Comparative Physiology Test 1
Comparative Physiology Test 1 BIL360
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Date Created: 02/03/15
19th Century European Art ARH 342 Spring 2015 Nathan Timpano French Baroque quotThe Medici Cyclequot Luxembourg Palace Paris Propagandistic pious paintings elevates her status The Arrival of Marie de39 Medici at Marseilles Rubens 162226 Water nymphs welcoming her with Neptune Staying true to catholicChristian routes and GrecoRoman world Feur de lies sign of Virgin Mary and also French royal symbol Lilly HenrilV Receiving the Portrait of Marie de39 Medici Rubens 162125 Christian angels Adult cupid very effeminate GrecoRoman Eevates status of Marie and Henri to god like Zeus watching over know because of eagle Athena standing know because of Greek helmet relatable to Christ immaculate conception Anachronistically wearing the our de lies HenriV assassinated in 1610 Marie was ruling Spending a lot of money on redecorating and portraits El GrecoBurial of Count Organ 1586 Oil on Canvas eongating bodies eroticism but latent Ruben an nudes thick curvy Unctuous oil still looks wet Painterly quality The Rape of The Daughters of Leucippus Rubens 1618 Oil on canvas Poitica image man on horse back HenrilV Not actually raping but taking her as a bride because so beautiful Women are enjoying it Castor and Pollux The Pastoral Concert Titian and Giorgione 1508 OOC Muses so they don t see but we do Poetry muse inspiring sonnet Music muse inspiring complimentary music Unctuous quality Time of leisure The Quarrels The Great Debate of the 17th Centurywhich was better Poussin or Rubens Landscape with SaintJohn on Patmos Nicolas Poussin 1640 Lacks unctuous quality Coor is in its speci c shape and form atness Clean classical crisp style Action contained within painting opposite of Rubens Zooms out omnipotent God like eye Rubens more dynamic sometimes viewer on the ground Writhing bodies Opposites The Adoration of the Golden Calf Poussin 163336 Everyone is super contained Perfect forms perfect colors Used golden rule in paintings Horizontal scenes registers sections Not asking us to move eye through composition paint by number Debate stood the test of time Rubens knighted for attributes to art Poussin not knighted more for middle class less powerful Rape of the Sabine Women Poussin 163334 Ran out of women so had to go to the island to go rape Abduction of individuals Neoclassical paintings David follows Showing he new how to paint mythological scene Deposition from an altarpiece commissioned by the Crossbowmen s Guild Louvain Belgium Rogier van der Weyden1442 magination cannot wander All gures are crammed in Jan van Eyck The Arnol ni Wedding Portrait 1434 oil on wood panel All information included in painting Witnesses even on back wall Ceiling of the galleria palazzo Farnese Rome Annibale Carracci 1597 1601 Frescos Added borders where there weren t Makes it look more rounded than it really is In fact not frames stacked up Flight into Egypt Annibale Carracci 1603 oil on panel French Baroque Architecture Louis XIV Hyacinthe Rigaud 1700 Sun King quotcenter of the universequot all things revolve around him Bringer of life and joy and powerful French nation God like status Son King Jesus Grandeur Loved theatre wanted to be part of it Tried to be a dancer Short man proud of his legs so wore high heels accentuated calf muscle Arbiter of taste in fashion could not have larger wig than king Madame de Pompadour lover advisor her wig could be bigger Had wig pins to kill mice in their wigs by stabbing Not allowed to repeat their out ts Versailles Was just a hunting lodge Not supposed to be a palace Renovates as the Sun King to be the most sumptuous palace of all time Hall of Mirrors ridiculously grand Set the standard for all architecture to come Both Poussinist clean precise classicism and Rubenist al over composition Rustication when an architect places robust stones on the ground to look like ancient Roman structure quotaround since ancient timesquot Medici were the rst lonic columns ancient Greece Third oor is most Baroque Outside is more Poussinistic Fouquet landscaping architecture minister of nance in order to impress King decides to have a lavish three day party showing off all of his best things Louis XIV was incredibly impressed and arrested Fouquet and thrown into prison because he out did him and claimed he was stealing Stole all of his people to build Versailles Landscape architecture making land look like garden or nature The Baroque in England Always slow to catch on no academy of art Banqueting House Whitehall Palace London lnigoJones 16191622 Eizabeth the rst walked around like she was King Wasn t using painting and architecture Refused to marry virgin Predecessor ordered lnigo to study Palladio Villa Rotunda ltaly Repeating architecture symmetrical Eye lip and semicircle look Baroque structure Broken pediment brakes the at surface of the building Rustication ancient Roman heavy blocks Theatrical facade looks like its in ivory but not really has veneer Ceiling is Rubenist while the rest is Poussinist Apotheosis of King Jamesl mortal ascends to the heavens and becomes a saint Rubens 162930 Not actually a saint Suggesting that he is going to be a martyr Being crowned up into the heavens Queen Marie de Medici crowned the next day her husband was assassinated not really a coincidence Saint Peter s Basilica Michelangelo and Maderno 154664 aerial view Vatican Rome