Units 1-3 Intro to Modern Art (Material for- Exam 1)
Units 1-3 Intro to Modern Art (Material for- Exam 1) HAA0030
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Marsland on Wednesday February 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HAA0030 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Barbara McCloskey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 218 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Art in Art at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/04/15
Modern Art Recitation 02052015 Grading 10 in class activities 0 5 attendance 0 5 participation 0 20 of total Modern Art Grade Key Words Vanishing Point a point in the background of the artwork where the lines converge to give the artwork depth and give the illusion of objects being further and further away can have multiple like Cezanne who has multiple viewpoints Modernism art that didn t conform to the ideas of what art was at the time AvantGarde the new artwork the leading artist who art doing new and innovative things Medium material used to make the artwork oil paint is acrylic paint Formal Characteristics the divergent aspects that make up the work of art Contour the outline that outlines a particular things linear outlines vs painterly outlines see individual brush strokes characture black outlines lmpasto heavy texture due to large amount of paint Chiaroscuro seamless transition between light amp dark Salon And official display of artwork in an exhibition lconography subject matter Composition placement of gures and shape Picture Plane the two dimensional surface use when talking about when things are near or far from the picture plane Picture Space the fake three dimetionality within the artwork foreground midground and background Perspective method of conveying depth o Atmospheric Perspective closer things are in more detail whereas further away objects are less detailed o Foreshortening things coming towards a picture plane are very large even if in real life they are much smaller arm reaching right at you Exam 1Format 10 short answer5 minutes 0 know spelling artists names terms 0 key terms on course web artists names readings Comparison Essay 25 minutes 0 compare and contrast formal properties content subject historical content 0 make sure it s a real comparison 0 intro form content historical content 0 Unknown Slide15 minutes 0 How does it t in terms of formal properties and subject matter 0 Which movement academic realism impressionism post or neo impressionism or fauvism Comparison Essay Options Exam 1 0 Should be able to discuss 0 Formal properties I 0 Content I 0 Historical context I 0 Tuner amp Monet o Turner The Burning Houses of Parliament Romanticism n I lmpasto amp painterly n I Current historical event burning houses of parliament n I Has a sense of depth a I Primed with dark primer n I Contemporary moment a I Fleeting moment a I Turner sketched in front of scene and then went home and painted for hours his painting 0 Monet Impression Sunrise Impressionism n lmpasto amp painterly more so than Turner D Looks at because the sky and water have no true division n primed with white I contemporary moment a eeting moment a Monet very focused on light local color color it really is optical color the color we view them as n Monet went studied under turner and was impressed by technique a Monet took on planair painted outdoors Manet amp Cabanel o Cabanel Birth of Venus Academic art a most compositional balance a atmospheric depth a liner contour line a mythological in content a no guilt associated because its accepted a not looking at viewer o Manet Olympia Realist Art n has contour line a no sense of 3D I takes political stance n colors give a sense of 2D I guilt associated we know her status a painting is seen as porn I staring straight at subject a Olympia is a name for prostitute n maidservant is delivering gift for her services a black women reminder of uninhibited sexuality a hand guarding access to her money maker a offensive to men at the time and so people claimed her hand was foreshortened El Renoir amp Seurat hair on body 0 Renoir Luncheon Impressionist El El El casual brush strokes mobile casual postures real leisure o Seurat Sunday Afternoon Neoimpressionism El El the mix of the classes friends with anarchists and it s the mix of the classes methodically applying paint to the canvas everything is stiff everyone statue like after economic collapse critics call to sobriety because life was hard at the time so they didn t want fun joyous paintings done with pointillism painting technique The founding of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in France 1648 0 art and power under King Louis XIV o institutionalization of the