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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Libby Schear on Wednesday February 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to INS101 at a university taught by Hanna Kassab in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 186 views.
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Date Created: 02/04/15
Classical Realism gt state A affecting state B units 0 states exist in an anarchic international system 0 base policies on an interpretation of national interest defined in terms of power 0 world is selfish 0 Levels of analysis 0 individual gt the personality perceptions choices and activities of decisions makers ex saddam and individual participants ex his sons provide the explanation o state gt explanation is derived from characteristics of the state gt type of government type of economic system interest groups and national interest 0 international system gt distribution of power international or regional organizations and their strengths and weaknesses states are sovereign actors within the international system 0 everything is subordinate to the state econ people etc 0 Power runs the state I do what it takes to max power I establish diplomacy between two states against one that they don39t like to create a balance of power gt peace gt creates globalization Hegemony gt there will be a power so great it will run the system and defeat all others Can cause powers to act against it 0 can39t have globalization without it Globalization Argument I world is less globalized than before WWI had a good system before and confidence in the markets I regionalization not globalization 0 asian countries with other asian countriesgt allies I the south is underdeveloped and less integrated into the economy not on equal grounds gt not globalization I increase in terrorism and nationalism since the cold war 0 nationalism depends on themselves and doesn39t integrate I Globalization is self serving knowledge that serves the power interest of someone else powerful states state is the main boss determines who trades and what markets are open 0 globalization is temporary because state is top and markets serve states and the states look at materials like the military 0 international court ecological order cultural like amnesty assumeorder of anarchy I anarchy is static and does not change more about human nature gt violence beast without laws etc power gt american revolution was about unifying for an outside enemy 0 how big the economy of a nation is and their technology with military power etc o Democracies attack each other John Herz gt security dilemma gt trust no one 0 another country can attack even if they said they wouldn t only way to have peace is a balance of power 0 off balance will trigger a war world nature is made up by argument 0 national interest gt defined in terms of powergt the material resources needed to physically harmcoerce other states Win Wars 0 Increase in power can cause a war or balance Thucydides o unitary actor gt once a decision to go to war is made the state acts with one voice rational actorsgt rational people by weighing options 0 securitygt state s need to protect itself from enemies both foreign and domestic I state is principal actor in war and politics Emphasize o unitary state in an international anarchic system 0 a threat of war that can be managed but not done with distinguishes them from liberals and radicals The chief constraint on better state behavior is that states exist in an anarchic international system 0 because the international system is anarchic then theres no higher power to put an end to the competition gt struggle is perpetual I best technique would be to manage power by balancing it o containment defensive realists gt states in the international system should pursue policies of restraint o militarily diplomatically or economically o no fear of war offensive realists gt war long run enhances reputation o bandwagoning gt weaker states join with stronger to defeat another state more power you have more you end up getting Realism in brief 0 key actors I states 0 view of individual I scared insecure power seeking 0 view of state I insecure selfish unitary power seeking as evidence of rationality 0 view of int system I anarchic gt perpetual threat of war more stable as distribution of power approaches unipolarity o belief on change I emphasis shifted to managing the frequency and intensity of war 0 major theorists I Thucydides St Augustine Machiavelli Hobbes Morgenthau Waltz rising powers matter because their growing material power disrupts the balance of power state leader needs to adapt to changing power power and reputation is everything 0 power can never be enough 0 if power is shifting and if conflict is to be avoided or limited its crucial that new powers are accommodated realists said liberal imperialism whole world being democratic would start unnecessary wars they are against that and democratic peace theory that democracies wont go to war serves only the strongest states and their need to extend hegemony NeoRealism structuralist gt Neo means progeny new and improved part state behavior is determined by the structure and