Survived the bombings the entire area around was destroyed Stained glass windows were removed before war and then put back Saint Paul s Cathedral Sir Christopher Wren 1673 London Blended contemporary with Baroque Mini St Peter s Open dome 120 French 18th century Rococostarts in the early part of the century and continues until the 19th century popular with monarchs and aristocrats Neoclassicalstarts in the last quarter of the century and in antirococo interested in history painting that teaches a moral lesson popular with Enlightenment gures and the middleclass didactic Romanticism also begins in the late 18th century focuses on the inner vision of the artist an d is antineoclassical popular with a selective group of connoisseurs RococoBaroccoRocaille shell or rock ornamentations 1paste colors 2deicate curving formsarabesques borrowed from theatredance 3dainty and sumptuous gures 4a lighthearted mood politics involved but not really propaganda 5sexually erotic andor subversive undertones and subject matter The Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera 1717 JeanAntoine Watteau OOC Femish painter establishes new style father of rococo Patronized by the French kings Conspicuous consumption people buy because king buys emulate Fuzzy quality Light hearted lesson and message to have sex and be happy Pink rose fascination Women in the French court loved pastel colors so fashion translates into paintings Cythera is a mythical island where Aphrodite was supposed to live but aristocrats go to visit to have Dangerous Liaisons term from novel collection of love letters exchanged by various individuals when married people were having sex with other married people or unmarried people swingers spouse swapping even women could swap husbands sexual dalliances with courtiers man servants etc Paintings were sexual fantasies of reality Fete Galante gallant party for swingers sumptuous for aristocrats class distinction made in canvases These people just have so much wealth they can do whatever Garden of Love scene of garden country side landscape where these liaisons happen Paintery quality still look wet RubensTitian and Giorgione Arabesque curving shapes of trees gures The Pleasures of the Ball 1714 Watteau OOC Paste arabesque fete galante garden of love Fantastic scene with garden and love engage in dangerous liaisons Pastiche The Garden of Love Rubens made for his marriage to wife Helena The columns of Watteau allude to the previous Rubens painting Man in red in both paintings Sculptural bust of Aphrodite pastiche to Cythera painting Watteau loved the theatre tropes in his paintings ntroduces the theme of commedia dell arte popular form of theatre given its improvisational slightly informal manner but was also as popular as opera during the Renaissance in Italy Traveling comedians Originally called comedy dell arte all improvviso grew out of Roman miming Theatre historians agree that Commedia Dell arte was a response to the changing political and economic climate that gripped Italy in the 1500 s and thus can be seen to serve as political satire Each actor played a particular stock character and once a story line was developed each of these characters improvised their dialogue The key feature of this form of theatre is the lazzi or comedy bits that audiences came to associate with each of the stock characters In addition to its political jokes or Iazzi Commedia dell arte also relied on slapstick and sexual innuendo as comic tropes Characters Arlecchino most famous harlequin witty acrobat cat mask Pierrot 1718 Watteau OOc Within The Pleasure of the Ball Moonstruck lover dim witted idiot at the same time Donkeyass in backgroundhe is an ass clown La Ruffianaold gossip lady Arlecchino and inamoratoa Back drop from the theatre with wellknown actors Painting within a painting Wanting to let people take part of the theatre home with them The Governess JeanSimeon Chardin 173900C Didactic paintings more popular with the middle class and bourgeoisie Adopts Poussinist style rather than Rubens All information is in the painting with clean crisp gures Lesson to embrace scholars and become man of the household A lot of people at the time thought children as pets for governesses to deal with Trying to say parents are the ones who should do this stuff Governess is brushing off his hat and sending him off to embrace his responsibilities Saying Grace 1760 Chardin OOC Mother or nurse to poor for governess middle class Litte boys until three are dressed in dresses Litte boy is praying and mother is making sure this happens before he eats Christianity is instilled on children Litte boy has left behind his childish toys Cupid and Captive Francois BOucher1754 OOC Very powerful painter Not really looking like he s been captures water nymphs fountain Took his bow and arrow Sexual dalliance cupid needs love too White doveove Fountainfertility Vasesfemale sexual organs Garden of love Long panel painting pastiche Jupiter and lo Carreggio Paintery fuzzy style of painting Madame de Pompadour 1759 Boucher More power than the Queen because of her involvement with Louise XV She became his best platonic friend even after involvement Was the biggest most powerful patron of the arts had large purse strings Commissioned paintings sonnets poems music Salon French art academy saon private room private house where artists where invited usually woman Large Pompadour wigs names after her fashionable woman Garden of love pink dress