Study Guide PSY:2701:0AAA
Popular in Biological Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Barbellshrugged on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY:2701:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Mark Blumberg in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 204 views. For similar materials see Biological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Iowa.
Reviews for Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/03/15
02032015 Multipolar neurons have many dendrites and a single axon they are the most common type of neuron Bipolar neurons have a single dendrite at one end of the cell and a single axon at the other end This type of neuron is especially common in sensory systems Unipolar neuronhave a single extension process usually thought of as an axon that branches in two directions after leaving the cell body One end is the receptive pole and the other part is the output zone In all three types of neurons the dendrites are the input zone In multipolar and bipolar cells the cell body also receives synapses and also part of the input zone motor neuron the neurons that govern movement They have long axons reaching reaching to synapse muscles causing them to contract to contract in response to commands from the brain Sensory neurons a neuron that is directly affected by changes in the environment such as lightodor or touch lnterneuronsa neuron that is neither a sensory neuron nor a motor neuron it receives input from and sends output to other neurons make up the huge network of complex circuits axons tend to be short Arborization re ects the complexity of a neuron s information processing function the elaborate branching of the dendrites of some neurons Presynaptic Refers to the region of the synapse that releases neurotransmitters Postsynaptic refers to the region that receives and responds to neurotransmitters Presynaptic Membrane the specialized membrane of the axon terminal of the neuron that relays information by releasing a neurotransmitter Postsynaptic Membrane A specialized membrane on the outside of the cell receiving the information by responding to neurotransmitters from a presynaptic neuron Gap between 2040 nm Synaptic Cleft The space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements Synaptic Vesicle A small spherical structure 30140 nm in diameter that contains molecules of neurotransmitters In response to electrical activity in the axon the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane which releases molecules of neurotransmitters into the cleft Neurotransmitter AKA synaptic transmitter chemical transmitter or transmitter The chemical released from the presynaptic axon terminal that serves as the basis of communication between neurons ReceptorA protein that binds and reacts to molecules of neurotransmitter or hormone the postsynaptic neurons contain a high density in of receptors some neurons have 10000 synaptic contacts more common 5000 10000 neurons with more elaborate dendrites have more synaptic inputs results in electrical changes in the postsynaptic cell if it is a neuron as are most postsynaptic cells are it increases the likelihood that it will release a neurotransmitter Neural Plasticity The ability of the nervous system to change in response to experiences in the environment Dendritic Spines outgrowths of the dendrites that allow for more surface area and more synaptic contacts which can rapidly be changed by experience or environment Axon Hillock cone shaped projection of the cell body Is the neuron s integration zone converts and processes information into codes of electrical impulses carries messages down axon towards its target Axon Collaterals A branch of an axon from a single neuron because neurons only have one one axon but they allow for multiple branches lnnervateto provide neural input or in uence Axonal Transport the transportation of materials ie enzymes structural proteins etc from the neuronal cell body to distant regions in the dendrites and axons and from the axon terminals back to the cell body Astrocyte a type of glial cell shaped like a star with numerous processes extensions that run in all directions some have sucker like feet on blood vessels that regulate blood ow to provide more supplies to neurons when they are active Receive synapses directly from directly from neurons and also monitor the activity of other neuronal synapses they also may communicate among themselves with neighboring neurons to modulate the neuron s response quotglial transmissionquot involved in the formation of new synapses Microglial Cellvery small glial cells that remove cellular debris from injured or dead cells they are very active they form a spherical containment zone around the injury they are the clean up crew they appear to be involved in neural pain systems they are important for the maintenance of synapses Oligodendrocytes a type of glial cells that form myelin in the central nervous system provide myelination in the brain and spinal cord Schwann Cells the glial cells that form myelin in peripheral nervous system they do the coating of myelin in the rest of the body a single cell can coat a limited length of an axon Nodes of Ranvier gaps between successive segments of the myelin sheath where the axon membrane is exposed Edema the swelling of tissue especially in the brain in response to injury Multiple Sclerosis literally quotmany scarsquot a disorder characterized by widespread demyelination Gross Neuroanatomy the components of the nervous system that are visible to the naked eye Peripheral Nervous Systemthe nervous system beyond the brain and spinal cord Central Nervous System the brain and spinal cord Nerves A collection of axons outside of the central nervous system Sensory Nerves arise from sensory surfaces and convey information from the body to the spinal cord and the brain There are three subsections Cranial Nerves they are connected directly to the brain Spinal Nervesare connected at