anarchy survival and security happy with how the world works for the most part anarchy main focus of neo real 0 constrains decision making of states neo realists look at anarchy and realists look at the unit level of state A affecting state B 0 states go to war because no one is keeping them back system 0 ordering principles of anarchy o assume anarchy so assume states want to survive as an autonomous independent territory 0 distribution of units polarity with competitors I assume states are unitary structural realism gt all states behave the same take out culture man power material power you can touch GDP or military 0 offensive gt can39t have enough power gt war I can only pursue power at an optimized rate to a point before war I all states are bad 0 states want to survive and maintain their position in the system great middle weak 0 three levels of analysis 0 psychological mindset what kind of country dem communist etc and structure where are you and how powerful 0 general laws to explain events 0 simplify explanations of behavior in anticipation of being better able to explain and predict general trends I focus on structure of the international system c waltz THE FATHER OF NEO REALISM o we need theory in order to understand international politics 0 neorealism explains international politics 0 argued that the structure of a system is determined by its ordering principle the presence or absence of overachieving authority anarchic system anarchy leads to self help where states seek to maximize their security I bipolarity two rivals or multipolarity 0 states go to war because no one is keeping them back 0 the closer the distribution of power comes to the ideal unipolarity gt the greater the likelihood of peace 0 cooperation is hard under conditions of anarchy due to relative gains 0 states in an anarchic system must be on constant guard against cheating 0 states may cheat to get advantage on another especially in military agreements o a state s survival depends on having more power than other states gtpower is relative o ower 0 material power and search for status and prestige c not human nature realism but the anarchical system that fosters fear jealousy suspicion and insecurity o anarchy leads to self help where states seek to maximize their security 0 offensive 0 those who argue that states are power maximizers o defensive 0 states are security maximizers 0 relative gains are more important do better than the other state and take their shit for security think for about survival and security world politics needs to be supplemented with better accounts of unit level variable like how power is perceived and how leadership is exercised 0 want to one up everyone for a zerosum game no cooperation relative gains only Liberalism 0 human nature may be bad but we can learn to be good 0 need to learn and progress linearly war is an institution not natural but learned 0 hegemony gt Ability to do stuff that other states can39t o a state that s willing and able to finance an international system the way its run 0 states are important 0 but so are agencies markets and materials like missiles and military 0 globalization is linear progress 0 war could hurt the economy and a state s neighbor and therefore diminish absolute gains and hurt themselves gtso no war 0 individuals form groups and then states which cooperate and follow international norms that they agreed on o theory of both governance within states and good governance between states and peoples worldwide 0 seek to project values of order liberty justice and toleration into international relations 0 created gt during the intenNar period and believed war was an unnecessary way of settling problems between states 0 disagreements I causes of war I what kind of institutions are required to deliver liberal values in a decentralized multi cultural international system o activist conception gt advocate interventionist foreign policy and strong international institutions pragmatic conception gt places priority on toleration and non intervention liberal thought at end of the 20th century became grounded in social scientific theories of state behavior 0 cooperation by regimes and institutions neo o Globalization gt expansion of commerce state has no central role 0 for it to succeed everyone has to do good but I increases solidarity movements and ability to communicate I terrorist networksd rug traffickers I environmental deprivation o institutions gt functional benefits and more responsible behavior and more socialized o kantian gt progressive diffusion of liberal values as a result of liberal economic and increase in economic interdependence Neoliberal lnstitutionalism core interests of any country reg me o norms institutions and values that require a set of behaviors make more when you cooperate and make an absolute gain not relative states want to get certain gains even if thats through cooperation o systemic theory I assemblage of units united by some force of regulated action to create expected behavior and become habitual c not that man is good liberalism but material gains by cooperation o THERE ARE NO ETHICS HERE 0 regimes help them pursue their economic interests happy with how the world