Exam 3 Study Guide
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Cognitive Psychology What is the main focus of cognitive psychology studies Be familiar with some of the mental processes involved in cognition cognitive psychology studies mental processes or cognition using the scienti c method Cognition involves perception attention memory knowledge representation language problem solving and reasoning and decision making Fully understand the scienti c methods used in studying cognitive psychology For example what are independent variables What are dependent variables Be able to extract information from a graph of experimental results and understand the concepts of main effect and interaction Know how to nd them in a graph independent variables what is being manipulated by the experimenter dependent variables what is being measured main effects the effect of each level of factor 1 on the dependent variable is the same at all levels of factor 2 and vice versa direct results interactions the effect of each level of factor 1 on the dependent variable is not the same at all levels of factor 2 and vice versa inverse results Be familiar with some early work in cognitive psychology Know the rst cognitive psychologists and their related work Donders Ebbinghaus Wundt Donders 1868 quotthe father of cognitive psychologyquot came up with the subtractive method measuring mental chronometry measuring how long a cognitive process takes determined this by measuring reaction time or RT measuring the interval between stimulus presentation and the response to the stimulus simple RT task participant pushes a button quickly after a light appears choice RT task push a button if a li ht appears on the left another if its on the right choice RT 100 msceconds longer than simple so it takes 100 mseconds to make a decision Ebbinghaus 1885 Savings method Read a list of nonsense syllables aloud many times to determine the number of repetitions necessary to repeat the list without error Savir1gs the forgetting curve shows savings as a function of retention interval Wundt 1897 had the rst psychology lab at the university of Lepzig Germany His approach is STRUCTURALISM experience is determined by combining elements of experience called sensations His method was analytic introspection patients described experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli What is structuralism What is the main method associated with it What are the possible problems with this approach structuralism experience is determined by combining elements of experience called sensations the method associated with it is analytic introspection Problems with this approach include that results vary from person to person and that the results are hard to verify Watsor1 argued that psychology needs to be viewed as a science What is behaviorism What is classical conditioning Be able to describe Watson s experiment and Pavlov s experiment What is Skinner s operant conditioning What are its limitations Behaviorism states that observable behavior provides the only valid data for psychology Watsons Little Albert Experiment subjected a 9 month old baby to a loud noise every time a rat which Albert originally liked came close to the child After a few pairings of the noise with the rat Albert reacted to the rat by crawling away as fast as possible gt this is associated with classical conditioning pairing one stimulus loud noise with another previously neutral stimulus the rat causes changes in the response to the neutral stimulus Pavlov s dog same scenario Skinner s Operant conditioning focused on how behavior is strengthened by the presentation of positive reinforcers gt showed that reinforcing a rat with food by pressing a bar maintained or increased the rats rate of bar pressing skinner s box vi What is the cognitive revolution What are its in uences cognitive revolution was a shift from behaviorist s stimulus response relationships to an approach that attempts to explain behavior in terms of the mind in uences creation of the digital computer people began to reintroduce the mind to psychology 7 Understand the behavioral approach and physiological approach in studying cognition as shown by the memory consolidation example behavioral approach measures relationships between stimuli and behavior physiological approach measures the relationship between physiology and behavior In the memory consolidation experiment Behavior approach Muller and Pilzecker 1900 had participants memorize two lists of words One group learned the second list immediately after the rst list The other group experienced a sixminute delay between learning the lists gt Independent variable Interlist delay gtDependent variable Memory recall for the rst list of words delay group recalled 48 of the syllables immediate group 28 of the syllables Physiological approach Gais et al 2007 the effect of sleep on memory consolidation Brain activity at encoding and retrieval Measured using brain imaging fMRI Results 2 Found differential brain activity between the two groups those who got more sleep remembered more of the words i What is Marr s model of mind What are corresponding example approaches Computational gt behaviorism algorithmic gt cognitive psychology implementational gt neuroscience Chapter 2 Cognitive Neuroscience i What is cognitive neuroscience the scienti c study of the relation between the nervous system and cognition physiological basis of cognition ii What are neurons What are the components and the structure of each neuron What are the functions of each component i neurons are the building blocks amp transmission lines of the nervous system They are specialized to receive and transmit information in the nervous system ii Each neuron has a cell body an axon and dendrites i cell body contains mechnisms to keep the cell alive ii axon tube lled with uid that transmits an electrical signal towards other neurons iii dendrites multiple branches reaching the cell body which receives info from the other neurons iii What is an action potential How is it measured What aspect of the measurement conveys the information transmitted through the nervous system i action potential neuron receives signals from the environment electricity is propogated in the axon its either all or none you can see it as a quotspikequot or brief positive pulse ii it is measured by microelectrodes picking up the electrical signal one electrode is in the cell and 1 outside to measure the electricity using an oscilloscope placed near the axon and active for about 1 sec inside of the axon becomes more positive then goes back to original level single action potential appears as a quotspikequot iii the size of the action potential is usually NOT measured because they are all about the same size iv the rate of ring is measured by seeing how many spikes in a second low intensities slow ring high intensities fast ring v ACTION POTENTIAL ONLY EXISTS IE THRESHOLD LEVEL IS REACHED iv How is information transmitted between neurons i the synapse the space between the axon of a neuron and the dendrite of another neuron ii when the action potential gets to the end of the neuron the synaptic vesicles open up and release chemical neurotransmitters which cross the synaptic space and bind with the receiving dendrite some neurotransmitters go into next neuron and some dissipate iii certain neurotansmitters released to the next neuron are either inhibitory or excitatory iv excitatory INCREASES the chance that the next neuron will produce a spike glutamate v inhibitory decreases the chance that the next neuron will produce a spike GABA or both depends on context dopamine v Be familiar with the methods used in the localization of brain functions how they work their advantages and limitations lesion brain imaging ERP localization of function speci c functions are served by speci c areas of the brain METHODS lesions look at people with brain damage and see what brain de cits they have oldest method DV accuracy IV learning block whatever they are tested on If that brain part wasn t needed for the task the two lines one for control and one for people with that area of the brain damaged would be very similar if not overlapping we can experiment on animals with lesions but lesions within humans have to be accidental ONE SOLUTION IS TMS TMS big magnet to create safe temporarily fake lesion adds noise to neutral activation lnactivation used for animals inject chemical into the brain to stop a speci c brain part from working another way to stimulate lesions like with TMS but without using people with lesions it doesn t permanently affect that part of the brain it can be done to any part NOT FOR HUMANS Brain imaging PET SCAN blood ow increases in areas of brain activated by a cognitive task radioactive tracer is injected into participant s bloodstream amp measures signal from tracer at each location of brain to tell you how much blood is in that area higher signals higher levels of brain activity high blood ow red high activation Subtraction Technique measure brain activity before and after stimulation and measure difference to see which areas of brain were active during the manipulation fMRl uses subtraction