Psychology Exam1 Study Guide
Psychology Exam1 Study Guide Psychology 2351
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittney Okorocha on Wednesday February 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 2351 at University of Houston taught by Derek De La Pena in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 342 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adolescence in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/04/15
Psychology Exam 1 Studv Guide Active V Passive Learners ABCDE VS PUIDS acronym Active Passive Believe Unbelief Consistent Inconsistent Determineddisciplined Distracted Evolve Stagnant same No excuses Full of excuses Chapter 1 Intl39oduc 4th Century BC 9 Plato argued that reasoning becomes apparent in adolescence kids should be involved with sportsmusic and study sciencemath 9 Aristotle argued that the ability to choose selfdetermination is a hallmark of maturity 20th Century 9 Stanley Hall Father of scientific study of adolescence biological view point 0 Emphasis on biological nature puberty O Stormandstress view adolescence is a turbulent time con ictmoodswings O Hall s view adolescent s thoughts feelings and actions oscillate between humility and conceit good and temptation happiness and sadness 1 Margaret Mead 1928 0 Studied adolescence on the island of Samoa 0 Argued that the basic nature of adolescence is not biological but rather sociocultural I When cultures provide a smooth gradual transition from childhood to adulthood there is little stormandstress experienced Inventionest View Adolescence is a sociohistorical creation At 20th century legislation was enacted that ensured dependency of youth and made their move into the economic sphere more manageable Adolescence was a result of the motivation for compulsory education 18901920 Age of Adolescence believe that the concept of adolescence was invented during the same time Virtually every state passed law excluding youth from most employment and required them to attend secondary school 19101930I of 1015 year olds employed decreased by 75 and school attendance increased Cohort group born at similar points in history and share similar experiences as a result Cohort Effect effects due to a person s time of birth era or generation but not actual chronological age Millennials The generation born after 1980 entered adulthood in new millennium seen as upbeat liberal confident open to change and self expressive 2 characteristics 1 As their ethnic diversitv has increase over prior generations many millennial adolescents and emerging adults are more tolerant and openminded than their counterparts in previous generations 2 Dramatic increase in their use of media and technology Pros and Cons to how technology revolution affects youth Writing Skills spell check social media quick text concerns immediate gratification youth more interested in info retrieval rather than info formation Cognitive and Reasoning skills Flynn Effect suggest IQs are increasing StereotVDing adolescence Stereotype broad category re ecting our impressions and beliefs about people 0 An image of what the typical member of a group is like Adolescent generalization gap Coined by Joseph Adelson Widespread generalizations about adolescents that have developed based on info about a limited and often highly visible group of adolescents A positive view of an adolescence 9 Adults perceptions of adolescents emerge from a combo of personal experiences and media portrayals they believe adolescents are less respectful and more selfcentered 9 Adolescence isn t a time for rebellion for a large majority of youth 9 Acting out and testing boundaries are ways adolescents moved towards accepting parental views 9 More accurate to see adolescence as a time for evaluation Positive Youth Development PYD in adolescence re ects the positive psvchologv approach which emphasizes strengths of youth and positive qualities and developmental trajectories that are desired of youth 0 5 C s ofPYD O Competence 0 Confidence 0 Connection 0 Character 0 CaringCompassion Adolescents in the US Increase in of adolescents immigrating from Latino and Asian countries Youth development occurs against a cultural backdrop of contexts Family peers etc Social policy and adolescent development Social policy course of action designed by national government to in uence the citizen s welfare In 2008 19 of US childrenadolescents were living in families below poverty line US social policy focuses on teen drug usedelinquency not enough focus on positive strengthbased approaches Global perspective The way adolescence is presented is largely based on writingresearch of scholars in Western world especially North America and Europe Differences in youth around the world 23 of Asian Indian adolescents accept their parent s choice of a marital partner for them In some places in Middle East kids can t interact with the opposite sex not even in school Terms Contexts settings in which development occurs settings in uenced by historical economic social amp cultural factors Resiliency being able to get it done with adversity on the table Biological processes physical changes in your body genes brain height weight etc Coanitive processes thinkingintelligence Socioemotional processes changes in a person s relationships with others in emotionspersonality and social contexts Midlate childhood 611 year olds also known as school years Earlv adolescence middle school and junior high Late adolescence latter half of 2nd decade of life career and dating interests identity exploration Emerging adulthood 1825 years old starts in late teens or early twenties lasts through 30 s career development Developmental cognitive neuroscience explores link between development cognitive processes and the brain Developmental