works for the most part 0 about how to institutionalize cooperation and communication between states 0 no hierarchy with economics and politics gt declining military 0 Institutions and regimes o mediator of states and promotes cooperation by solving issues with anarchy like CHEATING o prisoners dilemma I more rational to cooperate with someone than it is to cheat 0 need regimes to respond to new challenges that are transnational and not military based 0 ex whatever is good for the US then the US should strengthen developments that serve their interests to extend their life as a hegemon and cooperates with others 0 regimes are created by states so not product of state power and constrain behavior of other states 0 multilateralism I set of countries going ahead and solving a problem 0 ex USA with other countries 0 Assumptions 0 states are the key actor but there are other actors 0 states want to max gains even through cooperation I neorealists are only interested in relative gains 0 its more rational to cooperate with other states to make mo 0 cooperation must be facilitated by regimes and institutions if they provide max gains 0 regime theory works best if states want to solve similar issues a REGIME 0 sets of implicit and explicit norms rules decision making procedures that converge around which actors deal with an issue of international relations I created and consolidated by states and their interests big countries I examples 0 biggest most powerful countries that came together to solve the 2008 economic issues 0 copenha cmn meeting for environmental issues 0 expectations not to put up tariffs or pollute if in a regime 0 they define and create expectations to moderate everything regime watches and if anyone deviates from the behavior set then they are CHEATING BAD o accepts ANARCHY as a system that shapes behavior 0 neorealism says anarchy is there and they go to war or create diplomacy but no cooperation for declining powers 0 cooperation because of a decline in power is better to maximize gains to extend hegemony life 0 regimes create trust by moderating behavior and that leads to repeated interactions between states o cooperation becomes a systemic force repeated pattern 0 pattern of behavior repeated over time separate from state 0 with each interaction regime gets cheaper because of the gains with profit in the long run 0 cheating worsens reputation and then decrease in gains regimes just fade away 0 countries can cooperate and don39t need confrontation or war Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane 0 economy and trade was more important 0 interdependence is necessary 0 hegemonic stability theory HST 0 international system remains stable when a single nation is the hegemony if it falls then it diminishes in stability I ex British were declining and US was increasing in power but did not step up causing great depression and then WWII o liberal imperialism 0 whole world should be democratic eh not the best idea I woodrow wilson was a liberal 0 Democratic Peace Theory 0 Immanuel Kant I democracies wont go to war with other democracies but realists disagree because they might disagree over other issues disregarding the democracy Marxism M and Neo Marxism NM 0 NM 0 systems of exploitation I drives a state to do what it does 0 ex WWI started because all the countries slowed in growth there was pressure expanded markets rade started and then war 0 class are the actors gt production of core 0 materials and the idea people are being exploited so class struggles o ruling class exploits the people and conducts imperialism gt leads to war 0 new form of capitalism people are exploited for production 0 see globalization as a force that eats away the welfare state a way for the country to manage the economy through taxing o if theres a welfare state you scare away capitalistsinvestors 0 golden straightjacket gt decrease autonomy and sovereignty of the state in increase globalization the countries will go somewhere else NeoGramscian o hegemon gt can act benign but when time for business that power can knock the other power into action and gain consent 0 free of normative ideas no harmony of interests 0 socialists do whats best for worker in a system to help them be accepted by society 0 welfare 0 to pacify the working class 0 socialists pacified and educated the workers I ex Germany gt no one revolted as communists because of this 0 neogramcian idea 0 hegemony gt leader should be like a centaur I coercion gt make people do shit through enforcement I consent gt get people to think it is in their best interests to do what you want 0 ex the worst thing is to NOT be exploited gt sell idea to the masses gt get gt consent o IDEAS 0 american dream gt lower taxes but that impedes welfare system gt needs higher taxes so jobs would leave I be in the USA s interest to increase wages but might make the companies leave 0 unions push to increase wages gt which is a good thing for USA 0 consent gtcreated and recreated by hegemony of ruling class I dominance and acceptance of values morals politics and culture of dominant group to serve all interests of workers I ideas of ruling class must be general and able to be sold to the working class that