technique amp measures blood ow thru magnetic properties of blood no radioactive tracer needed uses reg MRI scanner EEG measure electrical activity on scalp and make inferences about underlying brain activity averaged over a large number of trials to calc the ERPs continuous and rapid measurements but doesn t give speci c location in brain imagine all the weird connecters to head electrodes neuron ring is an electrical event EEG high temporal resolution but poor spatial resolution PET and fMRI high spatial resolution and fMRI has highest spatial resolution vi Which part of the brain serves most of our cognitive functions Be familiar with the locations and functions of each lobe of the cerebral cortex cerebral cortex serves most of our cognitive functions Parietal lobe spatial vision and location attention touch temperature pain pressure Frontal Cortex abstract thinking voluntary movements reasoning and planning Temporal lobe auditory proccessing and extracting meaning from speech and text amp where you recognize objects ID what they are memory perceiving forms Occipital lobe vision visual area Occipital back frontal is at the front parietal is at the top temporal is at the bottom cerebellum is the back bottom section vii Be familiar with the functions of some subcortical areas basal ganglia hippocampus amygdala thalamus Basal ganglia categorization sequence proccessing learn from trial amp error hippocampus forming memories longterm amygdala emotions and emotional memories thalamus relaying info from vision hearing and touch senses viii Be familiar with the brain areas related to perception What are the primary receiving areas for the senses Which area is responsible for coordinating the information received from all senses Which areas respond speci cally to facesplacespictures of bodies and parts of bodies FFA speci cally responds to faces PPA responds to speci cally to places EBA responds to pics of bodies and body parts frontal lobe coordinates info from all senses occipital vision parietal touch temperature pain temporal hearing taste smell ix What brain areas are related to language productioncomprehension Be familiar with the location of these two areas Broca s area language production frontal lobe Wernicke s area language comprehension temporal lobe Wernicke s aphasic means they think they re saying the right thing but gibberish comes out Broca s aphasia means they can t communicate but know what you WANT to say x Understand the idea of distributed processing many different areas of the brain contribute to a function xi What are feature detectors Be familiar with the properties of simple cells and complex cells feature detectors neurons that respond best to a speci c stimulus simple cells neurons that respond best to bars of light of a particular orientation complex cells neurons that respond best to an oriented bar of light with a speci c length xii What are speci city coding distributed coding and sparse coding speci city coding representation of a speci c stimulus by ring speciic neurons specialized to re when you see that speci c stimulus distributed coding representation by a pattern of ring across a large number of neurons sparse coding distributed representations using a small number of neurons xiii Which of them likely describes neural coding sparse coding xiv Be aware that neuroscience data makes explanations of psychological phenomena look better and that we should be careful in interpreting cognitive neuroscience data Be familiar with the experiments showing this phenomenon and their results nonexpert undergrads v cog neuroscience students v neuroscience experts visual representation of the brain make scienti c reasoning seem more adequate but notjust looking at graphs and tables Chapter 3 Perception 1 Know the de nition of sensation transduction attention and perception sensory absorbing raw energy thru our sensory organs transduction conversion of this energy to neural signals attention concentration of mental energy to process mental info perception selecting organizing and interpreting these signals 2 What is bottomup processing processing that begins with the stimulation of receptors DIRECT PERCEPTION THEORIES triggred by incoming stimuli perception comes from stimuli in the environment and put together then recognition occurs i Understand the idea of direct perception theories eg template matching pandemonium and recognitionbycomponents Know the evidences advantages and the limitations of each theory template matching activate retina receptors rst then activate speci c letter detector one template per letter Problems can the template account for all the variabilities of the letter amp no neurological support pandemonium data driven recognition model based on feature analysis so objects are recognized from the analysis of their components 1 record initial image of external signal retina receptors sensory memory 2 look for a particular characteristic in the pattern simple cells feature detectors 3 what the responses of the featured objects and seek out one particular pattern working memory 4 listens to the pandemonium created and looks to see which decision is the loudest and uses that working memory it s exibile more parsimonious nite set of feature detectors neurological support error prediction recognition by components theory 2D representation block set of 3D features object recognition by separation into 36 geons perceptual 3D building blocks can form in nite objects 1 analysis of surface features 2 determination of components geons 3 matching of components to object representations 4 object recognition function of geons with enuf geons recognition happens vertices are key parts of the image power parsimonious exibility direct perception theories in general invariant texture gradient ow pattern close things move faster and horizon ratio if ratio is the same objects are the same size optic array gt direct pickup of the invariant info gt perception ii What is topdown processing involves making inferences based on context guessing from experience and basing one perception on another OCCURS QUICK AND AUTOMATICALLY Theory of Unconscious Inference our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions we make about the environment we use our knowledge to inform our perceptions likelihood principle we perceive the world in the way that s most likely based on our past experiences iii Understand the idea of constructive perception eg the Gestalt laws of organization and other types of heuristics and the role of physical regularities and context Know the evidences advantages and the limitations of each of them Gestalt laws law ofgood continuation lines tend to be seen as following the smoothest path law ofgood gure every stimulus pattern is seen so the resulting structure is as simple as possible law ofsimiarity similar things appear grouped tg law of familiarity things are more likely to form groups if the groups appear familiar or meaningful law ofproximity things near each other appear grouped law of common fate things moving in the same direction appear to be grouped tg often provide accurate info about the properties of the environment re ect experience used unconsciously occasionally misleading GESTALT LAWS ARE HEURISTICS constructive perception theories people actively construct perceptions using info based on expectations context appropriate context helps gt no context context modi es interp of an object inappropriate context hinders interpretation of object iv Be able to identify bottomup and topdown processing aspects in size perception v Be able to identify the location of the what and where streams and their corresponding functions what stream identifying an object temporal lobe where stream identifying object s locationparietal lobe vi Understand the method of dissociations in neuropsychology What are singledouble dissociations What can be concluded from singledouble dissociations single dissociation one function is lost another remains double dissociation requires 2 individuals with different damage and opposite de cits this shows that what and where streams are different mechanisms and operate independently Chapter 4 Attention i What is attention What are some of its properties attention is the ability to focus on speci c stimuli or locations there are two types of attention which are selective and divided 2 What is selective attention Know the research methods eg dichotic listening What are the conclusions from the experiments selective attention is the focusing of attention on one speci c location object or message research method dichotic listening different messages are presented to the two ears participants are instructed to pay attention to the message presented to one ear repeating it out loud as they hear it and to ignore the message presented to the other ear procedure of repeating the message out loud shadowing conclusions participants could not report the content of the message in the unattended ear but they knew that there was message and they could identify the gender of the speaker the unattended ear was being processed at some level change to a tone was detected change in gender cocktail party effect