social neuroscience examines connection between Socioemotional processes development and the brain Periods of Develonment CHILDHOOD 0 Prenatal period conceptionbirth 9 months 0 Infancy birth1824 months beginning of language symbolic thought sensorimotor coordination social learning etc 0 Early childhood end of infancy to 56 years old preschool years learn self sufficiency Follow instructions play with peers 0 Middle and late childhood 610 years old elementary school years reading writing and arithmetic increased selfcontrol central theme is achievement ADOLESCENCE lThe period of transition between childhood and adulthood that involves biological cognitive and Socioemotional changes key task prep for adulthood 0 Early Adolescence middle schooljunior high pubertal change 0 Late Adolescence latter half of 2rld decade of life career interest dating identity exploration ADULTHOOD 0 Early adulthood late teensearly 20s and lasts through 30s establish personal and economic independence and career development intensifies 0 Middle adulthood 3545 years old and ends between 55 and 65 years old deeper re ection about meaning of life increased interest in transmitting values to next generation increase concern about decline in healthphysical functioning 0 Late adulthood 60 amp70 years old to death adjustment to decreased strengthhealth retirement and reduced income Developmental Transitions Childhood to Adolescence 0 Growth spurt hormonal changes and sexual maturation 0 More abstract ideal and logical thinking 0 More dramatic mood swings Adolescence to adulthood 0 Adolescence begins with biology and ends with culture 0 Emerging adult 1825 years old developmental period I Experimentation and exploration 39 Jeff Arnett s 5 key factors to emerging adulthood 1 Identity exploration especially in love and work key changes in identity 2 Instability in love work and education 3 Selffocusedl little social obligations little dutiescommitments to others so more time to run own life 4 Feelings in between don t consider self an adolescent or full edged adult either 5 Age of possibilities opportunity to transform their life more optimistic about future and opportunity to reorient life in positive direction Becoming and Adult 0 In US adulthood having full time job 0 emerging adulthood applies more to western countries also Japan than to developing countries I 3 types of assets important in making a competent transition through adolescence and emerging adulthood 0 Intellectual development 0 Psychologicalemotional development 0 Social development Developmental Issues 0 Nature v Nurture 0 Debate whether development is primarily in uence by biological inheritances nature or environmental experiences nurture 0 Continuity and discontinuitv O Extent to which development involves gradual cumulative change continuity or distinct stages discontinuity 0 Early and Later Experience 0 The degree to which early experiences especially in early childhood or later experiences are key determinants of development ex If a child experiences negative stressful circumstances in life can it be outweighed by later more positive experiences in adolescence Psychoanalytic Psychodynamic Theory Development is primarily unconscious goes into the realm of unconsciousness O Sigmund Freud 18561939 I Id unconsciousinstincts sex hunger Freudian slips I Superego partly unconscious conscience moral side of personality guilt right from wrong I Ego partly unconscious deals with demands of reality and makes rational decisions defense mechanisms executive branch of personality because it makes rational decisions I Freud thought adolescents bury their con icts in unconscious mind 0 Ego resolves con ict between reality demands Id wishes and superegos constraints through defense mechanisms which are unconscious methods of distorting reality that they ego sues to protect itself from anxiety produced by con icting demands of the 3 personality structures repression is the most powerful defense mechanism it pushes unacceptable Id impulses out Freud s Psvchosexual Stages of Development Oral mouth Birth 15 years old Anal anus 153 years old Phallic genitals 36 years old Latency repressed sexual interests social and intellectual skills are developing 6 years oldPuberty 5 Genital Sexual reawakening Puberty Onward 0 Our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve con icts between sources PP Ni of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality Erikson s Psvchosocial TheorV 0 We develop in psychosocial stages that take place throughout the m rather than psychosexual stages which take place within first 5 years of life 0 Believed primary motivation for human behavior is social and re ects desires to affiliate with others 0 Erikson s 8 Stages of Development 1 Trust v Mistrust Infancy1st year Autonomy v Shame Doubt 13 years old Initiative v Guilt 35 years old Industry v Inferiority 6 years old puberty Identity v Identity confusion 1020 years old Intimacy v Isolation 20s30s Generativity v Stagnation 40s50s Integrity v Despair 60s onward WNQP PP P Piaget s COgnitive Development Theorv Individuals construct their understanding of the world 4 stages of development 1 Sensorimotor Birth2 years old seehear physical motor actions to understand the world 2 Preoperational 27 years old represent world with wordsimages increased symbolic thinking 3 Concrete Operational 711 years old reason logically about concrete events classify objects into different sets 4 Formal Operational 1 ladulthood I reasoning in more abstract idealistic and logical ways vaotskv s Sociocultural Cognitive TheorV Emphasis on how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development Gave social interaction and culture far more important roles in cognitive development than Piaget