01-Biomolecules vocab and LOs
01-Biomolecules vocab and LOs BIOL110
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Wilkinson on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL110 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Bos in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I in Science at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/03/15
Section 3 Cell structure and function Reading Chapter 4 Watch and learn gt Cell size amp compartmentalization gt httpvoutube2rihCCBzoMc gt Cellularorganelles gt httpvoutubeacszlSMr8U Basic learning objectives After completing the readings and practice exercises students should be able to 0 Explain the three main parts of cell theory 1 Cells are the fundamental units of life 2 All living things are made of cells 3 All cells come from preexisting cells 0 Describe the factors that limit cell size Surface areavolume ratio lower ratio means it ll be harder for the cell to be efficient enough to survive Compare and contrast the organization function and size of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic Organization occur singly in chains in clusters no membranebound organelles cytoplasm consists of cytosol and ribosomes Function simple Size small generally 150 the volume of eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic Organization several membranebound organelles compartmentalization Function complex Size larger than prokaryotic cells 0 Discuss the role of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells Location of DNA and DNA replication Where DNA is transcribed to RNA 3 Contains nucleolus where ribosomes begin to assemble from RNA and proteins 0 Describe the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis Factories for protein synthesis translation of mRNA into a polypeptide chain 0 Identify the different parts of the endomembrane system Nuclear envelope Golgi Lysosomes ER 0 Compare the functions of internal membranes and compartments in Eukaryotic cells know organelles and what they all do Summarize the process of lysosome functions Contains hydrolases that break macromolecules down into their monomers N L PWNT 0 Describe the structure and function of mitochondria and chloroplasts Mitochondria Structure 2 membranes outer one with large pores and inner one cristae with folds inner fluidfilled region matrix Function conversion of chemical energy to a useful form ATP Chloroplasts Structure 2 outer membranes inner membranes stacks grana of flat thyakoids with fluid stroma around them Function thylakoids convert light energy to chemical energy stroma contains ribosomes and DNA site of carbohydrate synthesis 0 Compare the structure and function of different fibers in the cytoskeleton Microfilaments bundles of actin monomers dynamic instability cell mobility determinesstabilizes cell shape Intermediate filaments tough ropelike protein assemblages more permanent no dynamic instability anchor cell structures resist tension Microtubules thickest component long hollow made from tubulin dimers show dynamic instability internal skeleton framework for motor proteins to move structures along in cells Summarize the composition and functions of the extracellular matrix Composition made of prominent fibrous macromolecules and a gellike medium that they re embedded in Functions support for the cell limits volume barrier against infection controls direction of expansion Advanced learning objectives After the Cell Structure and Function lectures students should be able to Predict the relationships between surface area volume and the metabolic needs of a cell Surface area increases with volume but not as quickly Volume determines the amount of metabolic activity the cell can carry out Surface area determines the amount of substances that can enterexit As the cell gets larger metabolic needs increase Classify cells as prokaryotic or eukaryotic based on cell structure 0 Follow and troubleshoot the sequence of events that occur during protein synthesis and export Order Synthesized on ribosomes transported to rough ER transported to Golgi transported to cell membrane 0 Explain the probable origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts Possibly were once prokaryotes that were phagocytized by another cell and grew into a symbiotic relationship Predict relative changes in organelle composition based on cell function 0 Describe how the cytoskeleton participates in intracellular transport Microfilaments provide a track for motor proteins to transport substances across the cell Predict how disruptions to organelles might affect cellular functions Know functions of organelles
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