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One Day of Notes
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One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
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Date Created: 02/03/15
CIS 410 Chapter 3 Ethics and Privacy Ethics 0 Principles of right and wrong that individuals use to make choices that guide their behavior Approaches Utilitarian Most good or least harm Rights protects and respects rights of affected Fairness treat all fairly Common good best serves everyone not just those affected Ethical Framework Make a Ghtniee If i Heflleet en 39yIur Deeieien Fleeegnize Get the Evaluate Alternativeel the leeue Facts Ethics in the Corporate Environment Code of ethics collection of principles to guide decisions Fundamental tenets of ethics a Responsibility b Accountability c Liability Ethics and IT Privacy Issues ie collection storing and disseminating individual info Accuracy Issues ie authenticity fidelity and accuracy Property Issues ie ownership and value Accessibility Issues ie who has access should they pay Privacy right to be left alone Info pr when and to what extent info can be gathered and andor communicated to others Companies collect your data to create digital dossiers description of you and your habits The Court System has decided that your privacy must be balanced against the needs of society and the publics right to know is superior to your right to privacy Threats to Privacy Electronic Surveillance a Monitor individuals b Conducted by employers governments other institutions c EX Security cameras webcams smartphones geotags Google street view satellite imaging Personal Info in databases a Record keepers credit agencies employers schools hospitals Privacy codes and Policies Opt out model customer has to request to opt out Opt in model customer must authorizes personal info collection International Aspects of Privacy Global nature complicates data privacy Apr 50 countries have data protection laws with inconsistent standards from country to country Key Definitions Accountability A tenet of ethics that refers to determining who is responsible for actions that were taken Code of Ethics A collection of principles intended to guide decision making by members of an organization Digital Dossier An electronic description of an individual and his or her habits Electronic Surveillance Tracking people39s activities with the aid of computers Ethics The principles of right and wrong that individuals use to make choices to guide their behaviors Information Privacy The right to determine when and to what extent personal information can be gathered by andor communicated to others Liability A legal concept that gives individuals the right to recover the damages done to them by other individuals organizations or systems Optin Model A model of informed consent in which a business is prohibited from collecting any personal information unless the customer specifically authorizes it Optout Model A model of informed consent that permits a company to collect personal information until the customer specifically requests that the data not be collected Privacy The right to be left alone and to be free of unreasonable personal intrusions privacy codessee privacy policies privacy policies also known as privacy codesAn organization39s guidelines for protecting the privacy of customers clients and employees Profiling The process of forming a digital dossier Responsibility A tenet of ethics in which you accept the consequences of your decisions and actlons Chapter 4 Information Security Introduction Security degree of protection Information Security protecting org info from unauthorized access Threat Any danger Exposure harm loss or damage possible Vulnerability possibility of harm Five Factors Increasing Vulnerability 1 Networked business environment 2 Smaller cheaper computers and storage devices 3 New and easier hacking tools 4 Organized crime involvement 5 Lack of management support Unintentional Threats Human errors carelessness with laptops and phones opening questionable emails careless intemet surfing poor password selection Social Engineering Tricking employees tailgating shoulder surfing Deliberate Threats Espionage or Trespass competitive intelligence and industrial espionage Information extortion attacker demands payment for info theft Sabotage or vandalism defacing website Theft of equipment or information smaller equipmenteasier to steal larger storagemore info lost Identity theft assumption of another identity to access financial info or frame for a crime Dumpster diving stealing from databases phishing Compromises to intellectual property trade secrets patents and copyrights stolen or lost Software attacks a Needing User action i Virus ii Worm iii Phishing attack iv Spear phishing b Without user action i Denial of Service bombarding with bogus requests ii Distributed DOS attack c Attacks by Programmers i Trojan Horse ii Back door or Trap door iii Logic bomb Alien software programs installed without user consent ADWARE SPYWARE SPAMWARE COOKIES Supervisory control and data acquisition SCADA attacks SCADA systems control chemical physical or transport processes Cyberterrorism and Cyberwarfare Attack Via the Internet to use a target s computer systems to cause physical realworld harm Risk Management Risk 0 The probability that a threat will impact an information resource Risk management 0 Identify control and minimize the impact of threats Risk analysis 0 Prioritize assets probability X value Compare cost of