pink rose pastel venus and cupid perhaps Cypher Venus is nursing her child so Pompadour was a good nurturing mother Dog means delity dog an sleep because he knows his mistress will be faithful Not to husband but to Louise XV symbol of devotion to the crowncountry Wife of a well known marquis duke aristocratic woman very beauthl Book means educated wealthy by her clothing green dye was extremely expensive Excessive use of expensive satin so rich Roses cupid book shelf love mythology educated demure kinda sexist view Enveop letter wax quill dangerous liaisons reading poetry sending letters ntriguing reasons for the letter Heavy drapery important God like or mythological scene takes place behind curtains Not normally allowed to see but drew back the curtain as if a lover was looking at her Progress of Love Series 177173 OOC nstaled in her garden villa Didactic messages about dangerous liaisons Garden of love scenes hung in a garden of love Message the she wants to have sex with the courter Madame de Barry Another lover of Louise XV after Pompadour Young man chasing woman woman runs away because she pious but then realizes she actually does want to have sex looking over her shoulder to make sure she s safe man jumping over wall then have sex then the Lover Crowned Pacing condom on male peniswreath on his head Garden wallchastity belt taking her virginity when he jumps over her Virgin Mary always depicted in a walled garden Eve destroys garden Hat in hand Do ed hatmae orgasm Girl doesn t want to be caught by nurse looking over her shoulder but in garden with Venus and cupid arabesque tree The Swing 1767 JeanHonore Fragonard OOC So much sex going on Shoe mid air moment of her orgasm Almost as if photographer capturing moment ying towards cupid Do ed hat his moment of pleasure as well Cupid gure was a well known actual marble gure in the gardens of Versailles Naughty cupid secret safe with him The swinger sitting on the bench cupid and dolphin also on bench Her husband literally in the dark about her liaisons Dangerous threesome he doesn t even know Puling of the swing with the ropes lifting her up she s lifting her leg peep show Arm is his penis right in the line of her vagina Pink roses dress looks like a giant pink rosevagina She s wearing her genitalia her lustiness Dog usually symbolic of delity but entirely turns it on its head Dog is excited lap dogs for women to eat them out when guy not around Doyen commissioned 122 Posner Swinging Women Major theme hidden agenda Painting sexual symbols in disguise Swinging women m nage a trois or more two ropes per swing Puling intercourse movement Foucault likens hysteria to the movement of sex in ancient Greece said hysteric women had wandering uteruses Made them more sexual Swinging women meant ckle women ntensity of orgasmintensity of orgasm Fragonard The SeeSaw 175055 OOC Still sexual elated by the young man Seesaw is the phallic object pushing her up to elation Pouty gures helping out the young man scene of love Mini fette gallante dangerous liaison should not be along with him Haven t quite reached orgasm yet Tree branch arabesque Lancret The Swing 1735 OOC Not so sexually forward and aggressive More demure woman Can t make up mind and is passive Semblance of virginity to entice man Swinging womanprostitute unclean sinner evil Paying the part 0 the coquette coy woman Scopophiliapleasure of viewing other bodies or people Pastes as the color but also chalk as a medium Late Rococo in France JeanBaptist Greuze The broken Mirror 1763 OOC Painting while neoclassicism is on the rise but not really interested Combines message of Fragonard in style of Rubens but didactic Broken mirror how women should not act lf caught reputation was ruined Broken mirrortaken virginity Prospects of marriage are slim to none Dog is growling down on front paws angry at broken mirrorangry at woman for being slutty Room is disheveledife is disheveled Probably vain Candlegod not lit in corner Godless woman More didactic than the swing Greuze The Drunken Cobble 1770 s OOC If you have a family don t spend money of alcohol Wasted opening up arms no food for hungry kids Upset poorly cared for family Pissed off wife upset dog trying to hold her back suggesting the man s in delity Sin vs virtue looks a little more Poussinistic Elisabeth VigeeLebrun Portrait of Marie Antoinette with Her Children 178700C Great female painter Head court painter of Louis V Commissioned to make Marie look like a good mother Newspapers said she would eat her children if it would bene t her Surrounded by children in their nursery to make her look good Hardy had any contact with her children until married off Grew up in France was very aware of French culture but still not accepted from Austria No such scene just made up propaganda English Rococo Art SirJoshua Reynolds Lady Elizabeth Delme and Her Children 177780 OOC She actually was a loving mother to her children Dog shows delity from both mother and children Goodly woman surrounded by her kin Rubenist unctuous quality soft brushwork Engish ladies copying French ladies in fashion Rococo Art in England Sexual eroticism is replaced by social satire andor sex becomes the vehicle of social satire Don t see garden of love or dangerous liaisons negative view of sex outside of marriage William Hogarth The Marriage Contract from Marriage a la Mode 174345 OOC Series of pictures not popular when rst received negative view of aristocracy Contemporary marriage he