Infoprocessing TheorV Emphasizes that people manipulate info monitor it and strategize about it memorythinking We develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing info not in stages Behaviorism Development is observable behavior that can be learned through environmental experiences We can study scientifically only what we can directly observe and measure Skinner s Operant Conditioning 0 Through Operant conditioning the consequences of behavior produces changes in the probability of the behavior s occurrence behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus will increase the likelihood of that behavior recurring If it s a negative stimulus the behavior is less likely to recur akaz consequences of a behavior produces change in the probability of behavior s occurrence Bandura s Social Cognitive TheorV Behavior Environment and PersonCognition are all interrelated this is basically the social cognitive theory Bronfenbrenner s Ecological TheorV The in uences on an individual are 0 Microsystem setting that the adolescent lives familyfriends school neighborhood most direct interaction with social agents takes place with friends parents teachers 0 Mesosvstem connection between contexts family experience in relation to school experience ex parents reject child child has trouble developing positive relations with teachers 0 Exosystem links between social settings that the adolescent doesn t have an active role and the individuals immediate context an adolescent s experience at home may be in uenced by a mom s experience at work mom may get promotion that causes her to travelbe away more which will change interaction with adolescent O Macrosvstem culture adolescent lives culture behavior patterns beliefs etc of a group that pass from generation to generation 0 Chronosvstem patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course also sociohistorical circumstances like a divorce or increase in opportunity for adolescent girls to pursue a career An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation No single theory can explain entirely the complexity of adolescent development Doesn t follow any one theoretical approach selects from each theory whatever s considered its best features Methods for Collecting Data Naturalistic observation studies by observation only either in a lab with controlled settings removing any real world factors or in the everyday world naturalistic observation Surveys and interviews Standardized tests IQ tests SAT ACT Physiological measures study development a different points in life body composition hormone level MRIs Experience Sampling Method ESM Participants are given pages and researchers beep them at random Participants must report different aspects going on in immediate situation mood what they re doing where they are etc Case Study Indepth look at a single person Mainly done by mental health professionals Correlational Studies based on a statistical analysis used to describe the degree of association between 2 variables Coefficient ranges from 100 to 100 0 Negative inverse relation 0 Positive direct relation 0 Closer to 1 the stronger the correlation 0 Correlation of 0 no correlation Correlation does NOT equal causation Experimental Research to study causality lresearchers use experiments 0 Independent Variable What s being manipulated O Dependent Variable What s being measured Chapter 2 Puberty Health and Biological Foundations Puberty Period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes brain neuroendocrine process Hormones Chemical substances secreted by endocrine gland into blood stream Androgen Male sex hormones Estrogen Female sec hormones Testosterone important role in male development increase height voice changes Estradiol important role in female development Wider hips breasts development Endocrine svstem role puberty involves the interaction of the hypothalamus pituitary gland and gonads testesovaries reactivates HPG axis initially activated in during fetalneonatal period 0 Culmination of hormone activity results in menarche a girl s first period and spermarche a boy s first ejaculation Adrenarche hormone change in adrenal glands changes start around 69 years old in girls and a year later in boys before What s generally considered the start of puberty Gonadarche follows adrenarche about 2 years later What most consider puberty 810 for girls 1011 for boys involves the maturation of internal primary sex characteristics OvariesTestes and external sex characteristics pubic hair breasts etc 0 Weight has been implicated as a precursor to puberty individuals With more body fat ten to start puberty earlier Growth Spurt the average beginning is 9 years old for girls peak at 115 years old and 11 years old for boys peak at 135 years old During growth spurt girls grow 35 inches per year and boys grow 4 inches per year 0 Peak weight gain is about the same time as peak in height girls gain 18 pounds by age 12 and boys gain 20 pounds by age 135 0 Increase hip growth in girls increased shoulder width in boys Sexual Maturation lMalesz increased penis and testicle size pubic hair minor voice change spermarche armpit hair greater voice change facial hair lFemalez breast increase andor pubic hair armpit hair wider hips menarche Secular Trends of Puberty Secular trends Patterns of pubertal onset over time especially across generations During 20th Century onset age of puberty decreased US kids physically mature up to a year earlier than European countries likely due to improved health our healthcare Physiological Dimensions of Puberty Preoccupation with one s body image is strong throughout adolescence especially during puberty During puberty girls become more dissatisfied with their bodies boys more satisfied both generally positive views by