regular intervals to the spinal cord Autonomic Nervous System the nerves that primarily control the internal organs Cranial Nerves IOlfactory Nerve Conveys smell ii Optic Nerve carries visual information iii Ocuomotor Trochear Abducens contro eye movement viii Vestibuocochear nerve concerned with hearing and balance xi Spinal accessory nerve controls the neck muscles xii hypogossa nerves control the tongue vGeminal serves facial movement through some axons and it controls chewing movement through others vii facial nerves control facial muscles and receive taste sensation ixgossopharyngeal control throat muscles and receive sensations from throat x Vagus extends from the head to the heartiver and intestines Dorsal Roots the branch of a spinal nerve entering the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that carries sensory information from the peripheral nervous system Ventral Root the branch of the spinal nerve arising from the ventral horn of the spinal cord that carries motor messages from the spinal cord to the peripheral nervous system Cervical topmost 8 segments of the spinal cord in the neck region Thoracic the 12 spinal segments below the neck portion corresponding to the chest Lumbar the IS spinal segments that make of the upper part of the lower back Sacral the IS spinal segments that make up the lower part of the lower back Coccygeal the lowest spinal vertebra also known as the tailbone Autonomic Ganglia Collection of nerve cell bodies belonging to the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system that are found in various locations and innervate major organs Preganglionic autonomic neuronsneurons that run from the run from the central nervous system to the autonomic ganglia Postganglionic referring to neurons in the autonomic nervous system that run from the autonomic ganglia to various targets in the body Sympathetic Nervous System a component of the autonomic nervous system that arises from both the cranial nerves and the spinal cord Sympathetic Chain a chain of ganglia that runs along each side of the spinal column part of the sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic Nervous System a component of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the cranial nerves and spinal cord Norepinephrine also called noradrenaline a neurotransmitter that is produced and released by the sympathetic postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity Also produced by the brainstem and found in various projections through the brain Acetylcholine a neurotransmitter produced and released by the postganglionic neurons to slow down activity Enteric Nervous System an extensive mesh like network of neurons that governs the functioning of the gut Cerebral Hemispheres the right and left halves of the forebrain Cerebral Cortex the outer covering of the of the cerebral hemispheres that consists largely of nerve cell bodies and their branches Gyrus a ridged portion of a convoluted brain surface Sulcus a furrow of a convoluted brain surface Frontal Lobe the most anterior pa rt of the cerebral cortex Parietal Lobes Large regions of the cortex lying between the frontal and occipital lobes of each hemisphere Temporal Lobes Large lateral cortical regions of each cerebral hemisphere continuous with the parietal lobes posteriorly and separated from the frontal lobe by the sylvian ssure Occipital Lobes large regions of cortex covering much of the of the posterior part of each hemisphere Sylvian Fissure aka lateral sulcus a deep ssure that demarcates the temporal lobe Central Sulcus a ssure that divides the frontal lobes from the parietal lobes postcentral gyrus the strip of parietal cortex just behind the central sulcus that receives somatosensory information from the entire body Precentral Gyrus the strip of frontal cortex just in front of the central sulcus that is crucial for motor control Corpus Callosum the main band of axons that connect the two cerebral hemispheres White Matter a shiny layer underneath the cortex that consists largely of axons with white myelin sheaths Gray Matter areas of the brain that are dominated by cell bodies and are devoid of myelin Neural Tube an embryonic structure with subdivisions that correspond to the future forebrainmidbrainand hindbrain Forebrain aka prosencephaon the anterior division of the brain containing cerebral hemispheres the thalamus and hypothalamus Midbrainaka mesencephaon the middle division of the brain Hindbrain aka rhombencephaon the rear division of the brain which in mature vertebrate contains the cerebellum pons and medulla Telencephalonthe frontal subdivision of the forebrain that contains the cerebral hemispheres when fully developed Diencephalon the posterior part of the forebrain including the thalamus and the hypothalamus Metencephalon subdivision of the hindbrain that contains the cerebellum and the pons Pons a portion of the metencephalon part of the brain stem connecting the midbrain to the medulla Cerebellum a structure located at the back of the brain dorsal to the pons that is involved in the central regulation of movement Myelencephalon Medulla the posterior part of the hindbrain continuous with the brain and spinal cord Brain Stem the part of the brain that contains the midbrainpons and cerebellum Nucleus in this context a group of neurons within the nervous system Tract a bundle of axons found within the central nervous system Allocortex brain tissue with with three layers or non layered organization Pyramidal Cells a large type of nerve cell that has a pyramid shaped cell body found in the cerebral cortex Apical Dendrite the dendrite that extends from a pyramidal cell to the outermost surface of the cortex Basal Dendrite One of several dendrites on a pyramidal cell that extend horizontally from the cell body Cortical Column one of the vertical columns the constitute the basic organization of the cortex Basal Ganglia a group of forebrain nuclei including the caudate nucleus globus pallidus