hears distinctive messages such as ones own name or Fire or quotWatch outquot 3 Know and be familiar with the early selection model What does Broadbent s Filter Model fails to account for the early selection model introduced a ow diagram to cognitive psychology it proposed that information passes through the following stages 1 sensory memory holds all incoming information for a fraction of a second and transfers all information to the next stage 2 the lter identifies the attended message based on its physical characteristics tone of voice pitch talking speed only the attended message is passed on to the next stage 3 the detector processes all information to determine higherlevel characteristics of the message the meaning 4 short term memory receives the output of the detector holds information for 1015 seconds and may transfer it to long term memory the model could not explain how the participant s name gets through the quotfilterquot participants can show meaningful messages that switch from one ear to another Dear Aunt Jane you can be trained to detect in the unattended ear based on the meaning of the message i Know and be familiar with the late selection model What experiments supports the late selection model proposed that selection of stimuli for nal processing does not occur until after information has been analyzed for meaning McKay 1973 in the attending ear participants heard ambiguous sentences ie quotthey were throwing stones at the bank In the unattended ear participants heard biasing words ie quotriverquot money At test participants had to chose which was closest to the meaning of the attended message Results the meaning of the biasing word affected the participants choice participants were unaware of the presentation of the biasing words ii What is task load Know the experiment and results of the ankercompatibility task What is the effect of load on selective attention Except for task load what other factors could also affect the ability of ignoring taskirrelevant stimuli Be able to describe the Stroop Effect task load is the amount of a person s cognitive resources needed to carry out a particular cognitive task lowload tasks use up only a small amount of the person s cognitive resources highload tasks difficult and perhaps not well practiced tasks that use up more cognitive resources ankercompatibility test asked can participants focus their attention on detecting the target so that the identity of the distractor will not affect their performance tested by presenting letters on a key and identifying by pressing a key when it is in the center Results lowload condition one potential target reaction time is longer for incompatible distractors CAC high load condition the type of distractor does not affect reaction time XAX effect of load on selective attention highload experiments support early selection lowload experiments support late selection bc the anker affects target processing even though it is unattended stroop effect using a task in which a person is instructed to respond to one aspect of stimulus color of ink that a word is printed in and ignore another aspect such as what the word spells the stroop effects refers to the fact that people find this task difficult when the ink color differs from what the word spells iii Know and be familiar with the intermediateselection model iv In which case can attention be divided Be able to describe the experiments by Schneider and Shiffrin eg consistent mapping and varied mapping conditions What are the results What are the conclusions divided attention can be achieved with practice consistent mapping conditions target would be numbers and distractors would be letters Overtime participants became able to divide their attention gt automatic processing occurs without intention and only uses some of a persons cognitive resources varied mapping conditions rules changed from trial to trail the same stimulus can sometimes be a target and sometimes can be a distractor overtime participants never achieved automatic processing gt controlled processing participants paid close attention and their search was slow and controlled occurs when tasks are harder v Know the effect of cell phone conversations on driving Understand the design and the logic of the experiment by Strayer ampJohnston 2001 and the experiment by Strayer Drews amp Johnston 2003 the risk of a collision was four times higher when using a cell phone vs not Strayer and Johnston apply the breaks as quickly as possible in response to a red light gt doing this task while talking on the cell phone caused participants to miss twice as many of red lights as when they were not talking o the phone and also increased the time it took them to apply the breaks Strayer Johnston Drews 2 task apply following a pace car in the right lane the pace car brakes unexpectedly and regularly trying not to crash into it gt accidents occurred only when lots of traffic amp cell phone was used cell phones made a difference in break reaction time only in the high density traffic conditions vi What is inattentional blindness What is change blindness inattentional blindess a stimulus that is not intended is not perceived even though a person may be looking directly at it gorilla walking through the basketball game change blindness if shown to versions of a picture differences between them are not immediately apparent changes from frame to frame vii What is overt attention Understand the bottomup and topdown determinants of eye movements overt attention eye movements attention and perception bottomup determinants in uenced by stimulus salience the physical properties of the stimulus such as contrast color or movement topdown determinants scene schemas an observer s knowledge about what is contained in typical scenes printer placed in the kitchen vs a pot the printer is out of place viii What is covert attention Understand locationbased attention and objectbased attention covert attention both location based and percueing location based moving attention from one place to another percueing directing attention without moving the eyes bookparticipant is presented with a cue that indicates where a stimulus is most likely to appear objectbased attention attention that is directed to a speci c object Egly et al 1994 Participants saw two sideby side rectangles followed by a target cue Reaction time fastest when target appeared where indicated Reaction time was faster when the target appeared in the same rectangle 12 Understand and be able to describe feature integration theory What are the two stages in the model Which one needs more attention proposed by created to explain how we perceive initially separated features as part of the same object The first stage 1 preattentive stage objects are analyzed into separate features it is automatic and requires no real effort 2 focused attention stage attention causes the combination of features into the perception of an onject gt experiement 13Know the important physiological ndings in attention research 1 covert attention s enhanced neural responding and 2 attentional processing is distributed across a large number of areas in the brain 1 eye movements that that accompany overt attention cause a change in the image on the retina which can cause a neural response so to be sure that any neural responses are caused not be changes in the image on the retina but by changes in attention researches use a covert attention procedure in which eyes stay still Monkey trained to xate eyes on a dot while a peripheral light was ashed Fixation only monkey was to release bar when the fixation light dimmed Fixation and attention monkey was to release bar when peripheral dimmed Single cell recordings showed monkey s response when paying attention to the peripheral light was not caused by changes of the stimulus on the retina but by the monkey s attention to light this result means that a 2 Gordon Shulman showed that attention to a particular direction of motion increases activity in a number of brain structures by showing some of the brain areas that were activated by the moving dots gt the main significance is that attention increases activity throughout the brain PSY 200 Cognitive Psychology Midterm 2 Study Guide This study guide is organized to help you have a general idea of the types of things that are likely to be on the midterm It reviews sections of the book and addresses additional materials from the lectures You should be able to answer questions about each topic listed below For each topic think of a question that might be asked about it If you can answer the question with a paragraph or so of relevant information you likely understand the topic well If you understand the topic well you should be able to answer a variety of questions about that topic Chapter 5 ShortTerm and Working Memory 1 What is memory a collection of processes involved in retaining retrieving and using information about stimuli images events ideas and skills after the original information is no longer present an integrated system that processes information m facquires stores and retrieves info components of memory don t act in isolation Memory has a limited capacity limited