the value are good for them belonging to a state consumerism gt buy to help country profit nationalism gt help out country based on consent hegemon sells the ideas gt historic block because they are the dominant ideas legitimize the order and produce the order I 1 defines ideas and 99 consents to it o gramscian OOOO I superstructre ltgt base 0 superstructure gt norms values culture 0 theories always for someone and some purpose 0 ideas and values are because of the social relations that exist age religion culture I reflects this context depending on time and space 0 everything we know knowledge is subjective gt not true but a TRUTH o subjectivity depends on socioeconomic standing 0 theories are only subjective and based on a certain context 0 problem solving theory gt accepts status quo and holds them as true and legitimizes the injustice that realists and iberaists call naturalgood 0 critical theory gt challenges the prevailing order 0 principles aren39t natural and they want to overturn it o hegemonies should be challenged by society 0 neogramsciens want to challenge the order and say that capitalism is best subject to crisis I there is an opportunity to criticize capitalism gt like when stocks crash they hate it I occupy order to make capitalism better for everyone 0 increase in taxes for everyone 0 Marxists want to overthrow capitalism 0 fight ideas with ideas 0 ideas come from crisis capitalism I ideas matter most gt they control subordination to capitalism or anything else 0 Neogramscien theory gt ideas come from person of study 0 hegemonic ideas not about the states DEBATES Idealismliberalism vs realism neorealism vs neoliberalism rationalism vs reflectivist objective all the same reality vs subjective reality no truth 0 Neorealism and Neoliberalism both accept anarchy as a behavior but disagree 0 NR gt relative gains are more important do better than the other state more focused on survival and security regimes are over exaggerated o NL gt states make cooperation happen and regimes take on a life of their own welfare gains money are more important not security because they have regimes unlike neorealists and regimes benefit global society Constructivism gt m theory not material idei are a human agency and can change theories anarchy is what states make of it o its all about behavior 0 how we interact with each other agent humans constructivismgt structure perceived interests of world systems because of past interactions in a social construction gt like power 0 help us know if you39re our friend ex police 0 determines war and peace 0 looks at states as if they were people 0 realists focus on material capability only 0 looks at norms and how it shaped the international system which is defined by knowledge and ideas that shapes behaviors ex norm of sovereignty with other countries 0 identity and culture helps shape war international order through social interaction its imperative to understand state behavior and how an actor sees itself and others 0 independent variable need to apply these 3 for midterm o anarchy distribution of capabilities and security as a function I causes states to behave in a certain way I shape each other 0 structure gt norms identities ideas and knowledge 0 actoragent gt states 0 Reflectivist Theory gt looks at context historical social etc to show how to behave and react for international politics 0 actors create structure through interactions and structure changes how agents act and who they interact with 0 ideas shape politics the way we understand the distribution of capabilities how actors interpret them ideas are shaped by collective knowledge rules and language the idea of losing power is what drives state behavior 0 china is rising so they behave differently than one that is falling o wholism o collectively agreed upon norms and actors reproduce and transforms the structure while structure enhances actors o reality is socially constructed even politics 0 agents are produced and nurtured by this structure we live in 0 all about state identity shaping actions and ideas brute facts gt a rock is a rock no social part can39t be twisted 0 social facts gt terrorism war different meaning to different people no set meaning and human interaction can change the meaning 0 three cultures of anarchy gt cultural ideational over material I enemy hobbesgt against all hate all trust no one action and reaction the way you see your enemy is how you treat them I M lockegt respect and admiration but want to do better than that state USA and China I friend counteangt alliances USA and Britain expected to help each other in time of need 0 can move from enemy to rival like france and germany 0 states are main actors gt states and anarchy are social factors I norms shape behavior and help socialize countries as individuals 0 focus on ideals and idea but miss out on bigger picture like the difference of countries 0 wars are out of fashion now before they thought it built character and were normal but now they say they re bad gt normative theory 0 after the Cold War people in America realized that we were are played a role in World Order and that the USA can drive an idea and social the world now 0 how states react constructs