quotfine artsquot 0 the artist as a professional art 0 the nature of academic instruction The rst public Salon 1737 o the birth of quotart criticismquot art39s new public the emergent middle class JacquesLouis David as the painter of the French Revolution 0 the crisis of history painting 0 David as winner of the Prix de Rome Rome Prize NeoClassicism and the French Enlightenment David39s model of civic virtue 39Oath of the Horatii between the Hands of their Father 1785 David as Propaganda Minister of the French revolutionary government 0 Napoleon as emperor and the return of the Academy The growing impact of the middle class on the production of emergence of the quotgallerydealerquot system 0 tradition and the market value of innovation Early 19thcentury Romantic landscape painting in England 0 Perception and imagination Turner39s quotBurning of the Houses of Parliamentquot 1834 quotRain Steam and SpeedThe Great Western Railwayquot 1844 o o Constable39s quotThe Haywain Landscape Noonquot 1821 at the French Salon of 1824 Romanticism and the cult of artistic alienation Delacroix as leader of the French Romantic movement quotMassacre at Chios Scioquot 1824 and the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Turks 182130 changing notions of the artist Ingres39s quotPortrait of Francois Marius Granetquot 1807 and Gericault39s quotPortrait of a Young Man in an Artist39s Studioquot 181920 Realism Daumier caricature freedom ofthe press standing up against the rule Critical realism attempt to use satire as a mean for unmasking oppression Courbet became politically radicalized during a rebellion in 1848 o 39The Meeting 1854 mock of a print that links himself to the peasantry but makes himself appear equal to a wealthy banker 0 39After Dinner at Ornans 1849 was able to get the piece in a salon during a weak period in a solons time the painting was very large gures life size yet the subject was a completely ordinary scene this was normally reserved for history paintings Ornan is Courbet s home town and they are his family and friends artist taking own personal life and turned it into art no story was given to audience most paintings came with a background the audience could recognize The subjects have their backs to the viewer unlike many other signi cant paintings 39last supper No careful blending of paint used mainly a pallet knife 0 39Burial at Ornans 1849 all the faces were taken straight from townspeople in Oman and none of the are looking at the theme of this painting no central focus there is a reverend with a very red nose that suggests drunkenness undermines the church unveiled this painting in Oman before bringing it to a salon took it on tour through the countryside before depositing it at its salon the closer and closer this painting got to Paris the more controversial it got so even before it arrived critics suggested he was a socialist suggested the lack of respect for authority extended out into the countryside burials became ash points for political events 0 39The Studio A Real Allegory of the Last Seven Years of My Life 1855 sent up his own pavilion that he called the pavilion of realism u only had one painting in it referring to the time he was recognized to the time he was banned from the salon Corbet at center painting landscape on right there are his supporters fans and wanted him to become a painter of modern art including Charles Baudelaire on the left there are the people who he wanted to express in his art poor people street singers who he wanted his art to speak to but these people couldn t support his art shows himself being caught between his inspiration and his funding he is painted wearing a paitron out t and painting extremely uncontroversial subject matter a these are the types of paintings he can really paint landscape female nude 0 Rosa Bonheur o 39the horse fair 1853 o strict gender boundrys women could not paint nude although this was the most highly respected artwork at the time nude was being exhausted at the time normally clocked in mythology viewed in an idealistic way 0 had to apply for permission for permission to wear men s clothes from the police so she could slip into slaughter houses and study horses 0 given the legion of honor from the empress 0 she turned to safe subject matter to avoid controversy 0 39king of the forest 1878 O O 0000 O 0 39head of a donkey 1878 almost portrayed as human portraits o Gerome amp Bouguereau Famous for rendering the female nude pygmalion and galatea historica painting Greek mythology 39Venus and cupid Greek mythology painting shapely no blemishes long hair porcelain skin critics said salons were becoming meat markets because almost every painting was of the female nude Manet in 1863 salons were