Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSY-P 102
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Veronica Bone on Wednesday February 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-P 102 at Indiana University taught by Irene Vlachos-Weber in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 441 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology 2 in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/04/15
First P102 Exam Study Guide Personality What is personality 0 Consists of characteristic thoughts emotional responses and behaviors that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances 0 Personality trait a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances Freud 0 Back in the day used by most people now it is kind of controversial 0 Freud started as a medical doctor dealing with neurotic patients 0 Neuroses people who are neurotic are depressed and anxious 0 Freud also started the idea of the unconscious 0 One of the problems people have with psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theory is it is not scientifically based no real evidence 0 Science is empirical 0 Measure using your senses o Freud talks about conception things but not really physical 0 So his theory is not science because it is not measurable Theories of Personality Psychoanalytic Theory Freud 1 core of personality intrapsychic event inside your mind events win the mind that motivate behavior 0 Skinner says you do stuff for rewards while Freud says you are motivated by mind a psychological determinism all behavior determined by motives not chance there is a purpose for everything and nothing happens by accident b motives drives instincts for example animals are driven solely by instincts for humans a few examples are when you are hungry you are driven toward food 1drives create tension 0 which is unpleasant o for example if you are cold you are uncomfortable you are motivated to search for warmth 2basic human goal achieve pleasure and avoid pain which is known as the pleasure principle 32 major drives 0 Sex eros present from birth includes I All pleasurable things 0 Food ice skating friends ect o Aggression includes I Death and destruction 4 Drives are present at birth 2 The structure of personality a3 layers of mind contain thoughts feelings and motivations 1 conscious awareness part of the iceberg you can see what you can access in your brain and you are actively aware of 0 being hungry tired your surroundings 2 preconscious not currently aware but can become aware 0 Your phone number or your address or some sort of memory are examples 3 unconscious can t bring into awareness only get a glimpse 0 Violent motives fears selfish needs irrational wishes dreams slips of tongue 0 Freudian Slip when you say something and think it is a slip it was not a mistake but a glimpse into unconscious o For example saying I don t think we have been seduced while trying to say I don t think we have been introduced the slip is your unconscious thought Structural model of personality 3 interacting structures 1 Id is an unconscious thing and it operates according to the pleasure principle which leads us to seek pleasure and avoid pain for ex baby crying to be fed when hungry 1 Libido is the force that drives the pleasure principle 0 Today has a sexual connotation 0 Freud refered to the energy that promotes pleasure seeking o Acts on impulses and desires 2 Superego develops in childhood and is the internalization of parental and societal standard of conduct 3 Ego Mediates between the id and the superego brealtiy principle compromise choose actions gratify id wout undesirable Ex of the Id Superego and Ego together scenario Waking up in the Morning 0 Id immediate gratification stay in bed and watch Net ix all day 0 Superego what you should do go on a run and eat a healthy breakfast to start your day before class 0 Ego compromise Wake up watch an episode of Net ix eat a healthy breakfast and go to class Defense mechanisms unconscious mental strategies that the mind uses to protect itself from distress is caused by con icts between the id and the superego ways that the ego copes with anxiety 1 Contemporary researchers say that these mechanisms protect selfesteem 1 Wards off an uncomfortable thought about self by embracing the opposite thought 2 For example men who were showed videos depicting homosexual relations and reacted more negatively also experienced more arousal by it 2 Common defense mechanisms 1 Repression anxietyprovoking thoughts impulses memories are pushed out of awareness 0 Not aware they were there to begin with because trying to push out of awareness 0 Ex sexual abuse or watching a parent die 0 Controversy where there was a so called 1 out of 3 women that have been sexually abused Psychologists were convinced women were repressing these thoughts So women would go to therapy and have false memories put in their head by their therapist urging them toward the thought that they were sexually abused and repressing those thoughts 0 Repression is rare more common is PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 2 denial anxiety filled events are denied and barred from awareness 0 Ex Deny that significant other is cheating or that a cancer patient might die 0 Serves a protective function because it is not something you want to think about 3 projection project own attribute unacceptable impulses onto others 0 Ex Prejudice people who think they are better than others yet they say about those others that they think they are better 4 Reaction formation converting an unacceptable feeling into its opposite 0 Ex In studies it has been shown that people that are extra critical when watching homosexual behavior are more aroused by it They feel ashamed they feel that way 0 Ex Politician passed a law against gay marriage while having a homosexual affair himself 5 rationalization Creating excuses to justify failures shortcoming 0 Ex Asking a crush out but being rejected then saying that they weren t my type anyway Psychosexual Development Freud 0 Developmental stages child passes through in order 1BirthId sex drive looking for outlet pleasure source 2Each stage aerogenous zone body area provides pleasure btask achieve c fixation energy still focused on earlier stage i during times of stress do behaviors typical of that earlier stage 1 could lead to a psychological disorder Stages 1 oral birth 112 yr zone mouth and tongue task weaning