New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 1 notes

by: Jennifer Parent

Exam 1 notes 1201

Jennifer Parent
General Biology

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here are all the notes for the first test of BIOL 1201 with Siebenaller.
General Biology
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in General Biology

Popular in Department

This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Parent on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1201 at Louisiana State University taught by Siebenaller in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views.


Reviews for Exam 1 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/03/15
EXAM 1 2415 1209 AM science use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena as well as the knowledge generated through this process key points about the nature of science science originates in questions about the natural world science uses observations and evidence to construct explanations about phenomena and testable hypotheses o the more observations and other kinds of evidence that support a hypothesis the stronger the hypothesis scientists employ a variety of techniques to investigate the natural world make their explanations public through presentations and publications 0 critique the explanations proposed by other scientists in discussion section of publications reviewing manuscripts and grant proposals our typical experience body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius 1 atmospheric of pressure 0 upper temperature for life is 132 degrees Celsius range of conditions for life cellbody temperatures range from 2 degrees Celsius to 132 degrees Celsius range of pressures 1 atmosphere to 1100 atmospheres 0 most common habitat for life deep sea deepest part is the Marina Trench conditions at the average depth of the ocean is 2 4 degrees Celsius 380 atm of pressure and no sunlight a extremely diverse range of conditions organisms confront a variety of problems due to different types of environments Antarctic fishes 0 Live and have body temps at 2 degrees C below freezing temperature of most vertebrates body fluids 0 Ectotherm animal that is dependent upon external sources of heat from environment Fish amphibians Penguins 0 Keep warm at similar temperatures around 40 degrees C o Endotherm maintain a body temperature with their own metabolic heat Birds mammals Diving seals 0 Hold their breath for as long as 90 minutes 0 Dive down to 1500 m for as long as 90 minutes Thick layer of blubber and fur Deep sea fishes 0 Found down to depths of 8000 meters High pressure cold temperature low food availability because of lack of sunlight Piezophiles o Bacteria piezophiles barophiles are pressure loving Thrive at pressure that kill surface bacteria Thermophiles o Bacteria that exist at temperatures up to 132 degrees C grow at around 122 degrees C o Hydrothermal vents hot water comes up through sea floor Looks like smoke because the minerals precipitate Sharks 0 Live with 12 molar urea in their tissues Urea is a potent denaturant of proteins Halophiles o Bacteria that live in osmotic equilibrium with 3 molar salt 0 Live in high salt concentrations Tuna o Raise the temp of their muscles above ambient or normal temp as much as 15 degrees C o Are endotherms in contrast to ectothermic fish Other endotherms great white shark swordfish Can go through different sea levels without too much of a problem Gutless tubeworms o No digestive tract 0 Thrive at deep sea hydrothermal vents Midwater fish and invertebrates o Organisms living in the water column achieve neutral buoyancy despite the high density of biological materials Reduce amount of muscle and bone in body to achieve neutral buoyancy Chemistry background Water 2415 1209 AM Elements pure substances that cannot be broken down in 2 or more simpler substances 92 naturally occurring 118 known elements atom smallest unit into which an element can be divided nucleus 0 proton 1 1 Dalton mass 0 neutron 0 charge 1 Dalton mass electron 1 charge essentially without mass atomic number number of protons in the nucleus atomic mass number mass of protons and neutrons in the nucleus electrical charge number of electrons number of protons in an ion the number of electrons is not equal to the number of protons compound substance which can be broken down into two or more elements ex water H20 salt NaCl chemical bonds forces holding atoms together in molecules or compounds what determines the number and type of chemical bonds 0 Numbervaence Valence number of electrons needed to fill the outermost shell of an atom a