believed people should marry for love Shows the pitfalls of not loving marriages Aristocratic gentleman pompous frilly overweight Bandaged foot from gout aristocratic disease from not working Pointing to family tree traced back to the old knights Lord Squander eld has no more money Befalls many aristocrats Earl s son is so vain he is looking at himself in the mirror Husband and wife not even looking at each other opposites of social position Banker is a merchant has no title but lots of money Has a daughter sumptuously dressed rich girl White dress being married off for father to make money Looks pious because of hat Writing up marriage contract and architects to build new manor Looking into the future before marriage has even happened Sir Silverton lawyer is already making sexual advances to wife Teing her she s going to have power and her husband doesn t care so why not No love between father daughter son daughter wife husband The Tete a tete Party last night overturned chair open music dancing good time She is distracting husband by saying oh I m tired and wants to go to bed Lawyer escaping so wife can join Husband is bored cannot care less lets wife do whatever because he doesn t care Dog jumping up grabbing lapel no delity trying to get his attention Could also be a disgusted butler eeing from awful marriage Sexual painting hidden in background nipple pinch Thelnspchon Young lord goes to quack doctor fake medicine treatment to make money Eement of Commedia del arte Young man confronting doctor about not xing his syphilis Young prostitute dabbing at a black spot on her lip sign of syphilis The Toilette Femae side of the story Silverton there irting with another young woman Woman is now very vain can hold court has musicians paintings Other young men come to give her attention Forgetting to be pious and a good mother Signs in background of her having an affair Jupiter and lo Jupiter raping all of his victims Toy that African or Indian child is playing with the toy is Actaeon dangerahead Son of sheep herder aristocratic family from Thebes hero comes across Artemis bathing with her young ladies she is revealing the secret of her virginity Actaeon gets caught but is allowed to live if he doesn t tell obviously calls over other guys to watch turned into stag so his own dogs could eat him Sexual games playing with the gods will lead to death The Bagnio Bath house where you have sex Young woman has sex with Silverton husband walks in and catches Lawyer stabs husband and leaves out window Wife begging for her husband s forgiveness while he bleeds out and dies Bath house owner opens door to see what is happening Back wall is a painting of a woman holding a squirrel Squirrels were see as coveting creatures coveted woman uneasy m nage a trois lrony of coveted The Lady s Death Goes to Silverton the lawyer to run off with him He is going to be arrested and hanged She can t handle both being dead so she kills herself Seen as sel sh Doesn t care about her baby or anyone else but herself Father slipping rings off his daughter s ngers to sell them as she dies Tipped over chair destruction will come to the family Dog is eating off table because it was been starved by not caring masters Eating pig head The Rake s Progress The Heir 173233 OOC Throwing into Looney bin Because he is a playboy Social satire on nuvo rich Not okay to turn on morals In 1750 Fungus hit juniper berries made them grow way bigger gin is made from these had soon much gin became so cheap and clean by 1751 most of England was drunk on gin British government created drunkards Very negative view on government speaking out against social ills Gin has made individuals animalistic Beer is the ip slide telling people to stop drinking gin and start drinking beer More prosperous falling in love doing their work Lady Sarah Bunbury sacri cing to the graces Sir Joshua Reynolds 1765 OOC Pepos style garb Three graces in the corner nvents term for his style of painting The Gran Manner Popular with academicians Birth of the Royal Academy of London Does not do neoclassicism or rococo but makes his own Takes contemporary individuals and placing them into scenes of Grecoroman period Painting not only carries grand manner style but is an historiated portrait Do no invent historiated portraits but makes them popular Contemporary individual dressed up as historical individual dea that not just literate but well versed in the ancient texts Up on all mythology and history sign of class wealth status Sel you statusimage through these positivistic propaganda like portraits Pastiche Primavera Botticelli Wedding scene gift Aphrodite and Virgin Historicism of historicism Graces of art music dance Colonel George Coussmaker Sirjoshua Reynolds Grenadier Guards 1782 OOC nvites us to see how knowledgeable we are about art historical paintings Pastiche Anthony Van Dyck paints Charles 1635 OOC Firs time not in all the royal attire dressed as an aristocrat not as king Very humble fashion wanted to look like one of the people Didn t want them to rebel against his decisions Perspective of the viewer is from below the King The horse represents the role of the common man Kneeing and bowing to the king Showing allegiance subjects to the king ln Sir Reynolds portrait horse represents soldier colonel depicted like king but not treason against Power play horse represents human beings who assume a lower position than the men depicted Prominent tree in each Rubenist painting