security breach vs Cost of control Risk mitigation 0 Organization takes concrete actions against risk Implement controls and develop recovery plan 0 Three strategies 0 Risk Acceptance Accept the potential risk continue operating with no controls and absorb any damages that occur Risk limitation Limit the risk by implementing controls that minimize the impact of threat 0 Risk transference Transfer the risk by using other means to compensate for the loss such as purchasing insurance Information Security Controls 3 controls a Physical Prevent unauthorized individuals from gaining access to a company s facilities walls and doors b Access Restrict unauthorized user access to computer resources through the need for authentication andor authorization c Communications Protect the movement of data across networks Firewalls Anti malware systems Whitelisting and Blacklisting Encryption Virtual Private Networking Secure Socket Layer Employee Monitoring Systems Business Continuity Planning Hot site computer facility with all services com links and physical plant operations Warm site Same as Hot but without user workstations or actual apps the company runs Cold Site no hardware simply location and utilities Organization should consider the following factors when selecting the business continuity plans a Organization needs 1 Costs 2 Leadtime to setup 3 Hot sites provide the most functionality can be setup quickly but cost the most 4 Cold sites provide the least functionality require more time to setup but cost the least 5 Cold sites take care of long leadtime issues such as renting space and installing utilities power water communication lines and other basic utilities Information Systems Auditing Examination of information systems including inputs outputs and processing to ensure that they work properly Types of Auditors Internal and External Executed by a Auditing around the computer b Auditing through the computer c Auditing with the computer Access controls Controls that restrict unauthorized individuals from using information resources and are concerned with user identification Adware Alien software designed to help popup advertisements appear on your screen Alien software Clandestine software that is installed on your computer through duplicitous methods antimalware systems antivirus softwareSoftware packages that attempt to identify and eliminate viruses worms and other malicious software Audit An examination of information systems their inputs outputs and processing Authentication A process that determines the identity of the person requiring access Authorization A process that determines which actions rights or privileges the person has based on verified identity Back door Typically a password known only to the attacker that allows the attacker to access the system without having to go through any security procedures Biometrics The science and technology of authentication ie establishing the identity of an individual by measuring the subject39s physiologic or behavioral characteristics Blacklisting A process in which a company identifies certain types of software that are not allowed to run in the company environment Bot A computer that has been compromised by and under the control of a hacker Botnet A network of computers that have been compromised by and under control of a hacker who is called the botmaster Certificate authority A third party that acts as a trusted intermediary between computers and companies by issuing digital certificates and verifying the worth and integrity of the certificates Cold site A backup location that provides only rudimentary services and facilities communications controls also network controls Controls that deal with the movement of data across networks Controls Defense mechanisms also called countermeasures Cookie Small amounts of information that Web sites store on your computer temporarily or more or less permanently Copyright A grant that provides the creator of intellectual property with ownership of it for a specified period of time currently the life of the creator plus 70 years Cybercrime Illegal activities executed on the Internet Cyberterrorism Can be defined as a premeditated politically motivated attack against information computer systems computer programs and data that results in violence against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents Cyberwarfare War in which a country39s information systems could be paralyzed from a massive attack by destructive software Demilitarized zone DMZ A separate organizational local area network that is located between an organization39s internal network and an external network usually the Internet Denialofservice attack A cyber attack in which an attacker sends a ood of data packets to the target computer with the aim of overloading its resources Digital certificate An electronic document attached to a file certifying that this file is from the organization it claims to be from and has not been modified from its original format or content Distributed denialofservice DDoS attack A denialofservice attack that sends a ood of data packets from many compromised computers simultaneously Employee monitoring systems Systems that monitor employees39 computers email activities and Internet surfing activities Encryption The process of converting an original message into a form that cannot be read by anyone except the intended receiver Exposure The harm loss or damage that can result if a threat compromises an information resource Firewall A system either hardware software or a combination of both that