Valence electrons the electrons contained in the outermost electron shell of an atom First shell 2 electrons Second and third shell 8 electrons 0 Type electronegativity Electronegativity measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons Measure of the attraction an atom has for an electron Bonds are characterized as either being strong or weak depending on the energy required to makebreak the bond 0 Strong bond example covalent bonds involve sharing of electrons 0 Weak example non covalent bonds Ionic interactions attraction of opposite charges n One atom donates an electron to another Hydrogen bond between partially charged atoms Moles and molar concentrations 1 Mole mass of a substance equal to its gram molecular weight 1 molar solution a solution containing 1 mole of a substance per 1 liter of solution ionic bonds transfer of electrons from one atom to another weak bonds covalent bonds sharing of electrons to complete valence shell strong bond polar bonds unequal sharing of electrons partial and partial regions no net charge hydrogen bond between partial positive and partial negative charges weak non covalent bonds WATER 70 to 90 of weight of most life forms is water sets the lower temp limit for life 0 sets upper temp limit Probably not water plays an important role in structures and properties of biological molecules 0 water is a biological molecule unusual properties of water result from hydrogen bonding water behaves as a much larger molecule bonds covalent HO 110 kcal per mole angle 1045 degrees weak hydrogen bond 45 kcalmol o H bonding effectively makes water a larger molecule 0 In ice a water molecule interacts with exactly 4 other water molecules 0 In liquid water on average 36 or fewer other molecules can be made and broken very quickly Small molecules a comparison of properties Water compared to ammonia or ethanol 0 Water has a higher boiling point and melting point than both Unusual properties of water High heat capacity 0 Amount of heat to raise temp of 1g of water by 1 degrees C o 1 calorie per g of water High heat of vaporization 0 Amount of heat to vaporize 1g of water 0 540 calories per g at 100 degrees C to break hydrogen bonds evaporative coolingcan cool body by sweating because the water removes heat to vaporize High heat of fusion heat of fusionheat that must be removed from 0 degrees of water to form ice 0 Amount of heat removed to freeze 1 g of water 0 80 calories per gram 0 super cooling under cooling cooling of liquid below its freezing point without formation of ice crystals referred to as a metastable state A not most stable state and will undergo a spontaneous transition on addition of the stable state m below a certain temp molecular aggregates become larger n embryo crystal seeds the solution when a critical radius is reached ice forms spontaneously a pure water in absence of heterogeneous nucleators can super cool to 40 degrees I at that temp with homogeneous nucleators nucleation occurs ice nucleators proteins polysaccharides some organisms actually use this to prevent super cooling and rapid freezing causes freezing at a higher temperature 0 ex freeze tolerant plants Lobelia telekii fluid filled inflorescence freeze tolerant organisms seed ice formation to control the rate of ice formation Most dense at 4 degrees C 0 Because of the hydrogen bonding structure ice is lighter than water this is why ice floats Lakes do not freeze from the bottom up very cold water at bottom of lake and ice on the surface a Makes it favorable for life to exist High dielectric 0 Means that it s a good solvent hydrogen oxygen bond in water is non polar so water molecules have partial neg and pos particles Biological molecule and intimately involved with biological molecules Capillary action and surface tension 0 Hydrogen molecules on surface easily bond together due to hydrogen bonding o Capillary action transport of water in plants Ionization o Dissociation into acid hydronium ion and a base hydroxyl ion PH REVIEW acids bases and salts o acids produce H ions bases produce hydroxide ions salts produce neither log 1H og H 0 actually activity of H rather than concentration 0 increasing proton concentration decreasing pH lower pH have higher concentrations pH scale 00 pH 0 log base 10 10 fold different between pH 3 and 4 in the concentration of H difference between pH 3 and pH 5 100 fold difference 0 pH 7 neutral below 7 acidic above 7 basic 0 pOH log lOH og OH increasing concentration means decreasing pH 0 pH pOH 14 neutrality pHpOH I both have to be 7 A buffers substances that maintain a constant pH solubility o solute