from breast feeding or bottle feeding fixated 0 oral receptive weaned to late putting things in mouth for pleasure oral pleasure seeking I kiss I eat I chew gum 0 oralaggressive weaned to early destructive I bite I verbally hostile I chew ice 2 anal 112 3 yr zoneanus task potty training I fixated o analretentive when parent is rigid on pottytraining I neatorderly I stubborn I Withholding stingy I kind of 0CD o anal expulsive I messy I cruel destructive I emotional 3 phallic 3 6 yr genitals zone esp penis task successfully identify W samesex parent Fixated a OLdiw complex I little boys I falls in love With his mom I fears hates father I castration anxiety thinks dad Will do that I resolve identify With dad marries girl like mom I fixation might be a player or less masculine b Electra complex I notices she lacks penis and desires to get that back I angry at mom mom didn t give her a penis I jealous in love Wdad I penis substitute baby doll I penis envy I resolve girl identity Wmom marry guy like dad 4 latency 6 puberty zone indifferent to sexual matters task continue to identify With samesex parent 5 genital puberty adulthood zone genitals task form sexual love relationship develop What do Humanistic Approaches emphasis 0 Emphasize personal experience belief systems the uniqueness of the human condition and the inherent goodness of each person 0 Selfactualization to seek to fulfill our potential for personal growth through greater self understanding 0 Personcentered approach by Carl Rogers 0 Most parents show love and support that is conditional they love their kid as long as they are doing what they want and withhold love when not I This results in children abandoning their true feelings dreams and desires to do what their parent would like and approve losing sight of their true self 0 Parents should provide unconditional positive regard which means a parent should accept and prize their children no matter how their children act Express disapproval with expressing love 0 This results in a kid with a healthy sense of selfesteem and would be a fully functional person Personality re ects learning and cognition 0 Julian Rotters theories 0 Behavior is a function of 0 Our expectancies for reinforcement 0 Values we associate with specific reinforcers I For example deciding to go to a party or study you will think of your expectancies for reinforcement consider the likelihood that studying will lead to a good grade and values like where you would have more fun 0 Internal locus of control believe they bring about their own rewards 0 External locus of control believe rewards result from forces Personality types discrete categories of people 0 Implicit theories of Personality o Implicit means that you can infer o unaware of but which affect perceptions amp behavior I you may be subconsciously treating someone different because of preconceived idea about them 0 societies preconceptions and judgement I like treat someone differently because they are overweight o assume characteristics go together such as a shy person must dislike parties 0 Operational Definition o Operates as a go to definition personality a consistent set of characteristics displayed over time amp across situations I every person is different and unique 0 for example there are extreme introvert and extreme extrovert but most people are somewhere in between 0 includes behavior thoughts and feelings o a relatively consistent characteristic exhibited across situations acting thinking or feeling a certain way in circumstances I leds to a predisposition to act in this way in the future I the thing about Psychology is that you can predict how someone will act but it will never be certain or concrete because it is people and we are all different Trait approach how individuals differ in personality dispositions such as socialility cheerfulness and aggressiveness o Trait or State 0 Traits vary in degree for different individuals I For example extreme extravert vs extreme introvert o Traits are inferred from behavior a People will infer the traits you have differently than your prospective of yourself i Other people judge on actions ii You judge yourself from your intentions o Eysenck s Hierarchical Model 3 subordinate traits o Introversionextroversion how shy reserved and quiet a person is vs how sociable outgoing and bold o Emotional stability how much someone s mood and emotions change I Neurotic low in emotional stability experiences frequent and dramatic mood swings esp negative person is usually anxious moody and depressed o Psychoanalyst aggression impulse control and empathy I High is psychoanalyst more aggressive impulsive and selfcentered o The Big 5 16 collapsed into 5 super categories 0 Occurs across cultures 0 stable over life time I It becomes especially stable after 30 I Except for College student are higher in neuroticism because more to worry about I Lower on conscientiousness and agreeableness 1Extroverstion Introverstion extent to which people are outgoing or shy o More affectionate o More talkative o More socialable than retiring 2Neuroticism anxiety inability to control impulses feel negative emotions I More insure than secure I More selfconscious than comfortable I More Worried I More temperamental 3Agreeableness goodnatured gentle o Sympathetic 0 Helpful 0 Forgiving 0 Good natured o 4Conscientiousness responsible persevering tidy Hardworking Conscientious Ambitious Preserving 0000 5 Openness to experience original imaginative artistic creative thinking Imaginative Broad interests Original Daring 0000 Measuring Personality A Demo a personality inventory B Characteristics of a good test 1 Reliability consistency produce same results if used again in same circumstances a SAT is not reliable because it is supposed to measure your aptitude not your knowledge 2 Validity does it measure What it is intended to measure a SAT is not valid because colleges use it to measure success in college but it really has nothing to do With it 3 Goal sample predict behavior C Projective tests a idea project unconscious needs desires con icts onto ambiguous stimuli b def subjective unstructured c Rorschach inkblots what you see in the ink blot d TAT pictures what you see in the picture ex a murder means aggressive thoughts ect e evaluation 0 Poor reliability and validity 0 Poor predictability 2 Approaches to Study Personality o Idiographic approaches personcentered focus on individuals and characteristics