prevents a specific type of information from moving between untrusted networks such as the Internet and private networks such as your company39s network Hot sites A fully configured computer facility with all information resources and services communications links and physical plant operations that duplicates your company39s computing resources and provides nearrealtime recovery of IT operations Identity theft Crime in which someone uses the personal information of others to create a false identity and then uses it for some fraud Information security Protecting an organization39s information and information systems from unauthorized access use disclosure disruption modification or destruction Intellectual property The intangible property created by individuals or corporations which is protected under trade secret patent and copyright laws Least privilege A principle that users be granted the privilege for some activity only if there is a justifiable need to grant this authorization Logic bombs Segments of computer code embedded within an organization39s existing computer programs Malware Malicious software such as viruses and worms Network controls see communications controls Password A private combination of characters that only the user should know Patent A document that grants the holder exclusive rights on an invention or process for a specified period of time currently 20 years Phishing attack An attack that uses deception to fraudulently acquire sensitive personal information by masquerading as an officiallooking email Physical controls Controls that restrict unauthorized individuals from gaining access to a company39s computer facilities Piracy Copying a software program other than freeware demo software etc without making payment to the owner Privacy The right to be left alone and to be free of unreasonable personal intrusion Privilege A collection of related computer system operations that can be performed by users of the system Publickey encryptionalso called asymmetric encryption A type of encryption that uses two different keys a public key and a private key Risk The likelihood that a threat will occur Risk acceptance A strategy in which the organization accepts the potential risk continues to operate with no controls and absorbs any damages that occur Risk analysis The process by which an organization assesses the value of each asset being protected estimates the probability that each asset might be compromised and compares the probable costs of each being compromised with the costs of protecting it Risk limitation A strategy in which the organization limits its risk by implementing controls that minimize the impact of a threat Risk management A process that identifies controls and minimizes the impact of threats in an effort to reduce risk to manageable levels Risk mitigation A process whereby the organization takes concrete actions against risks such as implementing controls and developing a disaster recovery plan Risk transference A process in which the organization transfers the risk by using other means to compensate for a loss such as by purchasing insurance Secure socket layer SSLalso known as transport layer security An encryption standard used for secure transactions such as credit card purchases and online banking Security The degree of protection against criminal activity danger damage andor loss Social engineering Getting around security systems by tricking computer users inside a company into revealing sensitive information or gaining unauthorized access privileges Spam Unsolicited email Spamware Alien software that uses your computer as a launch platform for spammers Spyware Alien software that can record your keystrokes andor capture your passwords Threat Any danger to which an information resource may be exposed Trade secret Intellectual work such as a business plan that is a company secret and is not based on public information Transport layer security TLS see secure socket layer trap doorssee back door Trojan horse A software program containing a hidden function that presents a security risk Tunneling A process that encrypts each data packet to be sent and places each encrypted packet inside another packet Virtual private network VPN A private network that uses a public network usually the Internet to securely connect users by using encryption Viruses Malicious software that can attach itself to or infect other computer programs without the owner of the program being aware of the infection Vulnerability The possibility that an information resource will be harmed by a threat Warm site A site that provides many of the same serVices and options of the hot site but does not include the company39s applications Whitelisting A process in which a company identifies acceptable software and permits it to run and either prevents anything else from running or lets new software run in a quarantined enVironment until the company can verify its validity Worms Destructive programs that replicate themselves without requiring another program to provide a safe enVironment for replication Zombie computer A computer that has been compromised by and under the control of a hacker Chapter 5 Data and Knowledge Management Managing Data High Quality data accurate complete timely consistent accessible relevant concise Difficulties of Managing Data Increasing exponentially Come from many sources internal personal external Security quality and integrity are critical Degrades over time subject to data rot Federal regulations Data Governance Approach to managing info involves