what gets dissolved o solvent dissolver 0 what determines the solubility of a molecule Similarity of the solute and solvent I Like solvents dissolves like solutes n Like and similar in terms of polarity Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents Non polar solutes dissolve in non polar solvents n Hydrophilic substances interact with water molecules BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES large molecules constructed from smaller molecules Except for water all are built on carbon skeleton 0 Water polar groups interact well with water glucose is soluble in water 0 Carbohydrates General formula CH20n n Multiply n times each Monomer of carbs simple sugar or monosaccharaides n Exist as linear and ring structures a Equilibrium but greater shift towards ring structure Energy roles I Metabolic fuel Glucose and sucrose n Storage form Starch plants Glycogen animals n Structural roles Cellulose in plants woody parts forms cell walls 0 Some animals can digest this because of microbes cows termites Chitin animals 0 Forms exoskeleton of insects and some seafood 0 Lipids Water insoluble organic biomolecules n Lipids are not soluble in water because they are made up of non polar groups Do not dissolve well in water a Fatty acids glycerol backbone Triglycerides Triacylglycerol Synthesized through dehydration synthesis n Fattypes Saturated saturated with H no double bonds between adjacent carbons 0 Bad because they raise LDL low density lipid protein levels bad for you 0 Saturated fats are solids at higher temps than unsaturated fats Unsaturated double bonds lower melting points why more of them are liquid 0 Acyl chains of unsaturated fats are kinky and therefore require a lower temp to become solid 0 Compared to tropical fish arctic fish oils have more unsaturated fatty acids Structural components of cell membranes Storage and transport forms of fuel Protective surface coating waxy coating on leaves Cell component in cell recognition Hormone steroids and sex hormones 0 Proteins 0 Nucleic acids 0 Functional groups be familiar with table in textbook and figures Hydroxyl alcohols Carbonyl aldehydes terminal carbon and ketones Carboxyl acid group Amino amines Sulfhydryl thiols Phosphate organic phosphates negatively charged phosphate molecules Methyl CH3 non polar Carbon skeleton backbone o Covalently linked carbon molecules 0 Different variations lengths double bonds branching presence of rings Polymers consist of many units constructed from monomers o Arefers back to bio molecules being large molecules made from smaller ones 0 synthesis of polymers covalent bond formation between monomer units condensation dehydration synthesis a removal of a water molecule 0 breakdown of polymers breaking covalent linkage between monomer units hydrolysis n addition of water molecule to break the covalent bond anage 0 why make large biological molecules from simple ones Flexible system a Array of complex molecules from few simple ones Fewer enzymes to make biological molecules than if starting from scratch 0 Polymers of fatty acids Phospholipids a When put in water self organize Hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails to form phospholipid bilayer Comparison of lipids and carbs o Twice as much energy from fat 0 Fat Stored without water disadvantage of lipids not mobilized as quickly as carbohydrates are lipids can only be metabolized in the mitochondria in the presence of adequate oxygen 02 0 1g of glycogen is stored with 2 to 5g of water camel 0 up to 20 of body mass is fat when food is plentiful o subcutaneous fat would cause thermoregulatory problems hump of camel is filled with lipids bears o hibernate up to 100 days without eating energy is supplied mainly by lipids humans 0 normal weight have about a 40 day reserve of energy 0 moderately obese has up to a year s worth of energy stored nucleic acids composed of Sugar Base and phosphate group 0 nitrogenous heterocyclic bases 0 pentose sugar ring structure 5 carbon sugar with carbon at center 0 phosphoric acid 0 examples coenzymes NAD NADP FAD genetic material DNA and RNA ATP proteins table 515 O 0 excellent examples of polymers made of amino acids 20 naturally occurring amino acids are Lisomers proteins vary in the number and sequence of the different kinds of amino acids amino acid monomers of proteins structure question synthesis of a protein from amino acids involves removal of water from each covalent bond question higher degree of saturation depends on number of hydrogen more hydrogen higher degree of saturation central carbon atom amino group NH2 carboxyl group COOH