Exam 3 Study guide 2
Exam 3 Study guide 2 GEOG 3010
Popular in Meteorology
Popular in Meteorology
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nick07 on Friday April 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 3010 at Ohio University taught by Scott Reinemann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Meteorology in Meteorology at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 04/08/16
April 8, 2016 Meteorology Thunderstorms and Tornadoes Exam 3 Study Guide 2 - Lightening o Areas of positive and negative charge o Distance between charges determines field strength o Electric field is neutralized with a discharge o Critical for electrical balance of the Earth Produces Ozone o Sheet lightening(cloud to cloud) 80% o Ground to cloud lightening (weaker cloud electrical field) 20% o Updraft in clouds pulls super cooled water to the top, thus creating a build up of negative charges at the bottom and positive at the top Channel of negativity is lightening - Thunderstorms o Caused by moisture, instability, lifting motions Severe thunderstorms also have shear wind Changing wind speed and direction with height o Forms from the energy released from latent heat and strong updrafts The more energy released (updraft) the stronger the T-storm o 3 Stages Developing Dominated by updrafts in cumulus cloud Precipitation builds through Bergeron process. The precipitation stays up from the intense updraft Maturing Updrafts + Down drafts Down drafts are formed from falling precipitation. This cool water falling as it gets too heavy causes an influx of dry air, thus killing the storm over time Dissipating Down drafts dominate Loses energy Light precipitation as storm dies o There are two major types of T-storms Self extinguishing Air mass thunderstorms Self propagating Severe thunderstorms Mesoscale convective system (MCSs) Mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) Self sustaining - Air mass T-Storms o Commonly form from warm mT air masses during the summer o 30 minute, relatively weak - Severe T-Storms o Any T-storm having > 1 inch hail or surface winds > 58mph o Cold front caused in mid latitude cyclones o Spring, early summer time o Tilted updrafts at cold front help sustain cell life - MCSs o Have multiple cells at once More intense than air mass T-storms Occur from giant circular clusters of MCCs Associated with cold fronts - MCCs o Self sustaining – lasts for > 10 hours Can produce heavy rain, hail, and occasional tornado Can cover over 100,000 km - Squall Line Thunderstorms o Usually in a straight line across the front o Strongest convection at the front of the storm o Strong outflow wind from the front o Upflow in the front from warm wind causes shelf cloud - Bow Echo o Bent, pushing out in the middle o Stronger winds o Weak tornadoes at the end of the bow o Strong rear winds causing the squall line storm to bend forward. o Rear inflow notch Area of low precipitation to rear of bow echo Indicates areas of strongest winds o Dereches are very powerful Bow Echos Can cover > 400 miles - Super cell Thunderstorms o Powerful rotating thunderstorms o Updraft and down drafts keep storm alive o Can produce fast winds, rain, hail, floods and tornadoes o Powerful because it is one organized cell o Mesocyclone formation Vertical wind shear creates a rotating tube of air parallel with the earth An updraft in the middle raises this rotating tube of air This bends the tube so it is like an upside down U. one side of the updraft has cyclonic circulation while the other side has anti cyclonic circulation At one end of the super cell a small hook will for as the rising air in the tube tightens and picks up energy and speed. This hook is where the tornado will form if it does. - Tornadoes o Usually 300-3,000 ft o Move SW-NE at about 30 mph o Average path will span about 2 miles o Can consist of one vortex to multiple vortices o Tornado genesis – the theory behind the formation of a tornado (about 11 so far) - Tornado Life Cycle o Dust – dust swirls upward o Organizing – intensity increases, funnel forms o Mature – funnel reaches max width, almost vertical o Shrinking – funnel decreases o Decay – tornado ropes out and dies - Other Types o Landspouts From outflows of storms colliding, causing anticyclonic rotation Multi-vortex tornadoes - The Fujita Scale and Enhanced Fujita Scale o Classifies tornadoes o Based on damage o Wind speeds are estimated from the damage to a well constructed home o 2007 new scale came in. Includes many more damage indicators along with building structural integrity and building practices o Includes 28 damage indicators
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