knowledge to recreate the system c discourse analysis of culture norms procedures and social practices GLOBALLZATION gt integration of the world economy evident in economy military legal ecological cultural and social settings 0 The Three Waves of Globalization 0 European expansion gt British controlled most of the world Columbus o 18501945 gt accumulation of powerful states and race for more colonies o 1945now gt trade people working together in production rise of counter hegemonies who are challenging global order brazil south africa china 0 Neo Realism 0 product of state gt they can close borderstrade 0 biggest states created glob to enrich itself and provides it hegemonic stability gt globalization for own benefit and will finance to make sure globalization works product of great powers ex America 0 NeoliberalInstitutionalism o regime of market forces demand and supply come together to trade causing globalization 0 states negotiated about trade and now facilitate trade globally both NR and NL offer explanations to why and how the world operates Norms of anarchy actor trying to dominate and other actors will interfere and constrain them states increase power by military and economic power negotiation is better than war go to war now and then be more secure states in certain positions are allies or competition balance of power gt security and peace 0 alliances shift and are short term 0 power enhances security Post Structuralism we are all slaves to power everything you study is WRONG power and knowledge both construct each other so you never know what s true scientific method to make claims Post ColonialismGender Approaches Theory Gender gt the way we understand man and woman with power and how that shapes our behavior its completely constructed based on covering the experience of nonwestern people gt their experiences andiden es the narrative of the state replaces the people international relations is dominated by realism and liberalism and all of those approaches purpose gt to recover lost identities and to see what they were beforehand capitalism gt to become like europeans newly individual states go to civil wars with each other european narrative gt a states are the same and they leave out the cultural part edward Said gt all narratives turned out in their own way through perspective 0 western perspective labels and creates identities of other cultures I creates foreign policy and hides the works of the other cultures saving the people gt humanitarian movement 0 people are either victims or the enemy in other parts of the world 0 power disparity between the west and the rest of the world Gender studies 0 weak states gt weak men powerful states gt powerful men 0 feminism gt social theory I women have a different interpretation of international relations I theories are written from a man s perspective would would be different if women wrote it I liberal feminism gt the removal of legal obstacles so females can be equal marxist feminism gt double burden of work and familyhouse post colonial feminism gt wrong to generalize gt western women don39t understand 3rd world women etc I post structural feminism gt classrace play a huge role but you can39t generalize o security gt men are the protectors and women need protection and men are weak if they can39t defend them Realists and liberals are security of state History Bullshit ANCIENT TIMEZ Pre Westphalian Order gt no sovereignty states do what they want religion used to be important during ancient times until Westphalian Revolution 0 Greece 0 respected religious order and prayed before war 0 states combined by culture and religion 0 sanctities of treaties and respect of the dead violations reined rep and trust was gone 0 autonomous independent city states 0 India 0 complex order for when its okay to go to war 0 centered around dharma 0 China 0 constant struggle for hegemony between states and war based on chivalry 0 system of kings and vessels during time of technological boom no sovereign states 0 Rome 0 legal shit after empire created people just listened to the emperor o started to divide and conquer to keep other countries weak 0 West 0 authority with the pope so based on religion heavily o concept of just war I has to be defensive and therefore justified I cannot be fought for conquest I in a defense of christianity 0 Islam 0 based on religion before was a tribal order I kill each other for fun then muhammad united everyone 0 eventual split between sunni and shi ite Treaty of Westphalia o ended the 30 Years War and end of religious authority in europe and emergence of secular authority 0 embraced sovereignty and each monarch had religious authority one of the most important intellectual developments leading to the Westphalian revolution gt absolute and perpetual power vested in a commonwealth still has limits and covenants and treaties 0 states could determine their own domestic policies and noninterference in the affairs of other states 0 wanted to establish their own permanent militaries leading to centralized control 0 establish a core group of states in europe o Territoriality gt humankind is organized into exclusive territorial communities with fixed borders 0 Sovereignty