of the fuzzy tree details Coonel removed hat suggests he is still subject to the king Portrait of Mrs Sarah Siddons 1785 Thomas Gainsborough OOC Loved landscape portraits but didn t make money Riva ofjoshua Reynolds Tended to paint middle tier of society nterested in painting actors directors merchants Famous actress not prostitutes in this case More elevated to grand societal status Mrs Richard Brinsley Sheridan 1785 Thomas Gainsborough Actress Princess Diana Wife of theatre owner Head of fashion Compared to The Swing both fantastical background mystic trees real or no Sweeping arabesque motion from bottom corner to middle of page Pink dresses but Gainsborough s isn t women s privates not swinging on rock Woman of status looking directly at the viewer not ckle 19 Century The Birth of Art History and the Rise of Modernism in the quotLong 19th Centuryquot 17901918 Neoclassical continues to the early 1800 s interested in history painting that teaches moral lesson popular with Enlightenment gures and middleclass Revolutionaries Social Darwinism reason over emotion Romanticism also begins in the late 18th century but is most popular in the 19th century until the 1840 s focuses on the innervision of the artist and is antineoclassical popular with a selective group of connoisseurs in the 18th century popular with monarchies in the 19th century the cynical artist observes society but offers no didactic message emotion is more important than reason Rubenism will replace Poussinism Selfportrait Anton Raphael Mengs Selfportrait 1779 OOC Neocassica painting shown in wet drapery painting Realy goes back to ancient works of art Johann Joachim Winkelmann Anton Raphael Mengs 1755 OOC Father of art history Loved ancient Greek Art Writes book on iconography Reading ancient Greek in painting Born poor but educated and made name for himself Constantly indebted to rich friends or patrons always by gift of someone else Grant tour right of passage for guys to go abroad and become more culturally aware and smarter Always ended up in Rome couldn t make it to Athens Birth of Neoclassicism from studying ancient art Rome was the nal destination because of the excavation of Pompeii Vesuvius in Eruption Joseph Wright of Derby with a View over the Islands in the Bay of Naples 1776 OOC Never actually saw it erupt but continued to erupt beyond ancient times Domenico Fontana funded by the Pope painted over everything Hid all of the erotic scenes which were everywhere so basically everything Had to rediscover these images Fried s Reading of Re ections Trying to understand why Winckelmann loves the ancient Greek so much Takes readers through his loves of ancient Greek art Begins by drawing allusion between Hercules and lphicles Hercules strangling serpent sent by Hera his twin brother from different men Hercules is the Greek ideal and lphicles is weak sickly mortal little brother Greek art is like Hercules strong powerful amazing while modern art is like lphicles sickly weak poor Says problem with modern art is a pale imitation of ancient art poor copying Wickemann says copying is bad originality is key 100 BCE sculpture woman looks strong idealized perfectionbeauty 1739 sculpture dainty clothed threatened by cupids arrow notion of love Aphrodite ready to defend herself against pan he s trying to lift up her hand she is going to throw her shoe at him cupid is grabbing hold of pan s horns The other one is depicting a coquette coy woman as opposed to empowered female Key to understanding why Greek art is the best is because of idealism vs naturalism To approach realm of gods must enhance and use imagination for the human body everything is idealized shows originality Wickemann still doesn t like historicism of contemporary people He says still not creative enough just playing dress up Poor imitation artist Fried says to nd happy medium modern artist that nds ideals of ancient Greek art and adds it to modern art Payed with mythology many symbols but still idealized ssue with modern artist is that it has to be taken to the next level Michelangelo is too tied to naturalism not ideal enough Michelangelo said the natural body is idealized Used plaster clay and alabaster to make models copying from model makes him imitation artist Ancient Greeks used wax which is closer to human skin does not copy Life in marble no more life static dead gures Jupiter Kissing Ganymede Anton Raphael Mengs and Giacomo Casanova 17581759 Casanova was a great painter not lover Work not so great but created as a forgery Painted it saying they recently uncovered an erotic painting from the ancient world to trick Winckelmann not openly gay but didn t hide it either worked for the Vatican Everyone knew anyway Wanted to fall into his good graces because he was writing about art history Winckemann believed it and wrote a lot about it conography Ganymede innocent farmer boy tending to sheep with dog when abducted giant brown bird spots him and takes him up actually zeus male apprentice to Zeus now lover At rst afraid but then pleased with gods became cup boy delivered ambrosia delivered immortality Homosexual tension between Zeus and Ganymede Romans copied Greeks vase for the ambrosia Zeus pulling Ganymede in for a kiss Look of pleasure showing how other boy should be jealous Wilhelm Bottner Zeus Kissing Ganymede 1780 OOC Another version after the rst Artists catering to the art historian Selling out or smart business Praised for not just copying rather