people process and technology Master Data core data span all enterprises info system Master Data Management strategy spans all business processes and apps allows companies to store maintain exchange and synchronize a consistent accurate and timely single version of the trut for the company s core master data The Database Approach Data Redundacy same data are stored in many places Data Isolation Apps cannot access data associated with other specialties Data Inconsistency Various copies of the data do not agree Data Security Keeping data safe Data Integrity Meet org restraints Data Independence Apps and data are independent of one another Designing the Database Data model represents entities and their relationships Entityrelationship ER modeling a Entity person place thing event about which info is maintained b Attribute characteristic or quality of an entity can be a primary key secondary key or foreign key c Relationship Various types onetoone onetomany manytomany with minimum or maximum cardinality Database Management Systems Database management system DBMS set of programs provide tools to user Relational database most popular two dimensional widely used Query Languages Query Language used to request info Structure QL most popular that allows users to perform complicated searches by using simple statements and key words Data Dictionary Defines format necessary to enter data and creates standard definitions while providing org data resource inventory Data Warehouses and Data Marts Data Warehouse repository of historical data organized by subject to support decision makers Data Mart low cost scaled down version of a data warehouse designed for the end user needs in a strategic business unit or department Data Warehouse Organized by business Dimension Use OnLine Analytical Processing Integrated Time Variant Nonvolatile Multidimensional Structure Source systems a Provide data to the warehouse or mart Data integration ETL Process a Utilize IT to Extract data from source systems Transform it and Load it into a warehouse or mart Storing the data a Different architectures are available Metadata data about the data a Needed by both IT professionals and end users Data quality a The quality of the data in the warehouse must meet users needs Governance a To ensure that the systems meet organizational needs Users a Include information producers create information for others and information consumers Knowledge Management Knowledge is information in action Contextual relevant and useful 0 Also called intellectual capital or intellectual assets Explicit knowledge Objective rational technical knowledge that has been documented and can be distributed transformed into a process or a strategy 0 Examples policies procedural guides reports products strategies goals core competencies Tacit knowledge Cumulative store of subjective or experiential learning 0 Highly personal imprecise and costly to transfer 0 Examples experiences insights expertise knowhow trade secrets understanding skill sets learning and organizational culture Knowledge Management Systems Knowledge management KM A process that helps organizations manipulate important knowledge that is part of the organization s memory usually in an unstructured format Knowledge management systems 0 The use of information technologies to systematize enhance and expedite intra and interfirm knowledge management Best practices are the most effective and efficient ways of doing things Big Data Big Data is defined as large data sets Volume that exhibit Variety Include structured unstructured and semistructured data are generated at high Velocity with an uncertain pattern and do not fit neatly into traditional structured relational databases leverages NoSQL databases Hadoop Big Data is about predictions Predictions come from applying mathematics to huge quantities of data to infer probabilities Attribute Each characteristic or quality describing a particular entity best practices The most effective and efficient ways to do things Big Data Diverse highvolume highvelocity information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced decision making insight discovery and process optimization Bit A binary digit that is a 0 or a 1 Byte A group of eight bits that represents a single character clickstream data Data collected about user behavior and browsing patterns by monitoring users39 activities when they visit a Web site Database A group of logically related files that stores data and the associations among them database management system DBMS The software program or group of programs that provides access to a database data dictionary Collection of definitions of data elements data characteristics that use the data elements and the individuals business functions applications and reports that use this data element data file A collection of logically related records see table data governance An approach to managing information across an entire organization data mart A lowcost scaleddown version of a data warehouse that is designed for the end user needs in a strategic business unit SBU or a department data model Definition of the way data in a DBMS are conceptually structured data warehouseA repository of historical data that are organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization Entity A person place thing or event about which information is maintained in a record entity classes Groupings of entities of a given type entityrelationship ER diagramDocument that shows data entities and attributes and relationships among them entityrelationship