space resources and time Understand the modal model of memory What are the major structural features What are the control processes included insinuates that computer is a model for human cognitio 3 stages in the model are called structural features the three major structural features are sensory memory shortterm memory and longterm memory ontrol processes active processes that can be controlled by the person do this thru rehearsal strategies used to make a stimulus more memorable strategies of attention What is sensory memory Be able to identity its properties Know the method and results of Sperling s experiment an initial stage that holds all incoming information for seconds or fractions of a second the retention for brief period of time of the effects of sensory stimulation shortlived sensory memory registers all or most information that hits our visual receptors information decays very quickly persistence of vision retention of the perception of light Sparkler s trail of light frames in lm holds large amount of information for a short period of time colects information hods information for initial processing lls in the blank measuring the capacity and duration of sensory memory array of letters ashed quickly on a screen participants asked to report as many as possible whole report participants asked to report as many as could be seen average of 45 out of 12 letters partial report participants heard tone that told them which row of letters to report average of 33 out of 4 letters participants could report my of the rows delaved partial report presentation of tone delayed for a fraction of a second after the letters were extinguished performance decreases rapidly 4 What is shortterm memory What is the duration of shortterm memory Be familiar with the BrownPeterson experiment What is the explanation for the phenomena they found What is the capacity of shortterm memory hods 57 items for about 1530 secs We will describe the characteristics of shortterm memory in this chapter stores small amounts of information for a brief duration includes both new info received from the sensory stores and information recalled from long term memory short term memory when rehearsal is prevented is about 1520 secs proactive interference Pl occurs when information learned previously interferes with learning new information participants cant recall lists after many trials because they cant distinguish between the lists appears to be responsible for the quick decay of shortterm memory Brownpeterson task measure the duration of short term memory read three letters then a number begin counting backwards by three s after a set time recall three letters Short term memory has limited capacity measures capacity of short term memory 1 digit span how many digits a person can remember typica result 58 items problem what is an item 2 chunking small units can be combined into larger meaningful units chunk is a collection of elements strongly associated to each other by weakly associated with elements of other chunks 5 How is shortterm memory coded Understand auditory coding visual coding and semantic coding and be able to give corresponding examples c0dng is the way that information is represented phy50ogca how the stimulus is represented by the ring of neurons menta how stimulus or experience is represented in the mind audt0rv codno involves representing items in short term memory based on their sound eary experiment on auditory coding done by Conrad 1964 participants brie y say target letters and were asked to write them down errors most likely occurred with the letters that sounded alike F and S ex so STM is auditory because this shows that we memorize things by sound v5ua coding involves representing items visually as would occur when remembering the details of a oor plan or the layout of streets on a map the study is by Della Sala who presented visual information that is difficult to verbalize such as a pattern of shaded boxes in a matrix Participants could create patterns of up to 9 items so this shows that STM is also visual 5emantic coding it refers to representing items in terms of their meaning the experiment is by Wickens and participants listened to 3 words counted backwards for 15 seconds and then attempted to recall the three words the items were grouped in ways such as fruit group or professions There were 4 trials and different words for each trial On trial 5 the participants memorized words from a different category fruits vs proffs and release from Pl increased participants used meaning of the words in their processing so STM is also semantic PI is reduced on trial 4 because it s a different category 6 What is working memory How does it differ from shortterm memory HOW does WM differ form 5 TM 1 short term memory is concerned with storing info for a brief period of time whereas WM is concerned with the manipulation of info that occurs during complex cognition 2 short term memory consists of a single component whereas working memory consists of multiple components W0rllting memory is more general than shortterm memory W0rlting memory limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension learning and reasoning 7 Understand Baddeley s working memory model Know the experimental evidence for each component of the model Three components phonological loop visuospatial sketch pad amp central executive Phonological loop it consists of 2 components phonological store has limited capacity and holds acoustic or speech based info for only a few seconds and the articulatory rehearsal process responsible for rehearsal that can keep items in the phenological store from decaying maintains phonological memory traces amp translates visual info by subvocal naming it holds auditory and verbal information capacity is 2 seconds if input not refreshed it decays EXperimental evidence for phonological loop Baddeley and coleagues have appealed to 3 main interrelated results to support theloop ph0n00gica similarity effect hear the letters and confuse them with auditory similarities errors to this 95 of time see the letters and confuse them due to auditory similarities errors in visual condition were cause of this 75 of time W0rd length effect study serial recall 48 words must recall entire sequence to be correct Goal to show that immediate memory span for verbal info is not constant but varies with the length of the words to be recalled Hypothesis if immediate memory span is limited in terms of number of chunks then word length has no effect on memory span amp if immediate memory span is limited in terms of time then word length has an effect you can keep fewer words in memory amp longer words can take longer to rehearse Results effect of list length on recall rate classic effect of word length for all list lengths clear advantage of short words over long words Conclusion words appear to be coded by temporal duration and not in meaningful units time is meaningful TEMPORAL DURATION key factor artcuat0ry suppress0n goas show that the articulatory subvocal rehearsal component maintains phonological memory traces transates some visual information in phonological mode by subvocal naming task serial recall one list length V word length short or long type of presentation auditory or visual possibility of rehearsal control or suppression they count aloud during list presentation Predict0n 1 word length effect should occur in conditions where rehearsal is allowed auditory condition loop capacity depends on word length visua control condition once transferred from visuospatial sketchpad to phonological memory store via articulatory subvocal rehearsal unit performance based on loop limits Re5ut 1 word length effect in both presentation long words less correct SOME proof of translation from visual to phonological Prediction 2 performances in auditory control should be superior to auditory suppression so if the info is transferred to phonological store and rehearsed it should be superior rate of retention compared to the auditory suppression condition where the info is transferred but not rehearsed which would lead to decay Re5ut5 2 Suppression cause a decrement in performance and word length effect still was there Word length is an effect of capacity It points to rehearsal as a plausible process for maintenance and superior performance Prediction 3 in visual suppression rehearsal unit is busy and can t translate so performance is based strictly on visual information word length effect will be lost because articulatory subvocal rehearsal cannot translate Re5ut5 3 Suppression eliminated the word length effect because the material wasn t coded phonologically It points to translation as a plausible process for maintaining visual info with a phonological aspect General results about the phonological loop there is a lot of evidence in support of the phonological loo and although there are many competing models it remains the standard of the eld of research for working memory lisuospatia sketch bad you use it when you are solving a puzzle or nding your way around campus goes from sensory memory gt central executive gt visuospatial sketchpad Central Executive attenti0n controler focus divide switch attention