Midterm 1 Study Guide-Anthro of Sports
Midterm 1 Study Guide-Anthro of Sports anth 0710
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bree Scalzo on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to anth 0710 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Yearwood in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 251 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Sports in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/03/15
Anthropology of Sports Midterm 1 Study Guide Lecture 1 Anthropology and Culture 1 Culture is Patterned a Re ected in all areas of social life b Establishes rules 2 Elements of Culture Transmission Memory Reiteration Innovann Selection Complex symbolic representation Institutions 3 Cultural Logic a How one justi es tradition can even be harmful b Impacts various social institutions i Why are there big hits in football ii Why is there such a thing as female circumcision Dowsing Lecture 2 Culture and Power 1 Types of Power a Socialaffects entire social group b Interpersonalimpose will on another c Organizationalsocial units can impact the limits of individuals or other social units ex Pitt d Structural Powerorganizes social settings controls labor i All impact whowhat how everyone is involved 2 Gramsci a Guy who said you should persuade dominated to accept rule i Maybe give them material bene t 3 Foucault a Said the body is an object of power b Must manipulate shape and train people Lecture 3 Sport as Play 1 Play a Consciously adopted by participants aka they must decide to engage b Pleasurable aka should be fun c Prepares one for adulthoodalmost like a rehearsal for realworld d Transforms social environmentorganizes play and makes everyday routine different Framesboundary between play and nonplay Re exivereinforced what nonplay is Threateningmay undermine social culture Sport as Playis it play work or something else 2 Not everyone is involved a Katherine Switzer rst woman to run Boston Marathon 3 Baseball Magic a What is Magic i Attempting to control unpredictable events ii No connection between act and desired outcome b Ritual i Provides a sense of order ii Success not attributed to skill iii When declines ritual changes 79er Lecture 4 Development of Modern Sports 1 Characteristics of Modernity a Absence of Violence b Instrumental Rationality i Secularism equality rationalism specialization beaurocratization quanti cation records c Part of larger global process sport is part of modernizing process 2 Modern Sports a Includes i Status appearance uniforms geometrical spaces stadiums audiencespectators standardization eld measurementstime and technical innovation televised sports 3 18th and 19th Century Sports Emphasis on measure Every detail and achievement recorded Codi ed rules everyone has to follow them Means to enforce rules Improved transportationEngland vs France creates a national identity f Specialization g Time and space standard beginning and end 4 20th Century Sports Increased precision Inclusion of computer computation Increase in magnitude of technology and stadiums Athletes also engineeredimproved scienceimproved athletes PEDs e Internationalcreates media governing bodies 09069 goom Lecture 5 Education and Sport 1 Link Between Education and Sport a Is sport natural NO b Originated British Schools in 19th century i Was an integral part of schooling system ii Build and demonstrate character 1 Sport was segregated at this time Allowed the governing bodies to chose the elitewho ever they wanted and let them play sport 2 Sport and Values a What does sport and school provide i Sportsmanship and fair play ii Teaches values iii Increases educational aspiration iv Develop sense of community v Reduce dropout rates vi Give poor and minorities access 1 Sports were a way to deal with immigrants It brought everyone together and taught them how to be Americans a Ex YMCA 3 The Great American Football Ritual Sports as a site of cultural practicesits an understanding process Reproduces social inequalities Socialization processteach boys to be boys and girls to be girls Sports participation demonstrates commitment to community Patriotism 090 Lecture 6 Racial Formation 1 Race as a Social Concept a Meaning of race is derived from speci c social relations and historical context i Race has not meant the same thing everywhere at the same time b Marvin Harris termed quothypodescent i Onedrop rule If you were 136th black you were termed black and could not enjoy the freedoms of a white person 1 Racial limitations 2 Race as a Central Axis a Race is an organizing principal i Race shapes other social institutions b Gives clues about who a person is c Based on preconceived notions i We accept that race has preconceived notions ls race even real 3 December 26th 1908 a Birth of the Black Athlete i JackJohnson won world boxing championship against white Canadian ii Challenged common notions about white superiority and black inferiority 1 People now have to state changing ideas on race 4 WhatWhat is the black athlete Submissive or threatening Obedient or rebellious Revolting or revolt Savior or destroyer of black community Symbol of racial equality or racism i New problems about race with competing images and ideas 5 Exceptionality of Black Athleticism a Doublebind i Reduces blackness to geneshumanity ii They can never be quotjust humanquot Dense Lecture 7 Color Coded Racial Descriptors in Television Coverage 1 Media and Sports a Mutual relationship between media and sports b Historical representation of African Americans through media typically negative or exclusive 2 Sports Casters a Unbalanced descriptions are racialized i Brainswhite ii Brawnblack 3 Brain vs Brawn a Can compliments be biased or based on stereotypes i Show re ection of race b Natural athleteis it positive negative real Animal like comparison for black peopleshown as beasts Reduced a role of work into gain skill and ability i Sport is unnatural so how can there be a natural athlete Each sport requires a different set of abilities and a quotnatural athletequot would have to possess them all an Overview of Readings Title Author Main Ideas and Themes Ch 2 Culture Shultz and Culture differs from place to placemay create and Human Lavenda different standards of life ethnocentrism Condition cultural relativity female circumcisionright or wrong Depends on the viewpoint Ch 9 Culture Shultz and How doshould we exercise power How do we and Power Lavenda establish dominance Culture creates a national identity case study with British colony of Ceylon Ch 7 Play Art Shultz and Play sets the stage for realworld creates Myth and Ritual Lavenda rules Baseball Magic Gmelch In baseball players preform rituals which they see as a way to control unpredictable events No correlation between ritual and event though Ritual may change when effectiveness declines Development of Guttmann Sport dates back to renaissance 18th and 19th Modern Sports century sports created record keeping and rules 20th century had even more precise records and rules with enforcement Competitiveness and injuries emerge Education and Rees and Sport became incorporated into schooling Sports Miracle system Later allowed academic aspiration and achievement through sportsscholarships Less dropout rates Got kids off of the streets in poor neighborhoods The Great Foley Everyone is involvedsurrounded by football American Shows hegemony of power Patriotism for Football Ritual team Weekly ritual Gender reproductions and racial inequalities Racial Omi and quotblackquot reference emerged with abolition of Formation Winant slavery Created a color line Tend to view race as xes and immutable but race is more than just skin color Introduction Carrington Invention of the Black Athlete JackJohnson Sport the Black Doublebind typically exceptional Sport has Athlete and the become a way for making and remaking racial Remaking of boundaries Race Introduction Hoberman View blacks as primitive and essentially all Flying Air physical Jordan The Television and news creates daunting images Power of Racial of black aggression Sport becomes most Images prominent symbol of African American achievement Color Coded Rada and Racial comments in tv proved you could tell Racial Wulfemey the race of a player by the comments Descriptors in er Physical attributes negative Television commentsAfrican American athlete Good Coverage and Intercollegiate Spo s character intellect positive commentswhite athlete
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