ER modelingThe process of designing a database by organizing data entities to be used and identifying the relationships among them explicit knowledge The more objective rational and technical types of knowledge Field A grouping of logically related characters into a word a small group of words or a complete number File A grouping of logically related records Identifiers Attributes that are unique to an entity instance 0 Instance A particular entity within an entity class 0 intellectual capital or intellectual assets Other terms for knowledge 0 knowledge management KM A process that helps organizations identify select organize disseminate transfer and apply information and expertise that are part of the organization39s memory and that typically reside within the organization in an unstructured manner 0 knowledge management systems KMSS Information technologies used to systematize enhance and expedite intra and interfirm knowledge management 0 master data A set of core data such as customer product employee vendor geographic location and so on that spans an enterprise39s information systems 0 master data management A process that provides companies with the ability to store maintain exchange and synchronize a consistent accurate and timely single version of the trut for the company39s core master data 0 multidimensional structure Storage of data in more than two dimensions a common representation is the data cube 0 Normalization A method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form for minimum redundancy maximum data integrity and best processing performance 0 NoSQL databases Databases that can manipulate structured as well as unstructured data and inconsistent or missing data are useful when working with Big Data 0 online transaction processing OLTP Processing of business transactions online as soon as they occur 0 primary keyThe identifier field or attribute that uniquely identifies a record 0 query by example QBE Database language that enables the user to fill out a grid form to construct a sample or description of the data wanted 0 Record A grouping of logically related fields describes an entity 0 relational database model Data model based on the simple concept of tables in order to capitalize on characteristics of rows and columns of data 0 secondary key An identifier field or attribute that has some identifying information but typically does not identify the file with complete accuracy 0 structured query language SQL Popular relational database language that enables users to perform complicated searches with relatively simple instructions 0 TableA grouping of logically related records see data file 0 tacit knowledge The cumulative store of subjective or experiential learning which is highly personal and hard to formalize Chapter 9 Social Computing 1 Describe six Web 20 tools and two major types of Web 20 sites AJAX is a Web development technique that enables portions of Web pages to reload with fresh data instead of requiring the entire Web page to reload A tag is a keyword or term that describes a piece of information e g a blog a picture an article or a video clip Really Simple Syndication allows you to receive the information you want customized information when you want it without having to surf thousands of Web sites A weblog blog for short is a personal Web site open to the public in which the site creator expresses his or her feelings or opinions with a series of chronological entries Microblogging is a form of blogging that allows users to write short messages or capture an image or embedded video and publish them A wiki is a Web site on which anyone can post material and make changes to already posted material Wikis foster easy collaboration and they harness the collective intelligence of Internet users Social networking Web sites allow users to upload their content to the Web in the form of text e g blogs voice e g podcasts images and videos e g videocasts A mashup is a Web site that takes different content from a number of other Web sites and mixes them together to create a new kind of content 2 Describe the benefits and risks of social commerce to companies Social commerce refers to the delivery of electronic commerce activities and transactions through social computing Benefits of social commerce to customers include the following better and faster vendors39 response to complaints customers can assist other customers customers39 expectations can be met more fully and quickly customers can easily search link chat and buy while staying in the social network39s page Benefits of social commerce to vendors include the following can test new products and ideas quickly and inexpensively learn much about their customers identify problems quickly and alleviate anger learn from customers39 experiences with rapid feedback increase sales when customers discuss products positively on social networking site create better marketing campaigns and brand awareness use lowcost usergenerated content for example in marketing campaigns get free advertising through viral marketing identify in uential brand advocates and reward them Risks of social computing include information security concerns invasion of privacy violation of intellectual property and copyright employees39 reluctance to participate data leakage of personal information or corporate strategic information poor or biased quality of users39 generated content cyberbullyingcyberstalking and employee harassment 3 Identify the methods used for shopping socially Social shopping is a method of electronic