gt the state has an entitlement to supreme exclusive political and legal authority 0 no one can tell them what to do 0 Nationalism gt people came to identify with a common past language customs and practices 0 four ideals o diplomatic communication gt someone to represent the state 0 international law gt subject to consent everyone has to agree 0 balance of power gt check each other s advancements no more empires 0 emergence of centralized power gt get taxes for better military maintain balance of power in europe and disrupt liberal ideas then nationalism came into play gt states respected each other and therefore unified europe 0 triple alliance vs triple antant 1912 gt germany wanted more power and Russia was defeated by Japan destroying white supremacy myth WWI Factors that started it o nationalism o technological innovations railways 0 arms race gt making a larger navy to match Britain39s 0 security dilemma gt one country is making more weapons and another country gets worried imperialism gt need for more economic markets increase in socialist movements gt trying to stop domestic conflict then 0 austrians wanted to go back to serbia and told them to give up sovereignty and brits encourages them to ignored 0 france wanted lost provinces germany wanted hungary to fight because russia was there for austria and then hungary declared war and russia mobilized o brits defended belgium because of alliances I america technically won because they only stepped in at the end 0 Treaty of Versailles 0 how communism began in germany I germany got charged for WWI I demilitarization of Germany I reparations I self determination gt large amounts of germans were left in czech the main parts of contemporary international society are the principles of sovereignty and nonintervention and the institution of diplomacy the balance of power and international law 0 GET POWER INTERNALLY THRU MILITARY AND EXTERNALLY THRU ALLIANCES WORLD WAR II o nazis blamed the failure of the liberal order causing their great depression and the state from the Treaty of Versailles o Japan gt started to expand through imperialism to Korea then China everyone was weak from the Great Depression gt Hitler wanted what was taken from Germany during WI 0 1932 gt Hitler comes into power 0 help Germany take back control gt pride in country 0 dissolution of democracy gt no freedom of speech no political parties 0 Hitler started mobilizing troops and took over Austria and Germ nationalism increased o britain and france started to get worried after the invasion of the slovak rep Europe was naive to Hitler neoliberalist and didn39t realize the danger realist the nazis were really bad constructivists Hans Morgenthau fled the Nazis and said not to trust anyone and there is was a need to defend gt neo realism people say that Germany started WWII but Japan played a role with fucking up china and Italy had taken over Ethiopia Germany 0 racial groups were superior and war was noble gt Hitler invaded Poland so Britain and France had to step in 0 Operation Barbarossa gt Germany invaded the Soviet Union never done before 0 organized killing Holocaust ma USA Britain France Soviet Union Axis Powers gt Germany Italy Japan Racism affected both sides with Japanese internment camps in America Japan wanted to surrender but not harm their emperor and America was like NAH and dropped the bomb literally 1945 both germany and japan believed in racial superiority so they unestimated their adversaries The end of WWII lead to a major redistribution of power contributing to the start of the Cold War 0 USA vs Soviet Union 0 Germany and Korea were divided and Japan was done COLD WAR Key Developments in the Cold War 0 USA and Russia emerge 0 lots of crises I berlin blockade Korean war Cuban missile crises Nam soviets in afghan 0 long peace is sustained by mutual deterrence Superpowers 0 US and Soviet Union gt decline in europe as the epicenter of international policies but both powers had different interests and ideologies Containment o The use of spies espionage economic pressure and military resources to contain the soviets and became the fundamental doctrine of the US foreign policy during Cold War America gt Capitalism 0 opportunities to people to pursue what was economically rational with little government interference free trade Soviet Union gt Marxism 0 under capitalism only one class controls the ownership of the means of production and can use the authority of the state to exploit workers 0 solution would be revolution causing socialism Collapse of the Colonial System 0 lots of new countries with independence gt decolonization no direct confrontation 0 3rd party stages for US vs Russia 0 confrontation through proxies like in the middle east 0 summits gt meetings between leaders and treaties o detente gt loosening of tensions No military conflict because of the nuclear weapons North vietnam was communist and south was free and USA wanted to use South Vietnam as a way of containment for communism gt failed but no effect with communism really LONG PEACE WHY nuclear deterrence gt no one could actually use it or it would destroy the world equal division of power between the two superpowers gt bipolar setting which