referencing with an idealized body Ganymede turned towards up increases sex appeal Makes prints supports neoclassicism Giant golden eagle at feet allusion that Zeus captured through this disguise Perseus and Andromeda Anton Raphael Mengs 177076 OOC Shows style skill and growth Rubenist style verticality drama extending beyond page Poussinist style smooth skin form function color all adhere to their shapes Neocassical style wet drapery 3D art into 2D Pastiche Apollo Belvedere Perseus statue Winckelmann says reference is key checks that off the list Femae form is traced back to sarcophagus Prometheus creating humans as Athena watches Athough iconography is back to mythological world style is about Greek art Cupid not really in mythological scene but let s us know they become lovers Perseus is idealized Pegasus is there to show he has read Ovid Perseus is wearing helmet of Athenian hero Pastiche Titian Perseus and Andromeda 1554 not similar at all shows an entirely different scene Painted on copper to make gures look more glowing golden sensual Typoogy typespersonas artists reproduce over and over again Argus was Hera s servanthenchman becomes keeper of lonow a cow had 1000 eyes every watchful Zeus kills him and then Hera takes his eyes to put on the peacock River gods were depicted as nude bearded men References Poussin in moody emotional quality Angelica Kauffman The Judgment of Paris 1781 OOC Germanic Austrian Swiss artist Worked primarily in London then Rome changed her name from two n s German to one n Working for British patrons Talk of her being named a Lady however never happened Extremely powerful wealthy and could her own against men As a female artist paints many female heroic gures however alludes to male past painters uses those styles paints same scenes Rubenesc in body and fuzziness Cothed women lighter color pallet not sexual objects Still beautiful but not all about voluptuous sex bodies Head covering Paris wears is a symbol of freedom and liberty fought off usurpers Knows her history of ancient Phrygian people Angelica Kauffman Cornelia Mother of the Gracchi Pointing to her Children as her Treasures 1785 OOC Woman suggesting that more than earthly pleasures of gold and silver her children are her greatest possessions Strong female heroin stories Woman one of Cornelia s attendants holding up all of herjewels saying wow you re so rich these must be your best treasures and she says no my children areher male children One shouldn t put one s efforts into earthly delights but rather strong well raised children Portrait bust of Gaius Gracchi lst century BCE Marble Tiberius Grachchus Powerfu individuals tribunal army senators craters politician prior to Cesar Great leaders moved together very in uential Born as plebeians rise to senators rags to riches Sought about social reform more liberal democrats thought wealthy landowners should be taxed more heavily Wealthy nonplebes aristocrats did not agree Gracchi coin twofaced coin Gemini represents the fact that they wielded an immense amount of power Cornelia was daughter of the general who defeated Hannibal Hannibal led his elephants to defeat the Romans except for when Cornelia s father ambushes them and wins She came from powerful military family Antonio Canova Psyche Revived by Cupid s Kiss 178793 Marble Sculpture took much longer time to make less lucrative in total Poussinist sculpture classicist renders stone perfectly Aphrodite is jealous of Psyche sends cupid to make her fall in love with a beast instead he pricks himself and falls in love with her takes her to marble palace and is her secret lover eventually she turns on light to see that it is cupid she wakes him up and he is betrayed to Aphrodite punishes her sends her on trials in underworld almost dies but cupid saves her from her death sleep Sleeping beauty Truest Neoclassical artist sculptor likes ancient Greeks All about love sensuality coming together of bodies Christian sense Disney uses this trope in many stories waking woman in deadly sleep by true love s kiss Not a new interest in this story many appreciated Young adults Sometimes Psyche is depicted with butter y wings because she drinks ambrosia from Ganymede and became immortal butter y is sign of immortality cocoonunderworld Not an imitation or copy just an allusion to the ancient world Copying just a bit just enough so that the knowledge is understood Reverse Pieta Arrowscupid poisonpsyche Her hair is in style of Corinthian hair but also like columns scroll work could also be vapors Wet drapery Perseus with the Head of Medusa Antonio Canova 180406 Marble ln Metropolitan museum Son of Zeus and Danae kept in a box Zeus rapes through golden rain Perseus is born Athena helps him defeat medusa saves Andromeda Wearing Phrygian cap wings on hat might look like Hermes but reference to Pegasus and his wings Pegasus was born from Medusa defeats her good beats evil All of evil rooted in female body Pastiche Apollo Belvedere Leochares Differences in third support Mengs39 Perseus and Andromeda both around the same time referencing ancient Greeks Hercules and Lichas Antonio Canova 17951815 Marble Very much a common commissioned type Nemean lion and club at Hercules feet Hieratic scaling Hercules depicted monumentally larger Lessing German art historian Reference to Laocoon Use of motion and emotion Very very thin silk shirt draped over his body Nessus evil centaur around river Hercules mortally wounds Centaur is evil