commerce that takes all of the key aspects of social networks friends groups voting comments discussions reviews etc and focuses them on shopping Methods for shopping socially include what other shoppers say group shopping shopping communities and clubs social marketplaces and direct sales and peertopeer shopping 4 Discuss innovative ways to use social networking sites for advertising and market research Social advertising represents advertising formats that employ the social context of the user viewing the ad Innovative ways to advertise in social media include the following create a company Facebook page tweet business success stories to your customers integrate ads into YouTube videos add a Facebook Like button with its sponsored story to your product use sponsored stories Using Facebook for market research get feedback from your Facebook fans and their friends if possible on advertising campaigns market research etc testmarket your messages use Facebook for survey invitations Using Twitter for market research use Twitter Search use Twellow look at the chart on TweetStats Using LinkedIn for market research post a question e g solicit advice regarding the topic or issue you are interested in 5 Describe how social computing improves customer service Customers are now incredibly empowered Companies are closely monitoring social computing not only because they are mindful of the negative comments posted by social network members but also because they see an opportunity to involve customers proactively to reduce problems by improved customer service Empowered customers know how to use the wisdom and power of crowds and communities to their benefit These customers choose how they interact with companies and brands and they have elevated expectations These customers are participatory and have active involvement with businesses not just as purchasers but also as advocates and in uencers As a result businesses must respond to customers quickly and accurately Fortunately social computing provides many opportunities for businesses to do just that thereby giving businesses the opportunity to turn disgruntled customers into champions for the firm 6 Discuss different ways in which human resource managers make use of social computing Recruiting Both recruiters and job seekers are moving to online social networks as new recruiting platforms Enterprise recruiters are scanning online social networks blogs and other social resources to identify and find information about potential employees If job seekers are online and active there is a good chance that they will be seen by recruiters In addition on social networks there are many passive job seekers people who are employed but would take a better job if it appeared So it is important that both active and passive job seekers maintain profiles online that truly re ect them Training Several companies use virtual worlds for training purposes For example Cisco uses its virtual campus in Second Life for product training and executive briefings IBM runs management and customer interaction training sessions in Second Life as well 0 AJAXA Web development technique that allows portions of Web pages to reload with fresh data rather than requiring the entire Web page to reload 0 blog weblog A personal Web site open to the public in which the site creator expresses his or her feelings or opinions with a series of chronological entries 0 Blogosphere The term for the millions of blogs on the Web 0 collaborative consumption Peertopeer sharing or renting 0 Mashup Web site that takes different content from a number of other Web sites and mixes them together to create a new kind of content 0 Microblogging A form of blogging that allows users to write short messages or capture an image or embedded video and publish them Really Simple 0 Syndication A technology that allows users to receive the information they want when they want it without having to surf thousands of Web sites 0 social advertising Advertising formats that make use of the social context of the user viewing the ad 0 social capital The number of connections a person has within and between social networks 0 social commerce The delivery of electronic commerce activities and transactions through social computing 0 social computing A type of information technology that combines social behavior and information systems to create value 0 social graph A map of all relevant links or connections for one member of a social network 0 social intelligence The monitoring collection and analysis of socially generated data and the resultant strategic decisions social marketplaces These act as online intermediaries that harness the power of social networks for introducing buying and selling products and services 0 social network A social structure composed of individuals groups or organizations linked by values visions ideas financial exchange friendship kinship con ict or trade 0 social networking Activities performed using social software tools e g blogging or social networking features e g media sharing 0 social shopping A method of electronic commerce that takes all of the key aspects of social networks friends groups voting comments discussions reviews etc and focuses them on shopping 0 Tag A keyword or term that describes a piece of information 0 Tweet Messages and updates posted by users on Twitter 0 Twitter A free micro blogging service that allows its users to send messages and read other users39 messages and updates Web 20 A loose collection of information technologies and applications plus the Web sites that