Gheel Belgium Across Europe religious shrines were devoted to the humane and loving treatment of ppl w mental disorders The best known of these shrines was at Gheel People came to it from all over the world for psychic heaHng Was the forerunner of today s community mental health programs and it continues to demonstrate that people with psychological disorders can respond to loving care and respectful treatment 0 Started with good intentions but conditions began to decHne These improvements in care began to fade by the mid 16th century Govt of cials discovered that private homes and community residences could house on a small of those w severe mental disorders and medical hospitals were too few amp too small 0 Converted hospitals and monasteries into asylums institutions whose primary purpose was to care for ppl with mental illness Began w every intention of providing good care but once they became overpopulated they became virtual prisons where patients were held in lthy conditions amp treated with cruelty o The Nineteenth Century 0 The treatment of people with mental disorders began to improve once again 0 Reforms brought more humane treatment Unchained patients treated them with sympathy Philippe Pinel and William Tuke Pinel chief physician appointed to asylum in Paris La Bicetre during French revolution he argued that the patients were sick people whose illnesses should be treated w sympathy and kindness rather than chains and beatings Allowed them to move freely replaced dark dungeons with sunny well ventilated rooms amp offered support and advice Tuke Bringing similar reforms to Northern England Quaker in Britain founded York retreat a rural estate where about 30 mental patients lived as guests in quiet country houses and were treated w a combo of rest talk prayer and manual work 0 Moral Treatment Methods of Pinel and Tuke bc they emphasized moral guidance amp humane and respectful techniques caught on throughout Europe and the US Led to humane approaches new laws and more government funding for state hospitals Benjamin Rush and Dorothea Dix Rush father of American psychiatry Responsible for the early spread of moral treatment in the US required hospital to hire intelligent attendants to work closely with patients reading and talking to them and taking them on walks Dix Made humane care a public and political concern in the USDlobbied for legislative reform Campaigns led to new laws amp greater govt funding to improve the treatement of ppl with mental disorders 0 The decline of Moral Treatment Money and staf ng shortages Speed of the movement Overcrowding Recovery rate Assumption behind moral treatment that all patients could be cured if treated w humanity and dignity Stigma 0 Return to longterm institutionalization Early 20th Century 0 Two emerging perspectives began to compete for the attention of clinicians Somatogenic the view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes Psychogenic the view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological Somatogenic Perspective Emil Kraepelin argued that physical factors are responsible for mental dysfunction Biologicaldiscoveries Treponema paidasyphiisgenera paresis Applications to mental illness largely disappointing III Lobotomy tooth extraction hydrotherapy Eugenic Sterilization Wasn t until the 1950 s that somatogenic perspective would bene t patients Psychogenic Perspective 0 Anton Mesmer developed mesmerism or hypnotism to treat hysterical disorders 0 While his patients claimed bene ts he was eventually banished from Paris 0 Studies found that hypnotism could both cause and cure hysterical symptoms Sigmund Freud father of psychoanalysis o Abnormal and normal psychological functioning explained by unconscious psychological processes Hysterical disorders could be induced in normal people by hypnotic suggestion and then removed by the same means Started the outpatient therapy trend Evolution of Treatment 0 19505 0 Psychotropic medication Antipsychotics Antidepressants Anxiolytics antianxiety medications o Deinstitutionalization Outpatient care is now primary mode of treatment Institutionalizations are generally shortterm Prevention 0 Attempt to address social conditions underlying psychological problems 0 Help those at risk for developing emotional problems 0 Positive Psychology 0 The study and enhancement of positive feelings traits and abilities as well as groupdirected virtues o Teaches coping skills that may be protective against stress and adversity encourages more involvement in meaningful activities and relationships Positive feelings optimism and happiness Positive traits hard work wisdom Abilities social skills other talents Grouporiented virtues Altruism and tolerance Multicultural Psychology 0 Study of how culture race gender ethnicity and other factors affect behavior and thought 0 How people differ psychologically by culture gender ethnicity o How disorder expression differs by culture 0 Culturally sensitive treatments and assessments Insurance and Reimbursement Managed care programs dominant form of coverage III 75 of those privately insured persons in the US are enrolled in MCP III MCP insurance cost determine which therapists patients can see for how long what type of therapy Insurance companies decide III Limited pool of clinicians from which patients can choose from III Type of treatments to be approved III Number of sessions In the mental health realm both therapists and clients typically dislike managed care programs They fear that the programs inevitably shorten therapy often for the worse unfairly favor treatments whose results are not always long lasting pose a special hardship for those with severe mental disorders and result in treatments determined by insurance companies rather than therapists Mental Health Parity Act of 2008 III Insurance that covers mental health care must offer coverage for all disorders found in DSM must offer same level of coverage as physical illness Evidence Based Practice Movement American Psychological Association task force tried to identify empirically supportedquot or empirically validatedquot treatments III To encourage good practice in the eld III To make research ndings more accessible to clinicians III To respond to growing in uence of insurance companies Objections questions about criteria used fears that it would limit practice quality of research therapy an art not a science Evidencebased practice in psychology EBPP is the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics culture and preferencesquot Current TheoriesParadigms Modls of PSVChDJ LthUlUr Psychogenic Psychosocial Somatogenic Biogenic Neuroamatomical TE39iochemical Genetics Humanistic r r n n Psvchnanalvtic a L r Bellmmural Clummve hmstentlal Family Systems Multicultural o Paradigm perspective used to explain events or phenomena 0 ln abnormal psychology paradigms used to explain what causes and MAINTAINS a disorder
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'