contros suppression of irrelevant information Episodic buffer backup store that communicates with LTM and WM components hods information longer and has greater capacity than phonological loop or visuospatial sketch pad 8 Know the experimental evidence for the importance of prefrontal cortex in working memory Is this the only brain area involved in working memory What are some of the other brain areas involved in WM neurons responded when stimulus was ashed in a particular location and during delay information remains available via these neurons for as long as they continue ring areas in frontal lobe and parietal lobe are involved in Working Memory high capacity working memory participants were more efficient at ignoring the distractors better working memory better at ignoring distractors Vogel damage in the frontal lobe causes problems in controlling attention and this was tested thru the delayedresponse taskmonkeys are shown two wells have to remember which one has food and when the prefrontal cortex is removed the choice of them picking the well with food is based on chance PSY 200 Cognitive Psychology Midterm 2 Study Guide Chapter Six LongTerm Memory Structure 1 Be able to identify the distinguishing features of LTM and STMWM and describe the differences between them LTM Archive of information about past events and knowledge learned works closely with working memory storage stretches from a few moments ago to as far back as one can remember more recent memories are more detailed STMs KF poor STM but functioning LTM Clive wearing amp HM functioning STM cannot form new LTM s STM deals with the present and LTM contains knowledge relevant to what s currently happening 2 Know how LTM is used in everyday life examples including conversation and basic uses of memory both explicit and implicit Importance of rehearsal for LTM Analysis of rehearsal processes in free recall Goal to study the relationship between rehearsal and primacyrecency effects Rationale Rehearsal should only be related to performance in LTM correated with primacy effect but not with recency effect Procedure free recall task 20 words participants are asked to rehearse outlooks and experimenter counts the number of times each word is rehearsed aloud throughout a trial Hypotheses primacy effect content of LTM Common sense rehearsal occurs earlier words can be rehearsed more high performance for early words number of rehearsals outloud predictive of recall performance for early words primacy Recency effect content of STM no time to rehearse but still high performance number of rehearsals aloud unrelated to performance for last words RESULTS shows that rehearsal has an effect on the strength of a trace in LTM so it s needed don t need to rehearse the most recent items because they are still in STM 3 Be able to describe how a serial position curve experiment is implemented and read graphs that show the results of a serial position experiment Task Free Recall read stimulus list write down all words remembered memory better for stimuli presented at beginning primacy effect more time to rehearse more likely to enter LTM memory better for stimuli presented at end of list recency effect stimui still in STM of correctly recalled items the systematic advantage for the rst items in the list is called the primacy effect Hypothesis it shows the output of longterm memory The systematic advantage for the last items in the list is called the recency effect Hypothesis it shows the output of shortterm memory 4 Know the de nitions of the recency effect primacy effect and under what conditions they occur What hypotheses explain them How do they interact with rehearsal What about list length recency effect superior memory for stimuli present at the end of a sequence possibly cause the words are still in STM cause they were recently presented list length doesn t matter and they aren t rehearsed primacy effect superior memory for stimuli presented at the beginning of a sequence possible explanation participants have time to rehearse the words and transfer them to LTM cause they were the rst words into the participant s head Also they have 100 attention on the rst word then less and less as there are more words concusion the primacy effect is related to the longer rehearsal time available for earlier words on the list 5 Be able to describe how LTM is coded and how this differs from STMWM use visual coding in LTM when you recognize someone s face use auditory coding when you recognize a person passed on the sound of their voice semantic coding when you remember the gist of a meaning of something that happened in the past predominant type 6 Know what a double dissociation is and how it is useful for describing processes in the brain What are example double dissociations used in class and in the book to distinguish LTM and STMWM double dissociation typically having some patient with brain damage and looking at differences between STM and LTM and see how the damage has affected one of these functions and sparing the other STM and LTM operates independently and served by different mechanisms EX when surgeon removed hippocampus patient couldn39t form LTM and could only have STM other patient had reduced ability to remember digit span so her STM was low but she was ale to form and hold new memoriesevents in her life 7 Who are KF HM and Clive Wearing What do their impairments tell us about human memory as represented in the brain clive wearing and HM STM is GOOD and LTM is BAD hippocampus removed KF STM is BAD and LTM is GOOD reduced digit span but able to form and hold new memories 8 Be capable of explaining the difference between explicit and implicit LTM and know the constituent parts of each explicit memories conscious memorydeclrative memory consisting of episodic memory personal events and semantic memory facts knowedge implicit memories nondeclarative memories unconscious memories which are memories that are used without awareness so the contents of these memories can t be reported consists of Priming procedural memory and conditioning priming change in response to a stimulus caused by the previous presentation fthe same or similar stimulus procedural memory skill memory so memory for doing things ability to type classical conditioning when paining a neutral stimulus with another stimulus resulting in the new stimulus taking on new properties 9 Know how episodic and semantic memories are de ned and how they are separable Also how do they interact What neuropsychological evidence is there for a difference between episodic and semantic memory semantic memories potential semantic memory when we are learning facts can in uence how people allocate their attention episodic memories potential episodic memory when we are having a personal experience like sitting in class episodic memories can enhance semantic memories because the actual memory will help you remember facts about the situation such as graduation KC semantic memory is ok because he can remember facts like where things ae and that his brother died etc but can remember the actual circumstances italian woman poor semantic memory and good episodic memory couldn t remember words and familiar faces and couldn t recognize famous faces or recall facts episodic brain activity in shape of cross starting from prefrontal cortex semantic brain activity is on far left far right and far back 10 What is priming and how can it manifest Priming when the presentation of one stimulus changes the response to a subsequent test stimulus either positively increasing the speed or accuracy of the response test stimulus or negatively causing a decrease in the speed or accuracy of the response to the test stimulus POSITIVE PRIMING repitition priming occurs when the the test stimulus is the same or resembles the priming stimulus so seeing the word twice will make you remember quicker when you see the word again conceptual priming when the enhancement caused by the priming stimulus is based on the meaning of the stimulus so seeing the word furniture may cause you to respond faster to the word chair later conceptual and repetition priming are implicit memory because their effects occur even if the person doesn t remember the presentation of the priming stimulus 11 Be able to describe how amnesia interacts with implicit memory amnesia patients did poorly when recalling items in explicit memory but they performed just as well on the implicit memory tests as those who did not have amnesia This shows that implicit memory and explicit memory work separately over a course of 3 days participants are shown an incomplete airplane picture and by the third time more and more of the plane picture is there Even though the amnesia causes them to forget that they remembered anything the day before their implicit memory allows them to recognize the picture because the patients learned from experience 12 Know what procedural memory and classical conditioning are and how they can in uence LTM procedural memory memory for doing something that usually requires actions skill memory Classical conditioning a neutral stimulus that doesn t illicit a response is paired with a conditioned stimulus which does result in a