hydrogen R group 20 different R groups a Different types Polar interact with water hydrophilic o Interact with the partial and charges of water Non polar avoid contact with water hydrophobic o No partial charges on R group Charged or Characteristics of individual amino acids determine 4 levels a 1 Primary structure peptide bond name of covalent bond between adjacent amino acids carboxyl n 2 Secondary structure alpha helix beta pleated sheet stabilized by hydrogen bonding H peptide backbone 0 Giving up peptide dehydration synthesis Hydrogen bonds don t involve R group non polar a tertiary structure 3D structure of protein R 0 weak bonds hydrogen bonds ionic interaction hydrophobic few covalent bonds non polar 0 strong bonds determined by sulfhydryl b dges determines particular shape of a protein O denature break bonds that are stabilizing 3D structure change it to unfolded stage a quaternary weak bonds hemoglobin has 4 subunits o 2 alpha and 2 beta beta chain 146 amino acids 6 is glutamate amino acid that has negative charge with hydrophilic valine n sickle cell disease affects primary teriary prion proteins everybody has normal prion proteins to help protect us against copper poisoning prions proteinaceous infectious particles disease causing agent different from normal one because 2nd structure is different a not a virus or bacteria ex mad cow disease transmissible spongiform encephalopathies Kuru protein found in nervous system laughing disease 0 spongiform what brain looks like 0 not currently a threat scrapie in sheep 0 first recognized 250 years ago 0 only new Zealand and Australia are free of scrapie 0 first US case in 1947 CWD chronic wasting disease muledeer and elk BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy mad cow disease 0 Only 4 cases reported in US Human spongiform enc 0 Genetic basis 0 Spread through medical procedures Tissues transplants Instruments 0 CJD typically shows up in elderly form of dementia Spread from cattle first recognized in 1920 vCJD in younger people who got it from eating contaminated meat I first described in 1996 unusual diseases 0 not caused by Germs or organism with genetic material 0 slow onset of disease 0 disease causing agent is almost indestructible normal cellular form of prion protein 0 alpha helix present in all mammals may protect neurons from toxic copperions 0 disease form beta pleated sheet same amino acid sequence but different secondary structures 0 disease form converts normal cellular form to beta pleated sheet protein 0 secondary structure important in determine rolefunction of protein supercooling again problem for fish fish have an antifreeze agent 0 O antifreeze peptides as antifreeze molecules small proteins peptides that depress the freezing point of solutions non colligative freezing point depression colligatory property depends on number of molecules in solution and not on the nature of molecules colligative concentration equivalent to 1 M glucose is 1 M sucrose and 5 M of sucrose hysteresis proteins affect freezing point but not melting point a decrease the freezing point I does not change melting point a freeze at 2 but melt at 0 why 0 Antifreeze peptides H bond with ice Requires more energy to add a water molecule to curved surface of the ice crystal Temp must be lowered to add the molecule Decreased freezing point Cell structure 2415 1209 AM Problem with increasing size Relatively less surface area for a unit of volume Problem moving materials into and out of cell Problem controlling and coordinating metabolic processes Overview of cell structure Keeping cell distinct from environment plasma membrane Organizing and coordinating metabolic processes Three domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Two cateogories based on structural features Prokaryotes lack plasma membrane Archae and eubacteria before the nucleus no internal membrane bound organelles bacteria and bluegreen algae cell wall of carbs and peptides ribosomes differ from eukaryotes in size and antibiotic sensitivity no nucleus or not linear histonecomplexed chromosomes no internal membranes Eukaryotes animals plants fungi yeasts o Eukarya 0 true nucleus 0 have organelles bounded by membranes larger cell size need increased internal membranes a problem of intake of nutrients a problem of coordination and control of metabolism n more opportunities as a heterotroph cell components focus on endomembrane system figure 6153 chapter 6 including identifying whether an organelle occurs in prokaryotes or eukaryotes plants animals chapter review pg 122124 focus on concepts 6266 OOOO plasma membrane