the end of adolescence Body art 0 Increased of adolescents and college kids are obtaining tattoos and piercings 0 Researchers don t agree whether body art is used to express individuality self eXpression or rebellion Early v Late Maturation Advantageous to be an early maturing boy Early maturing girls are more vulnerable to drinking smoking depression eating disorders etc Social and cognitive immaturity may lure early maturing girls into problem behaviors Hormones and Behavior Hormones are a factor of an increase in variable emotions Higher levels of androgens are associated With violence in boys Increased levels of estrogen leads to depression in girls Social factors likely account for more of the variance concerning depression and anger than do hormones alone Are Puberty s Effects Exaggerated Looking at life span puberty has a less dramatic effect than is commonly though for most people 0 Not Wise to single out biological changes as dominant in uence during adolescence Risk Taking Behavior unstructured environments more risk taking Early adolescence seek experiences that create high intensity feelings excitement arousal Sensation seeking increases from 1015 years old and either decreases or remains stable afterwards Prefrontal cortex involved With reasoning selfcontrol and decision making matures later than the amygdala regulates emotion Social Capital good schools diploma church less risky behavior Health Many unhealthy habitsbehavior in adulthood begin during adolescence In adolescence many people reach a level of heath strength and energy that ll never match during the rest of their life begin to develop the idea that they re invincible Health Services Adolescence underutilize other healthcare systems 0 They don t believe they ll help 0 Some doctors lack training time to provide health care to adolescents 0 Low use of health services by older adolescent males Leading Causes of Death Emerging Adults Health Emerging adults have more than twice the mortality rate of adolescence 0 Engaging in more healthcompromising behaviors more chronic health problems more likely to be obese andor have mental illness especially males Nutrition Eating habits of adolescents are health compromising increase of adolescents develop an eating disorder Parents play a role with what they eat themselves and what they serve Exercise Sports Study done in 2000 I US adolescents exercised less and ate more junk than other countries TV computers phones RE and poor parental and peer role models Become less active as they each and progress through adolescence Decreased triglyceride levels decreased blood pressure decreased chance of type two diabetes and heart disease In those that exercise regularly Higher levels of task preparation and response inhibition patience and decreased drug use better sleep patterns better at dealing with stress and general life and improved cognitive skulls Can lead to increased selfconfidence motivation to excel ability to work with others Can also lead to higher expectations from parents andor coach to win possible use of steroids academics may suffer Mastery focus leads to more persistence and skill development throughout a season 45 of adolescents got inadequate sleep on weekdays less than 8 hours Inadequate sleep leads to falling asleep in class being crankytired decreased mood consuming too much caffeine Adolescents given the opportunity slept for 9 hours and 25 minutes Older adolescents are more sleepy Delay in onset of melatonin in later v early adolescence O Decreased depression and discipline problems when school started at 830 instead of 725 Edina Minnesota Evolution Hereditv and Environment Evolutionarv Psvcholoav I Emphasizes importance of adaptation reproduction and survival of the fittest in explaining behavior Adaptive behavior modification of behavior that promotes survival in the natural habitat B andura criticized the biologizing of psychology Heredity We inherit half of our genes from each parent 46 chromosomes in each cell 23 in sex cells each chromosome has thousands of genes Genotype genetic heritage genetic material Phenotype genotype expression in observed and measurable characteristics personality height weight intelligence etc Behavioral Genetics study of the in uence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development use twins or adoption situations to study Twin studies behavior similarity of identical twins monozygotic is compare with fraternal twins dizygotic identical twins have more behavioral similarities than fraternal twins Adoption studies seek to discover whether the behavioral and psychological characteristics od adopted kids are similar to their adoptive or biological parents Hereditv Environment Correlation How heredity and environment correlate 1 Passive genotVDeenvironment correlations due to biological parents genetically related to the child provide a rearing environment for the child ex parents may have genetic predisposition to be smart and read well Since they enjoy reading they ll provide their kid with books and child will most likely end up a skilled reader 2 Evocative genotVDeenvironment correlations occur because an adolescent s genetically shaped characteristics elicit certain physical and social environments ex cooperative attentive adolescent evokes more pleasant and instructional responses from adults v an uncooperative distractible adolescent 3 Active nichepicking genotypeenvironment correlationsoccur when children seek out environments they find compatiblestimulating nichepicking refers to finding a setting suited to one s abilities ex attractive adolescents tend to seek attractive peers 0 Relative importance of these correlations change throughout infancy to adolescence
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