overcrowded with artists works rejected 2500 artworks so opened the salon of the refused 39Dejeunersur Herbe Luncheon on the Grass 1863 his use of color line and space was incorrect the characters look as in they were stacked on top of each other controversial because El eliminates the tonal gradation of the female nude looks separate from the rest of the painting showed the viewers that it was really paint on a two dimensional canvas breaking the illusionism these are all known people two sculptors and a model his use of color line and space was incorrect the characters look as in they were stacked on top of each other copied another artwork brought attention to the prostitution that was going on in the woods around Paris but brings this to light in a nonjudgmental way 0 non judgmental because non sexualized positions woman s look on her face is neither embarrassed not sexual look women unclothed men clothed 0 Cabanal 0 Birth of Venus 1863 tired out subject matter adheres to all academic painting qualities 0 Manet 0 Olympia 1865 in response to 39birth of Venus controversial El deliberately copying 39Venus of Urbino by Titian 1538 exchanged the original calm dog symbol for delity for an alert black cat symbol for sexuality maid servant Laura known gure at the time model body is turned more away than Venus no special depth in Olympia disheveled nature of the bed eye level with Olympia higher eye level than Venus playing with power levels Olympia s hair is puled back severely and blends into background to enhance severity Olympia is thin athletic and is very alert unlike the curvy lazy Venus Added hair to her naval and armpits wasn t done Hand to critics looked frog like Manet made hand shorted but is also crushed into pelvis rather than simply covering it gracefully Olympia was a name that was given to a lower class of prostitute suggests she was a part of the sex trade Was criticized he had made a pornographic painting 0 Portrait of Emile Zola 1868 Zola defended avantgarde painters People like him had to mediate between artists pushing the boundaries and the art viewers Reproduction of Olympia on the wall reproduction of a Japanese print a At this time japan opened up trade so Japanese prints ooded into the European market a Manet valued their 2D values 0 FantinLatour o 39A Studio in the Batignolles Quarter art club where artists gathered this group is the group that will go on the make the French impressionist group n renware manet zola claude monet art for arts sake 0 1874 French Impressionist movement 0 18741876 0 8 exhibitions took place 0 any arts who showed there could not show it in a salon 0 rst group who turns it back on the main art world 0 the broke away because of what was going on in the salon at the time paintings crammed together overcrowding the painting would not have been properly recognized in the space 0 Monet 0 39Terrace at SainteAdresse 1866 unmixed pigments xating on the wealth in the middle class new leisure pastime being represented boating o lmpression Sunrise 1874 o a realtionship between foreground and background is covered in mist attening out painting Group branched off from the salon setting 8 exhibitions between 1884 and 1886 Monet 39Terrace at 5teAdresse 1866 0 un mixed pigments o focused on leisure lmpression Sunrise 1874 o illumination of pictorial depth 0 forms and environment merge together 0 trying to capture changing light and atmosphere and how these shift our perception of the environment 0 caused riots in the places where they were displayed people thought they were being swindled and were only getting sketches instead of the nished piece 0 39CamiIe Dying 1879 0 was trying to capture changing hues on her face and she slips away from life 0 Monet is not trying to get anything back or trying to shock people but simply trying to capture a eeting moment No political stance with his paintings 39CamiIe in the Garden 1873 Manet o 39Monet in his Floating Studio 1874 0 en plein ai taking canvas right out into nature and recording directly 0 their work is displayed as a spontaneous record invention of the paint tube so they could work outside easily 39Gare Ste Lazare 0 train travel made it suddenly easier for people to go out to the countryside Renoir o Luncheon of the Boating Party 1880 o Emphasis on pleasure 0 Light brush strokes 0 Le GrenouiIere the frog pond o Renoir and Monet both had rendering of the same place Monet o 39Regatta at Argenteuil 0 39Boating at Argenteuil 1887 o someone found that Monet was positioning things to cover things that were not ideal like smoke stacks 39Bouevard des Capucines 1873 o Monet was painting this scene on a brand new street that was recently redone to get rid of these old neighborhoods that