because he tries to abduct Hercules wife Hercules draws his bow and shoots him Nessus takes his shirt dips it in his poisoned blood and gave it to his wife to say if you want to kill your husband this will do the trick Later on Hercules has an affair so his wife gives his servant the shirt to put on him Hercules was burned to the bone He burns himself to death and his God like spirit rises to Olympus Can see esh melting off Throws his servant into a body of water called Cape of Lichene An Experiment a Bird in the Air Pump Joseph Wright of Derby 1768 OOC Considered a painter of the rational enlightenment subject Goes on trips to be educated in art very common and encouraged mixing of ideas Didn t fully embrace reason over emotion and science of religion human thought above all Rise of neohumanism Death of religious painting Only from pagan world Bridges gap between Neoclassicism and Romantic Use of light technique painter of light was a nickname nterested primarily in moonlight part of secret lunar society in Birmingham England Obsessed with the moon Late alchemists turned scientists Lunar society had members from everywhere Amost always paints moon into canvases for his patrons Lunaticks went nuts when the moon came out always met on full moon Man in center was a traveling scientistalchemist friend but not recognized Whiteyellow cockatoo Boyle invented air pump scientists were considered treasonous wanted to look at gravity and vacuums Kiling cockatoo not a pure painter of a rational subject If it were truly a science experiment then he would have used a nch mocking scienti c tradition by using an expense and rare cockatoo in the name of science saying science is irrational Man looks like mad scientist Fan of tenebrism reference to classical past Two individuals on the left only have eyes for each other Emotion and love over science lovefoly turned their back on reason Missing out on the wealth of knowledge Criticizing those individuals Mr Mrs Thomas Coltman were models Pacing members of his society in paintings to adhere to them and play himself up Very theatrical nature actors on a stage intense narrative Well known portrait painter only successful English painter in this time to gain a reputation not working in London Left academician because he got into a ght The young girls represent sentimentality or naivet of children to concerned with cockatoo dying need to move away from sentimentality Should we rely more on their emotions Should we be questioning the experiment Human lung in glass human body related back to arti cial science intake of air Orrery representing galaxy were tools of witches cults alchemists Vesuvius in Eruption with a View over the Island in the Bay of Naples Joseph Wright of Derby Obsessed with light Moon in background Al based on sketches he did and then painted in his studio Never saw an eruption Concept of the sublime nature has the ability to inspire awe and fear in mankind nature holds the power to destroy man not the other way around Can t help but watch could lead to our own death Romantic interpretation of the landscape Nostagia of what it would be like to have been there French Neoclassicism David From self portrait looks haughty polished aristocratic status not really true depicted as a painter PoussinismMengs Classical style with romantic lighting 4 works that received the greatest praise Oath of the Horatii JacquesLouis David 17841785 OOC Louis VI and Marie Antoinette always had revolutionary tendencies not a monarchist Avant garde artist wanted to change society bring about revolution Wanted to start the re of revolution in the stomachs of the Jacobins Great success I m the solon toast of the town Death of Socrates JacquesLoius David Another one that was meant to stir revolution Greater praise than Horatii Death of Morat 1793 OOC Use of guillotine on Loius VI and Marie Antoinette During revolution reign of terror Terrorist to aristocratic family but hero for the revolution The Coronation of Napoleon 1810 Truly believed he was the best Patroclus JacquesLoius David 1780 OOC Cassicism Extreme tenebrism theatrical lighting Used to bring about form sculptural form in a painting Painting of dirty feet not afraid to get dirty ldeaized male body Red fabric noble gure but also death and blood sacri ce heroic death No face to this hero we can project ourselves everyone should think about bringing change No face homoeroticism between Achilles and Patroclus we enjoy that tension Achiles cousinlover Steals Achilles armor goes out and ghts Hector Paris brother Hector kills thinking it was Achilles but wasn t Achiles then comes up with the idea of the Trojan horse Shows allegiance to family country lover heart His hair seems to be blowing wind of Zeus arabesque shape godlike force The Dying Gaul another heroic French man stoic ancestors David s teacher was Boucher Rococo painter David embraced a style that was cutting edge contemporary Rococo was still popular Oath of the Horatii 178484 jacquesLouis David OOC Father three sons mother and sisters Horatii and Coreatti warring groups Rome and Enemies Three brothers are triplets ghting triplets Showing allegiance to their father and to Rome Wiling to sacri ce their lives Mother dressed in black will be in mourning Go into battle two of the Horatii brothers killed by Coreatti One left brother pretended to run away from battle as if a coward but he actually just went to hide and waited for the three brothers to break