present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes semi fluid mosaic phospholipid bilayer that separates cells interior from its environment phospholipids and proteins semi permeable barrier between contents of cell and environment nucleus present in eukaryotes enclosed by nuclear envelope a double membrane with pores contains linear chromosomes contains the nucleolus region of nucleus where ribosomal subunits are assembled 0 involved in the cell s response to stress genetic material in eukaryotes linear strands of DNA complexed with proteins histones linear chromosomes genetic material in prokaryotes circular strands of DNA naked not complexed with histone proteins ribosomes present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes o prokaryotic ribosome is smaller 0 and they differ in antibiotic susceptibility two subunits made of rRNA and protein site of protein synthesis occur free in cytoplasm or in association with the rough endoplasmic reticulum ER ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM dynamic pathway 0 identifying components Endoplasmic reticulum ER Eukaryotes only Internal membrane system Mechanism of sorting material belonging in the cytoplasm from that which doesnT Lipids carbs and proteins are synthesized in association with ER Smooth ER function Lipid synthesis Detoxification of water insoluble compounds Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium store in muscle Rough ER Ribosomes on the cytosolic side Prominent in cells synthesizing products destined for transport to other cells pancreas for example Golgi Eukaryotes only Composed of numerous sets of membrane bound cisternae dis shaped containers Form a structure resembling a stack a plates or pancakes Components are transported from ER to golgi 0 Components modified and packaged for transport 0 traffic control for cell lysosome eukaryotes only vesicle containing digestive enzymes hydrolytic enzymes 0 why Isolate these enzymes from cell components in plants called lytic organelles disruption of the endomembrane pathway figure in moodle two questions on exam scientists observed 5 classes of mutants in yeast and found these defective functions defective function happens at the first defect for queonn o that s how they determined the order of organelles in the secretory pathway Mitochondria site of cellular respiration Eukaryotes only Two membranes outer and inner Generate ATP use oxygen Lipids metabolized here Not part of endomembrane system Inherited maternally in humans Contain circular naked DNA Ribosomes smallprokaryote like Chloroplasts Only in plants Site of photosynthesis 0 Uses energy from sunlight to fix carbon 0 By product oxygen Not part of endomembrane system Three membranes inner and outer membranes 0 Within inner membrane thylakoid membrane Stacks are called grana granumsinguar o Stroma inside inner membrane but outside thylakoid membrane Contains circular naked DNA Ribosomes small prokaryote like Mitochondria and chloroplasts Endosymbiont origin lynn margulis 0 These organelles originated from small prokaryote living inside larger cells 0 Larger cell and the endosymbiont both benefited 0 These organelles have characteristics indicating that they evolved from prokaryote endosymbionts Circular naked DNA Small prokaryote like ribosomes Double membrane system I Evolution does not proceed just by small mutations Method of nutrition Autotrophs 0 Plants Heterotrophs 0 Animals Plant cell wall Cellulose polymer of glucose Support and protection External to plasma membrane Central vacuoles In plants Membrane bound structure that keeps cells turgid Plants have three unique features not found in animals three C s Cell wall Central vacuole Chloroplasts Cytoskeleton Provides structure to the cytoplasm Initially cytoplasm ground substance was thought to be without structure 0 Improved techniques showed this to be wrong Flagella and cilia Organelles involved in movement Bacteria have flagella but are constructed differently than in eukaryotes o Sperm cells have flagella Same structural design in flagella and cilia 0 92 structure only in eukaryotes absent in higherflowery plants different than the flagella of bacteria flagella larger and fewer in number than cilia other elements involved in movement sliding filaments o examples actin and myosin are proteins in muscles 92 structure found in flagella and cilia molecular motors 0 proteins 0 use ATP as source of energy centriole o in animals not in higher plants 0 similar to base of a flagellum or cilium 0 involved in mitosis and meiosis


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.