use them 0 Web 20 media Any Web site that provides user generated media content and promotes tagging rating commenting and other interactions among users and their media contributions 0 weblog blog A personal Web site open to the public in which the site creator expresses his or her feelings or opinions with a series of chronological entries 0 Wiki A Web site on which anyone can post material and make changes to other material Chapter 12 Business Analytics 1 Identify the phases in the decisionmaking process and use a decisionsupport framework to demonstrate how technology supports managerial decision making When making a decision either organizational or personal the decision maker goes through a three step process intelligence design and choice When the choice is made the decision is implemented Several information technologies have been successfully used to directly support managers Collectively they are referred to as business intelligence information systems Figure 122 provides a matrix that shows how technology supports the various types of decisions that managers must make 2 Describe and provide examples of the three different ways in which organizations use business intelligence BI There are three major ways that organizations use B1 0 The development of one or a few related BI applications This BI target often is a point solution for a departmental need such as campaign management in marketing A data mart usually is created to store necessary data 0 The development of infrastructure to support enterprisewide BI This target supports current and future BI needs A critical component is an enterprise data warehouse 0 Support for organizational transformation With this target BI is used to fundamentally change how a company competes in the marketplace BI supports a new business model and enables the business strategy 3 Specify the BI applications available to users for data analysis and provide examples of how each one might be used to solve a business problem at your university Users have a variety of B1 applications available to help them analyze data These applications include multidimensional analysis data mining and decision support systems Multidimensional data analysis also called online analytical processing OLAP involves slicing and dicing data stored in a dimensional format drilling down to greater data detail and aggregating data Data mining refers to the process of searching for valuable business information in a large database data warehouse or data mart Decision support systems DSS combine models and data in an attempt to analyze semi structured and some unstructured problems with extensive user involvement We leave it to you to provide examples of using each application at your university 4 Describe three BI applications that present the results of data analyses to users and offer examples of how businesses and government agencies can use each of these technologies A dashboard provides easy access to timely information and direct access to management reports A geographic information system GIS is a computerbased system for capturing integrating manipulating and displaying data using digitized maps Reality mining analyzes information extracted from the usage patterns of mobile phones and other wireless devices Examples of how these technologies might be used by businesses and government agencies we leave to you 5 Describe corporate performance management and provide an example of how your university could use CPM Corporate performance management CPM is involved with monitoring and managing an organization39s performance according to key performance indicators KPIs such as revenue return on investment ROI overhead and operational costs We leave it to you to supply an example of how your university might use CPM 0 business intelligence BI A broad category of applications technologies and processes for gathering storing accessing and analyzing data to help business users make better decisions 0 corporate performance management CPM The area of business intelligence involved with monitoring and managing an organization39s performance according to key performance indicators KPIs such as revenue return on investment ROI overhead and operational costs 0 Dashboard A B1 application that provides rapid access to timely information and direct access to management reports 0 data mining The process of searching for valuable business information in a large database data warehouse or data mart 0 Decision A choice that individuals and groups make among two or more alternatives 0 decision support systems DSSS Business intelligence systems that combine models and data in an attempt to solve semistructured and some unstructured problems with extensive user involvement 0 geographic information system GIS A computerbased system for capturing integrating manipulating and displaying data using digitized maps 0 Management A process by which organizational goals are achieved through the use of resources 0 modelin decision making A simplified representation or abstraction of reality 0 multidimensional data analysissee online analytical processing OLAP online analytical processing OLAP or multidimensional data analysis A set of capabilities for slicing and dicing data using dimensions and measures associated with the data 0 Productivity The ratio between the inputs to a process and the outputs from that process 0 reality mining Allows analysts to extract information from the usage patterns of mobile phones and other wireless devices
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