Up They used to ght has a threesome protecting each others backs The last Horatii was able to kill the brothers because they split up looking for him Last brother goes back to father and says two died but victors in war The sister was engaged to one of the Coreatti brothers and when she protested he killed her Honor to one s family is more important blood is thicker than water Showing willing to sacri ce anything All about honor allegiance not to the crown but to the French people Prorevoution Louis VI read it as allegiance to the crown and royalty Fatherkings Style of dress architecture use of red all very classical Red drapery shows sacri ce and death Poussinist style very crisp and clean Propagandistic comparable to Marie Antoinette portrait ndebted to the style of Mengs but Mengs is more interested in showing his knowledge and abilities to paint in reference to the classical world David is more interested in the didactic politics view of it Emotion in this painting shown by the women Joseph Wright of Derby An Experiment on a Bird in an air pump young girls show emotion Emotion vs Logic Emotion is bad should not succumb to the weak feminine emotions Death of Socrates JacquesLouis David 1787 OOC Boroughs says this painting has everything to do with politics Meant to energize the Jacobin cause Sent to death because he was corrupting the youth of Athens Forced to drink hemlock and die followers are lamenting and whaling He was a revolutionary gure would not be silenced would rather die David is saying look at this radical and follow suit Antimonarchist painting SirJoshua Reynolds said this was the most earnest attempt at painting Most sincere and meaningful paintings Death of Marat JacquesLouis David 1793 OOC First modern painting Up for debate Strong use of negative space in top right corner breaking convention of lling the page Divides canvas in two with upper half devoid of guration Strong political meanings in nonreigious way During this time period that to be a modern artist you have to be political must show viewers how to live their lives or how to better society Marat was a freedom ghter head ofJacobins Friend of Ropes Pier Head of guillotine Antimonarchist and great writer under ground news paper Charotte Corday murdered him Note in hand is her requesting his audience she says she is part of his cause a revolutionary but is associated with aristocracy says she wants to be a spy He agrees to meet with her Stabs him in his heart Siting in pool of blood blood drips onto white garment bloody knife on oor Looks like a Christ gure wants people to see that this war is worth gh ng Pieta pity supposed to feel her pain Christ sacri ce Someone like Marat could become the modern Christ Religious fervor is at the root of this war sacri ce for God but also Country Painting modern and contemporary life almost immediately after The Intervention of the Sabine Women JacquesLouis David 1799 OOC Power of Poussinism Each gure is very outlined crisp clean but smoky background to show turmoil David said he was going to paint a modern version of the Sabine myth as the after math After the raping the Sabine men go and rage war on the Romans and say they want their women back The women however are the voice of reason now They are the ones using logic Saying it already happened and now we are united half and half no more blood It was given a room all by itself placed on the oor not hung and on the other wall was a gigantic mirror placed on the oor David intervening in the scene Peope looked at the mirror in which they were a part of also Very avantgarde Heavy handed but necessary Could be a scene of the French revolution History repeats itself up to the French people to bring peace and nd an end Wearing Phrygian cap to show that it is actually about France Hiding political agenda so allowed to stay alive Savvy Chidren metaphor for strife and war X marks the spot Napoleon on the Bridge at Arcole AntoineJean Gros 1796 OOC Contemporary of David Commissioned by Napoleon to make propagandistic paintings Great marketer for himself Napoeon was trying to pull on the heart strings of his viewers and followers Gros is Rubenist Conveys a sense of mood and emotion with fuzziness Napoeon was a great general and wanted individuals to trust him Great battle that the French had won Hoding the ag can see the movement looks like slowed down time Lightness on his face means he will lead us out of darkness Pushing away pain and turmoil bringing a better future French ag tied around his waist took ag into battle it fell but he still picked it up and is marching onward We look from below Napoleon although short he looks monumental Sfumato technique used to look smoky hazy Leonardo used this Tenebrism theatrical lighting looks like characters on a stage more harsh Light and darkness mood and atmosphere he looks very assured and con dent Napoleon in the Plague House atJaffa AntoineJean Gros OOC In Israel Striped lslamic pathway pointed arches architecture of the Middle East Possiby mosque rather than temple Showing he is there on a good will peace mission cares for his soldiers mperiaistic shows how far his empire will go Showing people he isn t scared of the plague house God like quality Napoeon laying hand on infected person as if Christ Napoeon never actually went the whole picture is a lie Wasn t God like wasn t tall wasn t good looking wasn t always bathed in lightLies
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