were locations of political uprising medieval streets torn down for a grid like city 0 Monet is dedicating himself to the new Paris Caillebotte 0 Paris Street A Rainy Day 1877 o parading elegance in new modern city 0 lacks sketchiness like most impressions Manet 39the Balcony 1869 o the feminist group had women as key gures within their group Manet sister in law on left Morisot Morisot Manet s sister impressionist Woman Grooming Hersef 1880 0 Reading 1873 women were expected to pain only simply domestic scenes although we see work in particular work that is done inside the home which was seen as acceptable for women to do 0 39The cradle 1872 0 39Balcony 1872 Cassatt other main woman in impressionist movement impressionist took herself to Paris and got in contact with the impressionists copied afterJapanese prints 0 the letter 1890 0 Woman bathing 1890 0 good friends with Degas Degas His composition is dispersed his gures around the edge of his painting Ordinary everyday events 0 Ballet 0 39Musicians in the Orchestra 1872 not gives us most important moment but rather in the pit 39Balerina and Lady With a fan 1885 Dancers practicing at the bar 1887 39balet studio 1872 39Waiting 1882 all are these off moments that most people normally wouldn t see eeting moment 0000 0 Nude 0 39Woman combing her hair39 1888 o 39nude drying her feet 1888 these woman don t seem to know we are there accused of these women being prostitutes the question that was in peoples minds are they realistic views of women s lives not idealizing them where as some people said these woman are objectifying Artists like Monet and Morisot primed their canvass with off white paint rather than academic painters who prime their canvases with black or brown Manet French banking system collapsed in 1882 European wide depression The carefree nature of the art was now seen as inappropriate due to the economic collapse 0 39Bar at the FoiesBergere 1881 0 last painting before death 0 set in a dance hall where people went to drink dance and watch shows trapeze artists 0 is she a barkeep or a prostitute seems to be having with an intimate conversation with man 0 woman has very black stare no emotion o incorrect mirror image wrong angle between woman and man and no man in foreground this was intentional population came from 300000 to 3 million so many woman had to prostitute themselves to simply get by in order to get people to come into these dance hall they would pay people to come in and look like they were having fun Renoir 39Dance at Bougival 1883 o woman face was copied from Raphael s 39Madonna 1505 o 39The Great Bathers 1884 0 written off by critics immediately 0 bring together tradition with new impressionist movement 0 more solid contour o compositional triangle Monet Left Paris but retreated to the countryside to create artwork and to turn his estate into a form of artwork His garden at Giverny Rouen Cathedral series morning effect noon 18905 0 Series of haystacks 39Grain Stack snow effect 1891 39Gardens at Givern y 1900 o 39Wateriies 1919 Seurat 39A Bathing Place Asnieres 1883 O O O O O uniformity to the color tired bored feeling to the painting taking classic impressionist subject matter and turns it in its head rejected from the salon close to anarchist movement had effect of industrial capitalism Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grandejatte 1884 O O O O 0000 technique pointilliam divisioniam chromoluminarism large scale painting signals a return to seriousness that wasn t seen in impressionist would lay down pigment and then add more color in a series of dots or small dashes was fascinated by how opposite colors in the color wheel make certain aspects pop creating a new kind of academic art rooting his art in Egyptian art for the most part people don t interact with each other this place was known to be a place where different classes could come to enjoy the sunshine alienation they don t seem to want to interact with each other suggested that these people werent resting but simply striking poses 0 shown in last impressionist show Gauguin Wasn t an artist before 35 was working at an investment rm when it crashed and he turned to painting left city went to coast of France to somewhere he viewed as more pure left his wife and kids 0 Stil Life With a japanese Print 1889 o mug is portrait of painter 0 saw himself as an outsider to art raised in Peru 0 39The Vision after the Sermon 1888 o moment after church 0 at planes of color but shocking color 0 still wearing traditional clothes symbol of an uncorrupted society separation from the materialistic Paris 0 Jacob wrestling with angel 0 Merging of spiritual life with their real lives of these woman 0 Tree is mirrored from Hiroshige s Pum