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Chapter 7 Notes

by: Emily Drazinakis

Chapter 7 Notes MGT 304

Emily Drazinakis
GPA 3.61
Management: Organizational Behavior
Cecily Cooper

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Includes notes and outline of chapter 7 for quiz 2
Management: Organizational Behavior
Cecily Cooper
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Drazinakis on Wednesday February 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 304 at University of Miami taught by Cecily Cooper in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Management: Organizational Behavior in Business at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/04/15
Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts DefiningTheories of Motivation 0 Motivation is the processes that account for an individual s intensity direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal 0 Focus on organizational goals 0 lntensity how hard a person tries High intensity is unlikely to lead to favorable job performance 0 Effort directed toward and consistent with the organization s goals is important 0 SelfDetermination Theory 0 A theory of motivation that is concerned with the bene cial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation In other words if something that was once more previously enjoyed now becomes an obligation then it may undermine motivation o The cognitive evaluation theory hypothesizes that extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in a task 0 Selfconcordance is a theory that considers how strongly people s reason for pursuing goals are consistent their interests and core values 0 The selfconcordance theory considers how strongly people s reason for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values 0 job Engagement is the investment of an employee s physical cognitive and emotional energies into job performance 0 Does the employee believe it is meaningful to engage in work 0 Leadership behaviors that inspire works to a greater sense of mission also increase employee engagement There could potentially be a darkside to engagement where you are too involved and family responsibilities become tedious Goal Setting Theory 0 A theory that says that speci c and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance 0 People are motivated by difficult goals because they require more attention and energize us because you have to work harder to attain them 0 People do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing 0 Three other factors in uence goals goal commitment task characteristics and national culture The individual belives he or she can achieve the goal WANTS to achieve the goal Goal Commitment is most likely occur when goal are made public when the individual locus of control selfset rather than assigned and where goals are based at least partially on individual ability Goals seem to affect performance more strongly when tasks are simple rather than complex well learned rather than novel independent rather than interdependent and on the high end of achievable goals Assigned goals appear to generate greater goal commitment in high than in low power distance cultures 0 People fall into two categories if the way they differ during goal pursuit Promotion focus people strive for advancement and accomplishment and approach condition that move them closer toward desired goals Prevention focus people strive to fulfill duties and obligations and avoid conditions that pull them away from desired goals 0 How do managers make goalsetting theory operational 0 Management by Objectives A program that encompasses speci c goals participatively set for an explicit time period with feedback on goal progress Set goals are tangible veri able and measureable Four objectives goal speci city participation in decision making an explicit time period and performance feedback 0 All of these are similar to goalsetting theory SelfEf cacy Theory 0 Also known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory 0 Refers to an individual s belief that h e or she is capable of performing a task The higher your selfef cacy the more con dence you have in your ability to succeed Goal setting theory and selfefficacy complement one another 0 THERE ARE FOUR WAYS SELFEFFICACY CAN BE INCREASED The most important source of increasing selfefficacy is enactive mastery or gaining relevant experience with the task or job Vicarious modeling becoming more con dent because you see someone else doing the same task Verbal persuasion becoming more con dent because someone convinced you that you have the skills necessary 0 The best way for a manager to use verbal persuasion is through the Pygmalion effect or the Galatea effect 0 Similar to the selfful lling prophecy if they thing you are smart they will give you more challenging assignments Arousal an energized state that psychs you up for better performance Reinforcement Theory 0 O O Takes a behavioristic view argues that reinforcement conditions behaviors Behavior is a function of its consequences Reinforcement theorists see behavior as environmentally caused Does not focus on inner state of individual but rather what happens when the individual takes certain actions One component of Reinforcement theory is Operant Condition Theory 0 People learn to behave to get something they want or avoid something they don t want 0 Conditioned by reinforcement or lack of reinforcement Behaviorism A theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner 0 This rejects feelings thoughts and other states of minds o It stats that people learn to associate stimulus and response but their conscious awareness of this association is irrelevant Reinforcement is an important in uence on behavior but scholars are skeptical to say it is the only one 0 Individuals can learn by being told or by observing what happens to other