within that person uses different metric for each person 0 Assume all individuals are unique use to study case studies of individuals through interviews or biographical information for example looking at Hitlers childhood to see why he ended up that way personality unfolds over the life span 0 Also use the stories people tell about themselves 0 Nomothetic approaches focus on characteristics that are common among all people but that vary from person to person uses the same metric to compare all people 0 Focus on common traits rather than individual uniqueness o Fivefactor theory identifies five basic personality traits a scale to show where people rank on common traits does not go person to person Projective measures explore the unconscious by having people describe or tell stories about ambiguous stimulus items revolve thoughts about what is ambiguous revealing motives wishes and unconscious con icts many say to objective and not validated enough Objective measures straightforward measurements 0 Selfreport questionnaires observer ratings Observes show accuracy in trait judgments o Funder found that there are times that a person s close acquaintance s will more accurately predict a persons behavior more accurately than the person such as being talkative or assertive 0 close acquaintances might know better because they observe the person while the person is in the situation while the person is not analyzing themselves 0 The longer you know a person the more you can predict their behavior 0 Also our subjective perceptions of ourselves may diverge from our objective behaviors disconnect between how people view themselves and how they behave o Vazire 0 Comparative accuracy depends on whether the traits are observable and whether the people being rated are motivated to view themselves positively on the traits I People want to feel good about themselves so rating is off esp for evaluative traits o Evaluative traits traits that people care about such as creativity I People are biased when judging themselves I More accurate judging ourselves on traits that are hard to observe and are neutral like being optimistic vs anxious qualities that others can t point out or hold against us 0 Vazire s key insight a trait easy to observe but also highly meaning to people such as creativity is more likely to be judged accurately by friends than person State theory situationism 0 Behavior primarily due to situation not internal trait o stable personality just behavior in similar situations 0 We chose our own situations for what we are looking for For example you might like to pick a specialty dorm oor for situations interactionism traits situations amp interactions affect behavior thought and feeling determined by situations and underlying dispositions 0 Strong situations such as elevators religious services mask differences 0 Weak situations such as bars and parties reveal differences because you are not constrained Cultural and Sex Differences 0 Women and men are more similar than different in terms of personality 0 Differences support stereotypes 0 Women are more empathic and agreeable but more neurotic and concerned about feelings 0 Men rated as more assertive 0 Sex differences in personality are largest in societies in North America and Europe Animals have personalities o Extraversion neuroticism and agreeableness can be seen in most species 0 Chimpanzees are only animal that show a conscientious factor Personality is rooted in genetics 0 Twin Studies 0 Twin studies identical twins were more similar that fraternal twins because identical twins share nearly the same genes where fraternal twins do not 0 From twin studies found out that genetic in uence accounts for approximately half the variance between individuals in personality traits 0 Thomas Bouchard studies twins raised apart found that are usually as similar or more similar than twins raised together I Maybe because parents strive to bring out individual strengths in each twin so they feel unique and special I Identical twins become more alike as they age because effects of parenting would diminish 0 Siblings and fraternal twins do not 0 Adoption studies 0 Two children in the same adoptive family are no more alike than two strangers they do not inherit the adoptive parents qualities 0 Parenting styles have little impact on how a kid turns out 0 Specific genes for personality 0 Novelty seeking is linked to the release of dopamine o Neuroticism and agreeableness is linked to serotonin what are the differences between introverts and extroverts with regard to arousal 0 Differences in cortical arousal produce the behavioral differences between introverts and extroverts o Extroverts are usually under aroused and look for more arousal enjoy going to parties or meeting new people 0 Introverts are usually over aroused they prefer solitary quiet activities what is selfesteem What will cause a person to experience low selfesteem 0 Selfesteem is a mechanism for monitoring the likelihood of social exclusion 0 When people act in a way that increase the likelihood of rejection then self esteem seems to drop p 606 what are the downsides to having very high selfesteem What personality trait is associated with in ated selfesteem and how do these people behave What is the relationship between this personality trait and college students and this might be a result of what 0 A down side to having high self esteem is it is linked to violence bullies and violent criminals usually have high self esteem 0 They become violent when they feel that others are not treating them with an appropriate level of respect 0 Might be happier but might not lead to successful social relationships of life success 0 Narcissism is associated with high self esteem o Tend to have poor relations with others become angry when challenged they are unfaithful 0 Increasing narcissism among American college students can be from I Programs increasing self esteem at a young schoolchild age grade in ation which makes students feel more capable than they are and rise in selfpromotion sites such as Facebook and MySpace Evaluation of Psychoanalytic theories does psychoanalytic work Not really a not testable not measured empirically empirical measured using senses b explains everything retrospectively either way can find a way to explain it but will not help c develops from few case studies wealthy middle aged females
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