is more stable than a multipolar setting economic liberalism gt politics became transnational Post cold War glasnost gt political openness made it possible for avg soviet citizens to compare their living standards with Western counterparts perestroika gt economic restructuring undermined the foundation of the planned economy gt start of Russia after the cold war it went from a bipolar order to a unipolar order where the USA was in charge all these states joined NATO because Russia couldn39t do anything about it anymore Why did USA and Russia become friends o as individuals they would adapt norms of behavior to help them be friends gt constructivism is the only way to explain it because liberalism and realism are only about material interests New Millennium 0 war on terrorism gt attack on one NATO member is an attack on all of them 0 2008 gt financial underpinnings of housing construction and home ownership coHapsed o 2010 gt Arab spring 0 gave lie to the claims of radical and militant islamists that only through islamic revolution terror attacks on the west and the reestablishment of strict islamic law could dictators be overthrown o militaries failed to resist the power of teens Balance of Power 0 Hegemon gt emergence of any predominant state states were scared of that and so would form alliances to create a balance of power 0 states hesitate to start a war because of the alliances 0 when one state is more powerful than adversaries gt asymmetrical balance so war is likely broke down due to Germany s rapid growth and rigidity of alliances in WI the struggle for power 0 the flawed individual in the state of nature struggles for self preservation o the autonomous and unitary state is constantly involved in power struggles 0 because the international system is anarchiC gt theres no higher power to put an end to the competition and struggle is perpetual 0 most effective technique to manage power is to balance it I containment now a return of balance of power and nationalism post westphalian idea 0 Bilateral power like cold war is most stable 0 each great power was gucci and america was prospering o wars by proxy 0 peace through nuclear weapons because no one did anything nucs make war impossible so they give stability and balance of power a systemic change gt changes in distribution of power 0 zerosumrelative change war changes distribution of power 0 uneven development of countries or technological advances SHIFTS IN POWER 0 major emerging states or a general diffusion of power linked to technological changes changes in economy and new forms of social and political mobilization o diffusion of ideas and values would make it harder and less effective to be powerful 0 want to return to a far more great power centered order gt to avoid conflict and to get the consensus to overcome terrorism climate change and global economic governance What is Power 0 Levels of Power 0 relational power gt the capacity of a political unit to impose its will on another and to resist the attempts of others to impose their will 0 Institutional power gt power becomes the ability to control the agenda to decide what gets decided and to exclude those issues which threaten the interests of the powerful o structural power gt the constitution of action and the material and conditions for action I hard power gt coercive I soft power gt power of attraction of getting others to emulate your own society and its values Power For What 0 search for prestige neo realist o emerging markets gt important for profits and investments 0 rise and fall of great powerS gt rising states challenge the status quo and revise norms to help themselves rising states 0 help solve important global problems 0 critical if international institution are to reestablish legitimacy and a degree of representation other states would accept US as the owner and operator of the system 1990s gt assumed USA had the right and power to decide what the m global order was especially because of our military 0 911 brought out the limits of military power for achieving political goals and developing countries started to speak up 0 ability for USA to steet world order is diminishing and rising power want a greater share of the spoils gt new security challenge opened divisions in major powers 0 liberal international orders remain favorable to the most powerful states International Society Theorists gt power hierarchies are notjust material power but great powers have a social category power derives from the role they39re playing in functional institutions created to deal with challenges and its derives from their role in the creation of institutions Tools for international studies 0 normative moral elements 0 history gt provide a crucial background 0 philosophy gt focusing on state leaders I anarchy gt in the absence of international authority society is in a state of nature I develops rationales from core texts and analytical thinking 0 behavioralism gt patterns in human behavior and state behavior using scientific method people act in patterns 0 alternate approaches gt postmodernists seek to deconstruct the basic concepts by searching texts for hidden meaning
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