and putamen found deep in the cerebral hemispheres Caudate Nucleus one of the basal ganglia has a long extension or tail Putamenone of the basal ganglia Globus Pallidus one of the basal ganglia Substantia Nigra a brainstem structure in humans that innervates the basal ganglia and is named for its dark pigmentation Limbic System a loosely de ned system of widespread nuclei that innervate each other to form a network Amygdala a group of nuclei in the medial part of the temporal lobe Hippocampus a medial temporal lobe structure important for learning and memory Fornix a ber tract that extends from the hippocampus to the mamillary body Cingulate Gyrus cortical portion of the limbic system found in the frontal and parietal midline Olfactory Bulb an anterior projection of the brain that terminates in the upper nasal passages uses small openings in the skull to provide receptors with a sense of smell Thalamus The brain region that surrounds the third ventricle Hypothalamuspart of the diencephalon lying ventral to the thalamus Superior Colliculi Paired grey matter structure in the dorsal midbrain that receive visual information and are involved in direction of visual gaze and visual attention to intended stimuli Inferior Colliculi paired grey matter structures of the dorsal midbrain that receives auditory information Tectumthe dorsal portion of the midbrain including the inferior and superior colliculi Red nucleusa brain stem structure related to motor control Reticular Formation an extensive region of the brain stem extending from the medulla through the thalamus that is involved in arousal waking Purkinje Cell a large type of nerve cell in the cerebral cortex Granule Cell a small type of nerve cell Parallel Fiber one of the axons of the granule cells that form the outermost layer of the cerebellar cortex Meninges three protective sheets of tissue dura materpia mater and arachnoid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord Dura Mater the outermost of the three meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord Pia MAter the innermost of the three meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord Arachnoid the thin covering one of the three meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord between the dura and pia mater Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF the uid that lls the cerebral ventricles Meningitis an acute in ammation of the meninges usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection Meningiomas any class of tumors arising in the meninges Ventricular System a system of uid lled cavities in the brain Lateral Ventricle a complexly shaped lateral portion of the ventricular system within each hemishpere of the brain Choroid Plexus a highly vascular portion of th lingin of the ventricles that secretes cerebrospinal uid Third VentricleThe middle ventricle that conducts cerebrospinal uid from the lateral ventricle to the fourth ventricle Fourth Ventricle the passageway within the pons that recieves cerebrospinal uid from the third ventricle and releases to surround the brain and spinal cord Carotid Ateries the major arteries that ascend the right side of the neck to the brainn supplying blood to the anterioir and middle cerebral arteries Anterior Cerebral Ateries two large artereis arising from the carotids that provide blood to the anterior poles and medial surfaces of the cerebral hemishperes Middle Cerebral Arteries two large artereies arising from the carotids that provide blood to the lateral surface of the cerebral hemishperes Posterior Cerebral Arteries two large arteries arising from the basilar artery that provide blood to the posterior elements of the cerebral hemishperes cerebellum and brainstem Vertebral Arteriesarteries that ascend the vertabrae and ebter the base of the skull and join together to form the basillar artery Circle of Willis a structure at the base of the brain that i sformed by the joining of the carotid and basillar arteries Stroke damage to a region of brain tissu ethat results in the breakage or rupture of blood vessels that supply blood to that region Blood Brain Barrier the mechanism that makes the movement of substances from blood vessels into brain cells more dif cult than exchanges with other body organs which gives the brain more protection from substances in the body Aniography brain imaging technique an image taken w a special xray after the skull has been lled with a radiopaque dye via catheter Computerized Axial TomographyCAT a noninvasive technique to examin brain structure thru computer analysis of xray absorption in several around the head Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI noninvasive imaging uses magentic energy to generate images of the brain Positron Emission TomograpyPET brain imagine techjnique that combines tomography with injections of radioactive substances in the brain Functinal MRI fMRI monitors blood ow to certain regions of the brain to monitor which areas are active during a given task Diffusion Tensor lMaging DTI a modi ed version of MRI imaging in which the diffusion of water in a con ned space is exploited to produce images of axonal ber tracts Optical lmaging a method for visualizing brain activity in which near infrared light is passed through the scalp and skull Transcranial Magneic Stimulation Localized non invasive stimulation of cortical nerons through the application of a strong magnetic eld Chapter 3 Neurophysiology the study of the process of neurons All living cells have an electrical charge and they more charged on the inside then they are on the outside Electrical Signals are used to pass on information IonAn atom or molecule that has aquired an electrical charge by losing or gaining an electron Cation a positively charged ion such as a potassium or sodium ion Anions negatively charged ion such as a protein or chloride ion they are the majority of ions in teh cell are negatively charged
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'