Orchard 1857 Used same angle and at planes of color Travelled to Tahiti owned by France in 1891 23 population wiped out after exposure to European disease forced to give up their language had to learn French forced to wear French clothing the paradise that use to exist was under radical transformation while he was there 0 39Tahitian Woman Bathing 1892 amp 39Two Tahitian Women 1899 0 very few depictions of men 0 lots on nude paintings 0 we don t ever see them work rather bathing eating relaxing Titled paintings in Tahitian helped rebel against the taxes imposed by the French obvious revolt against the French rebelling against colonialist corruption 0 Landscape With Tahitian Women 1893 0 sun drenched colors bright yellows greens 0 39What Are Youeaous 1890 vs 39Two Tahitian Women 1890 0 original women vs the European ideal o simpli cation of form His images went back to Europe showed impact of European colonization Supported Colonization would have brought out pity in French population lacking education lacking manners could be seen as support for the invasion of France that they need France s help Did not Support very naked in your face women power was held in female sexuality which the French couldn t understand and barbaric title painting in native language showed a less corrupted society 39Annah the javanese 1893 0 his lover 0 not realist portrayal of space and form 0 attened out form 0 nude but yet in regal posture drawing on European tradition on gure used for regal portraits 39The Specter Watches Her 1892 o cowering under her spiritual life and how it could haunt her in the night 0 spiritual life crosses over into reality 0 modeled off of Manet s Olympia 1865 Gauguin s rendering of space is atter bed tilted toward picture place woman oating on top of bead Gauguin used obviously not using naturalistic color unlike Manet s which mimics the naturalistic color Gauguin s woman in cowering whereas Manet s is staring straight at the viewer more vulnerable Dark skinned woman in Manet s is pushed to the background but not she has become the primitive ideal o 39SefPortrait with Halo 1889 0 La Orana Maria Hail Mary 0 Where do we come from What are we Where are we going 1897 0 related to the adam and eve story this is the moment when sin enters the world 0 when the ideal of the island looks like its on the brink of disintegrated Vincent Van Gogh Took up painting at 27 before then tried many profession and they were all terrible art dealer was one 0 39Potato Eaters 1885 0 one of his earliest paintings 0 simple meal surroundings inhospitable o characteristic lines to give impact of labor 0 poor peasant family 0 in his early days was looking toward the poor and disenfranchised to send their stories out 0 dark pallet Pere Tanguy 1887 his pallet brightens developed his own style pigment on canvas in long strokes Japanese prints in background The person was a color grinder Allowed artist to show their art in his color grinding art Became discussed by the commercialism of France went to Arles Made a 39studio of the south and they would all aid each other they were not sell their art through an art dealer and would take control of their own art 0 O O O O 39Poet s Garden 1888 o subjective use of color pure pigments House in Arles 1888 0 39Bedroom 1889 39Sun owers 1889 0 39Vincent Painting Sun owers 1888 Gauguin 0 colors were attached with emotions yellow happiness lived in poverty for most of his life but now they sell for hundred of millions of dollars why Gauguin and Van Gogh had a ght and left the art club place Van Gogh then cut off his ear and gave it to a prostitute as a gift was written off immediately as crazy and was put in an insane asylum 0 39Night Cafequot 1888 0 low end bar 0 oor slanted up so its close to picture place 0 uses big globs of paint 0 he said he deliberately used bright ridiculous color in his painting 0 committed to using color as an expression of emotions through color 39Sef Portrait with Bandaged Ear 1889 o romantic ideal of the artist such an insane genius that the public couldn t understand shot himself at the asylum and his painting suddenly shot up in price and he was suddenly admired and revered o 39Starry Night 1889 0 made at the insane asylum 0 simple town below but amazing sky above the reason its so valued today is because we can actually se the mental struggle he went through though his paint strokes he became the hero that avant garde looked to in the future Edvard Munch In uenced by Van Gogh 39The Scream 1893 0 said he painted it so that all aspects of the painting was screaming o painted the sky like blood 0 painting a state of mind 0 color and mind used to describe psychological state
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