response 13 Know what incidental and intentional memory tests are and the differences between them 14 How does implicit memory affects everyday life What about marketing Or the news PSY 200 Cognitive Psychology Midterm 2 Study Guide Chapter Seven LongTerm Memory Encoding and Retrieval 1 Know what rehearsal is and be able to recognize it when described in an experiment rehearsal repeating information over and over maintenance rehearsal helps maintain information in STMWM but it is not an effective way of transferring information into longterm memory ex when you keep trying to memorize the numbers of a phone number so repeating elaborative rehearsal more effective at transferring information into LTM it occurs when you think about the meaning of an item or make connections between the item and something you know ex when you try to remember things by making connections to things you know 2 Be able to describe what the levelsofprocessing theory is and how it operates according to the theory depth of processing is determined by the nature of the task during encoding memory depends on the depth of processing that an item receives either shallow processing or deep processing shallow processing little attention to meaning and occurs when attention is focused on physical features Occurs during maintenance rehearsal where the item is repeated in memory but not connected with any deeper meaning to anything deep processing involves close attention focusing on an item s meaning and relating it to something else 3 Know several types of encoding procedures and what their effects on memory are you can remember words better when you put it in a complex sentence with meaning people who associated the word with visual imagery memorized twice as many words creating images based on the words is good sef reference effect causes you to relate a word to yourself and your memory is better run this situation generating information helps you remember things much better than just reading organizing information with a retrieval cue that connects all the words together helps the person memorize things 4 Know factors that in uence the encoding process and how they do so creating connections active creation and organization 5 Be able to describe the testing effect and the experiments showing how it works rereading material and being tested on it is the best way to study better recall than those who just reread the passage 6 Be able to describe the similarities and differences between different types of retrieval tests free recall cued recall etc and what retrieval cues are retrieval cues words or other stimuli that help us remember info stored in our memory RECALL PROCEDURES free recall a participant is simply asked to recall stimuli cued recall participant is presented with retrieval cues to aid in recall of the previously experienced stimuli it s better to recall the words with categories so with cues than if you just do free recall and ask to recall random words 7 Know what is meant by encodingretrieval match What are encoding speci city statedependent learning and transferappropriate processing and what types of experiments demonstrate how these terms operate encoding speci city we encode information along with its context state dependent learning learning that is associated with a particular internal state such as mood or state of awareness transfer appropriate processing memory performance is enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval 8 What is the boxes approach to memory and what are some criticisms of it 9 Know ways to improve studying and how to do it more effectively you can improve studying by generating your own questions and then you have to have an active role in creating the material in order to encode well and for long term retrieval 10 Know how experience causes physical changes in the brain synapse is strengthened with experience activity at the synapse causes a seq of chem reactions which result in the synthesis of new proteins changing the structure of the synapse LTP which is enhanced ring or neurons after repeated stimulation 11 Be able to describe some of the basic structures in the brain that are thought to be involved with memory in very general terms hippocampus creates new LTMs medial temporal lobe involved in LTM 12 Know what consolidation is and how it is thought to occur as time passes after an event it goes through consolidation so that it is less likely to be affected by trauma transforms new memories from a fragile state where they can be disrupted into a more permanent state where they can resist disruption Chapter Eight Everyday Memory and Memory Errors 1 Know what autobiographical memory is and how it relates to other memory processes andor structures 2 Be able to describe the reminiscence bump and the hypotheses that attempt to explain it 3 Know what ashbulb memories are and experimental ndings about how accurate they are Know the experiments that describe ashbulb memories and the theories that attempt to explain these memories PSY 200 Cognitive Psychology Midterm 2 Study Guide Memory is constructive Know about experiments that demonstrate this including Bartlett s War of the Ghosts Jacoby s Becoming Famous Overnight and in uences of stereotypes on memory Know about how knowledge can in uence memory Be familiar with what scripts and schema are and how they affect memory Know in what ways knowledge leads to false or incorrect memories Why is memory likely constructive Be able to identify and describe the misinformation effect and how MPI is thought to cause it Be familiar with the types of errors people make in eyewitness testimony and why these errors are likely to be made Chapter 9 Knowledge 1 Know the types of approaches for categories and the strengths and weaknesses of each membership in a category is determined by comparing the object to a prototype that represents the category prototypes are typical members of a category family resemblance things in a category resemble each other in multiple ways typicality effect the ability to judge highly prototypical objects more rapidly prototypical objects are named rst participants tend to list the most prototypical members of the category rst prototypical objects are more affected by more priming presentation of one stimulus affects responses to a stimulus that follow advantage works best for larger categories such as birds or automobiles involves determining whether an object is similar to a standard object exemplars are actual members of the category that a person has encountered in the past thus if a person has encountered sparrows robins and blue jays in the past each of these would be an exemplar for the category birds advantage By using real examples it can more easily take into account atypical cases such as ightless birds This ability to take into account individual cases means that the exemplar approach doesn t discard information that might be useful later also deals more easily with variable categories such as games works best for smaller categories it has been proposed that as we initially learn about a category we may average exemplars into a prototype then later in learning some of the exemplar information becomes stronger what s special about basic level categories three distinguished levels of categories the global level the basic level and the speci c level hierarchical categorization categorization in which larger more general categories are divided into smaller more speci c categories creating a number of levels of categories Rosch proposed that the basic level is psychologically special because going above it to global results in a large loss of information and going below it to speci c results in a little gain of information 2 Know the difference between rulebased eg classical view and similaritybased approaches rule based approach applying a rule to solve a mechanical reasoning problem contrasts with the approaches that involve mental imagery similaritybased approaches 3 What are semantic networks How are they related to the classical view semantic networks the networks consist of nodes that are connected by links each node represents a category or concept and concepts are placed in the network so that related concepts are connected semantic network approach approach to understanding how concepts are organized in the mind that proposes that concepts are arranged in networks it is the same as the classical view without some restrictive assumption 5 What is the typicality effect What is family resemblance typicality effect the ability to judge highly prototypical objects more rapidly family resemblance is the idea that things in a particular category resemble one another in a number of ways 6 Be able to identify basic categories and describe them and why they are privileged the basic level is psychologically special because going above it to global results in a large loss of information and going below it to speci c results in a little gain of information be 7 Know what the prototype amp exemplar approaches are and how they have been tested participants judged objects on a scale of 1 to 7 High prototypicality means that a category member closely resembles the category