people and through direct experiences 0 SocialLearning Theory 0 The view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience 0 Four processes determine their in uence on an individual 1 Attentional processes recognize and pay attention to critical features a We are most in uenced by models that are attractive repeatedly available important to us 2 Retention processes how well the individual remembers the model after the model is not there 3 Motor reproduction processes watching being converted into doing 4 Reinforcement processes There is motivation to exhibit the model behavior is positive incentives or rewards are provided 0 Equity TheoryOrganizational Justice 0 A theory that says that individuals compare theirjob inputs and outcomes with those of others Ratio comparing their pay promotion to what they put into it such as effort education Employees who perceive inequity will make one of six choices Change inputs less effort Change outcomes Distort perceptions of self I work harder than everyone else Distort perceptions of others Choose a different referent 6 Leave the eld quit 0 Organizational justice An overall perception of what is fair in the workplace Distributive justice 0 Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals Procedural Justice Examines with how outcomes are allocated Informational Justice 0 The degree to which employees are provided truthful explanations for decisions 0 Interpersonal Justice 01h WNH Re ects whether employees are treated with dignity and respect 0 Interpersonal justice is unique in that it can occur in everyday interactions between managers and employees 0 Why does justice have positive effects Fair treatment enhances commitment Employees who are fairly treated trust their supervisors more Fair treatment elicits positive emotions which prompts behaviors like citizenship o Fairness is often subjective o Expectancy Theory 0 Argues that the strength of our tendency to act a certain way depends on the strength of our expectation of a given outcome and its attractiveness o The strength of our tendency to act a certain way depends on the strength of our expectation of a given outcome and its attractiveness o Focuses on three relationship 1 Effortperformance relationship the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance 2 Performancereward relationship the degree to which the individual believes performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome 3 Rewardspersonal goals relationship the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual 0 Explains why employees aren t motivated and do only minimum necessary to get by Chapter 6 Perceptions and DecisionMaking Perception oPerception means to organize and interpret sensory impressions to give meaning to a person s environment 0 Attribution Theory Determines whether behavior is internally or externally caused Keey s model makes attributions based on 3 dimensions 0 Distinctiveness different behaviors in different s uanns o Comparison across tasks Consensus do others react the same way in that situation o Comparison across other people 0 Consistency Does the person respond the same way over time 0 Comparison over time Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors SelfServing Bias Tendency to attribute personal success to internal factors and blame failure on external factors Perceptual Shortcuts Selective Perception o The tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one s interests background experience and attitudes Halo Effect 0 Drawing a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic 0 Contrast Effects 0 Evaluating a person based on comparisons of other people 0 Stereotyping 0 Judging by the group of which the individual belongs to 0 During interviews the interview can make an impression within a tenth of a second based on rst glance o SelfFul lling Prophecy Characterizes that peoples expectations of other become reality DecisionMaking Managers have to make decisions that require them to interpret and evaluate information Rational Model v Bounded Rationality o Rational decision makers have complete information are able to identify all relevant options in an unbiased manner and choose option with highest utility Most decisions do not follow rational model 0 Bounded decision makers respond to a complex problem by reducing the problem to a level at which it can be readily understood Simplifying but taking essential features People SATISFICE meaning they take solutions that are sufficient and satisfactory o Intuition is the least rational way of decision making An unconscious process created from experience Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making Overcon dence 0 We tend to be overcon dent about our abilities and the ability of others 0 Anchoring Bias 0 A tendency to xate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information 0 Con rmation Bias 0 We seek out information that reaffirms our past choices and we discount information that contradicts them A case of selective perception 0 Availability Bias 0 Our tendency to base judgments on information that is readily available 0 Escalation of Commitment 0 Refers to staying with a decision even if there is clear evidence it is wrong 0 Tendency to support previously unsuccessful courses of actions because they have sunk costs invested in them 0 Randomness Error 0 Our tendency to believe we can predict the outcome of random events 0 Risk Aversion o The tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff o Hindsight Bias 0 Tendency to believe falsely after the outcome is known that we would have accurately predicted it Implications for Managers 0 People should be aware of how perceptual errors can in uence appraisals and judgments at work 0 Managers need to reduce decisionmaking errors such as escalation of commitment


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