prototype closer to 1 Low prototypicality means that the category member does not closely What is wrong with similaritybased approaches 8 Understand the basics behind connectionist models of knowledge and assessments of them connectionism is an approach to creating computer models for representing concepts and their properties based on characteristics of the brain these models are also called parallel distributed processing PDP units inspired by neurons in the brain lines connections that transfer information between units and roughly represent axons in the brain input units units activated by stimuli from the environment input units D hidden units D output units connection weights determines how signals sent from one unit either increase or decrease the activity of the next unit these weights correspond to what happens at a synapse that transmits signals from one neuron to another back propagation process by which error signals are sent back to the hidden and representation units to provide information about how the connection weights should changed to that the correct property units will be activated these results also support connectionism the operation of connectionist networks is not totally disrupted by damage graceful degradation disruption of performance occurs only gradually as parts of the system are damaged connectionist networks can explain generalization of learning because similar concepts have similar patterns training a system to recognize the properties of one concept also provides information about other related concepts 9 Be familiar with the reviewed neuroscienti c ndings in categorization two examples of areas for speci c categories are the fusiform face area FFA and the parahippocampal place area PPA that responds to houses rooms and places the IT cortex which distinguishes between dogs and cats during presentation of the stimuli appears to be responding to the features and shapes of the dog and cat stimuli the PF cortex which distinguishes between dogs and cats during the delay and while the monkey is making a decision appears to be responding to more abstract properties of the stimuli that are characteristics of dogs in general or of cats in general category speci c knowledge impairment patient has trouble recognizing objects in one category patients KC and EW had trouble categorizing animals but had no problem with living things 11 Know the differences between rulebased and informationintegration categorization tasks How are they learned differently according to COVIS Are they still processed differently after extended training Chapter 10 Visual Imagery 1 Know what visual imagery is and its history in the study of psychology visual imagery is seeing in the absence of a visual stimulus early ideas about imagery proposed that images were one of the three basic elements of consciousness along with sensation and feelings He also proposed that because images accompany thought studying images was a way of studying thinking this idea of a link between imagery and thinking gave rise to the imageless thought debate whether thought is possible in the absence of images Francis observed that people who had great dif culty forming visual images were still quite capable of thinking Watson viewed images as quotunproven amp mythological and therefore not worthy of study cognitive revolution showed that it was easier to remember concrete nouns that can be imaged than it is to remember abstract nouns The technique he used was called pairedassociate learning he proposed the conceptualpeg hypothesis concrete nouns create images that other words can quothang on toquot proposed mental chronometry determining the amount of time needed to carry out various cognitive tasks 2 Be familiar with experiments that demonstrate the relationship between imagery and perception including theories of spatial vs propositional representations the correspondence is supported by a number of experiments by involving a task called mental scanning participants create a mental images and then scan them in their minds early experiment 1 asked participants to memorize a picture of an object such as a boat and then to create an image of that object in their mind and to focus on one part of the boat such as the anchor 2 They were than asked to look for another part of the boat such as the motor and press the true button when they found this part of the boat or the false button when they couldn t nd it the results of this experiment veri ed that it should take longer for participants to nd parts of the boat that are located farther from the initial point of focus proposed that as participants scanned they may have encountered other interesting parts and this distraction may have increased their reaction time second scanning experiment 1 Asked participants to scan between two places on a map 2scan between palces on the map of an island that contained 7 different locations just as in the boat experiment it took longer to scan between greater distances on the image proposed another explanation which started what has been called the imagery debate a debate whether imagery is based on spatial mechanisms or is based on mechanisms related to language 3 Speci cally know about mental rotation experiments and mental scanning Mental rotation experiments and asked participants to identify as quickly as possible if two objects were of the same objects or two different objects 4 Know the similarities and the differences between perception and imagery and how the two can be compared there is spatial correspondence between imagery and perception We act as if our mental images are physical entities 5 Understand why imagery neurons are thought to exist and what studies support their existence in an experiment by he found that neurons responded to some objects but not to others ie baseballs but not faces what s especially signi cant about these neurons is that they respond both to perceiving on object and to imagining it 6 Know what transcranial magnetic stimulation studies tell us about imagery in the brain along with evidence from neuropsychological case studies brain activation that occurs in response to imagery is not an epiphenomenon a phenomenon that accompanies a mechanism but is not actually part of the mechanism and that the brain activity in the visual cortex plays a casual role in both perception and imagery removing part of the visual cortex decreases image size patient MGS was about 15 feet from an imaginary horse before its image over owed after her right occipital lobe has been removed and she repeated the task the distance increased to 35 feet this occurred because removing part of the visual cortex reduced the size of her eld of view so the horse lled up the eld when she was farther away perceptual problems are accompanied by problems with imagery damage to the parietal lobes can cause a condition called unilateral neglect the participant ignores objects in one half of the visual eld even to the extent of shaving just one side of his face or eating only the food on one side of the plate results show that mental imagery and perception share physiological mechanisms dissociations between imagerv and perception CK was able to draw images from memory in rich detail as task that depends on imagery Interestingly when he was shown his own drawings after enough time had passed do he had forgotten the actual drawing experience he was unable to identify the objects he had drawn making sense of neuropsychological results the mechanisms of perception and imagery overlap only partially 7 Be familiar with how imagery is used to improve memory and what speci c techniques are used to improve it placing images at locations tied to its ability to created organized locations upon which memories for speci c items can be placed method of loci a method in which things to be remembered are placed at different locations in a mental image of a spatial layout associating images with words the pegword technique involves imagery by associating items with concrete words Chapter 12 Problem Solving 1 What is a problem and what is the difference between a wellde ned problem and an illde ned problem a problem occurs when there is an obstacle between a present state and a goal and it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle wellde ned problem have a correct answer certain procedures when applied correctly will lead to a solution illde ned problem do not necessarily have one correct answer and the path to their solution if often unclear 2 Know what restructuring and insight are in regard to problemsolving What are insight and noninsight problems and what is the difference between them What experiments show this restructuring the process of changing a problem s representation according to the psychologists restructuring is the key mechanism of problem solving insight the sudden realization of a problem s solution suddenly discovering a crucial element that leads to the solution insight problems experience problem solving as an quotAhaquot experience at one point they don t have the answer and the next minute they have solved the problem noninsight problems involves a more methodical process to test their hypothesis and gave participants insight problems and non insight problems and asked them to make warmth judgments every 15 seconds as they were working on the problems For the insight problems warmth ratings remain low at 2 or 3 just until the problem is solved for noninsight problems the ratings gradually increased until the problem was solved D insight problem solutions do in fact occur suddenly 3 What are examples of insight and noninsight problems When is insight most likely to occur Insight moving dots around on a triangle Noninsight connecting pieces of a chain together opening a chain costs 2 cents and closing the chain costs 3 cents you have 15 cents can you do it 4 What are xation and functional xedness What is a mental set What do they imply about problemsolving xation people s tendency to focus on a speci c characteristic of the problem that keeps them from arriving at a solution functional xedness restricting the use of an object to its familiar functions candle problem asked participants to use various objects to complete a task mount a candle on the chalkboard so that the candle will not drip wax onto the oor the solution occurs when the person realizes that the matchbox can be used as a support rather than as a container mental set preconceived notion about how to approach a problem There are some obstacles to problem solving 5 Be able to describe Newell and Simon s approach to problem solving and the terms they use to talk about problem solving including initial state goal state operators intermediate state problem space meansend analysis and subgoals and s approach to problem solving saw problems in terms of an initial state conditions at the beginning of a problem and a goal state the solution of the problem operators actions that take the problem from one state to another usually governed by rules intermediate state conditions after each step is made toward solving a problem problem space all possible states that could occur when solving a problem meansend analysis a way of solving a problem in which the goal is to reduce the difference between the initial and goal states subgoals small goals that help create intermediate states that are closer to the goal 6 How can the way a problem is phrased affect its difficulty Be able to describe how the acrobat problem the reverse acrobat problem and the mutilated checkerboard problem re ect this Acrobat problem took 563 minutes participants took a longer time to solve the reverse acrobat problem because a change in the directions made the problem more difficult because it was phrased differently 951 minutes mutilated checkerboard problem varied the board between blank colored black and pink and bread and butter participants in the bread and butter group solved the problem twice as fast as those in the blank group and required fewer hints 7 What does the thinkaloud protocol show us about what is happening during a person s problem solving think aloud protocol by recording people s thought processes as they are solving the problem the think aloud protocol reveals a shift in how the person perceived elements of the problem very similar to restructuring we could say that the person creates a representation of the problem that makes it easier to solve 8 Know what analogical transfer is and when it occurs Know the terms related to analogical transfer Analogical transfer transferring experience from solving one problem to solving another similar problem this transfer occurs when participants who are trying to solve a target problem are presented with a problem or story called the source problemstory Surface features speci c elements that make up the problem tumor ray Structural features the underlying principle that governs the solution weak rays are used Analogical encoding participants compare two cases that illustrate a principle Analogical paradox participants in psychological experiments tend to focus on surface features in analogy problems whereas people in the real world frequently use deeper more structural features 9 What does the way experts solve problems tell us about the way knowledge is differentially organized between experts and novices Does expertise spread to other areas Experts possess more knowledge about their elds the expert s mind contains lots oh knowledge but what s important is that this knowledge is organized so it can be accessed when needed to work on a problem ie chess master vs a novice chess player Experts knowledge is organized differently from novices novices categorize problems based on their surface features experts categorize them based on their deep structure ie physics problems Experts spend more time analyzing problems it appears that these differences between experts and novices hold only when problems are within an experts eld 10 Know how divergent and convergent thinking relate to problemsolving and which are typical of which types of problems divergent thinking thinking that s open ended involving a large number of potential solutions amp no correct answer creativity is often associated with this type of thinking illde ned problems convergent thinking thinking that works towards nding a solution to a speci c problem that usually has a correct answer associated with wellde ned problems 11 Know the three determinants of highlevel cognition as it relates to problem solving and what each contributes 12 Be able to describe the difference between an algorithm and a heuristic and when each type of problemsolving strategy is used and the pros and cons of each 13 What is the travelling salesman problem Why is this problem interesting 14 Know Wallas fourstage decomposition of creative problem solving 15 In addition to Wallas decomposition of creative problem solving what theories attempt to explain creative problem solving systematically How do these theories differ and how are they similar 16 Be able to describe the ExplicitImplicit Interaction Ell theory and how it integrates other theories of incubation and problemsolving Chapter 13 Reasoning and Decision Making 2 What is deductive reasoning sequences of statements known as syllogisms from which we can logically conclude something we can make de nite conclusions from deductive reasoning 3 What is inductive reasoning we arrive at conclusions on what is probably true based on evidence make probably conclusions from inductive reasoning 4 Understand categorical syllogisms using some examples Understand the concepts of Universal Negative Universal Affirmative Particular Negative and Particular Positive categorical syllogisms where the premises and conclusion describe the relation between two categories by using statements that being with quotall no or somequot the form of the syllogisms need to be the same so quotall birds are animals and quotall animals have four legs the two premises both start with all 5 Understand the difference between validity and truth Does truth affects participants performance when evaluating syllogisms Validity refers to a syllogism that is valid when its conclusion follows logically from its two premises validity depends on the FORM of the syllogism which determines whether the conclusion follows from the two syllogisms Truth refers to the content of the premises which have to be evaluated to determine whether they are consistent with the facts so saying quotall animals have four legs would not be true 6 What is an algorithm What is a heuristic Know the common heuristics and their examples related to deductive reasoning 7 Understand conditional reasoning using some examples Know the valid and invalid inferences in conditional reasoning Be familiar with the Wason card selection task Wason 4Card Problem four cards are shown and each card has a letter on one side and a number on the other side your task is to indicate which cards you would need to turn over to test the following rule if there is a vowel on one side then there is an even number on the other side 53 of participants indicate that E needs to be turned over which is true only 4 of participants came up with the right answer that the second card that needs to be turned over is the 7 because revealing a vowel would discon rm the rule falsi cation principle to test a rule it is necessary to look for situations that would falsify the rule only two cards needed to be turned over to test the rule for the wason card problem 8 What is the con rmation bias tendency to look for info that con rms our hypothesis and overlook the information that argues against it 9 Know the common heuristics and their examples availability representativeness availability heuristic events that are more easily rememberd are judged as being more probable than events that are less easily remembered representativeness heuristic probability that A is a member of class B can be determined by how well the properties of A resembles the proerties we usually associate with class B 10 Know the most common biases resulting from the heuristics eg baserate neglect conjunction fallacy anchoring effect focusing illusion etc illusory correlation correlation appears to exist between two events but there really is no correlation
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