OBHR Exam 1 Study Guide
OBHR Exam 1 Study Guide OBHR 330
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily McIlhattan on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to OBHR 330 at Purdue University taught by Christine L. Jackson in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 488 views.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
This Study Guide includes the Key terms emphasized on Learnsmart and teacher39s examples OBHR Learnsmart Key Terms and TextTest Examples Chapter 1 Organizational Behavior Definition OB field of study devoted to understanding explaining and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations 0 You have to be able to utilize the strengths of each person and put everyone in the best position to succeed critical when considering your own team during this course 0 A field of study that seeks to understand explain and improve human behavior in organizations Very practical ie how you get people to do what you need them to do because they want to HR Mgmt takes the theories and principles studied in OB and explores the nuts and bolts applications of those principles in organizations Strategic Mgmt focuses on the product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organizations profitability relationship between firm diversification and firm profitability I Integrative Model of OB Two primary outcomes i Job performance ii Organizational commitment 1 Individual Mechanisms affecting i and ii a Job satisfactions captures what employees feel when thinking ahead about their jobs and doing their daytoday work b Stress c Motivation 1 Trust justice ethics 6 Learning and Decision making 2 Individual Characteristics a Personality and cultural values re ect the various trains and tendencies that describe how people act with commonly studied traits including extraversion conscientiousness and collectivism b Ability describes cognitive abilities emotional skills and physical abilities 3 Group Mechanisms a Employees don t work alone 4 Organizational Mechanisms a Acknowledges that the teams described in the prior section are grouped into larger organizations that themselves affect satisfaction stress motivation and so forth every company has an organizational structure that dictates how the units within the firm link to other units Every company has organizational culture that captures the way things are in the organization shared knowledge about the values and beliefs that shape employee attitudes and behaviors 2 Why does OB Matter Fortune s 100 Best companies to work for Google 0 How they determine it 1 Evaluation of culture policies benefits time off 2 Opinions of companies own employees Via a survey I Google specifically King of Perks it has free food doctors offices post office nap pods etc I AtmosphereDemographicsWorkbalance issues I Increases productivity commitment and performance are crucial Best Multinational Workplaces Google is also 1 http www greatplacetoworkcombest companiesworldsbestmultinational sbest practices Good people add value hard to find and hard to retain Based on RBV Resource Based View 0 Rare 0 Inimitable hard to imitate I History cant be bought or copied I Make numerous small decisions that cannot be observed by competitors I Creating socially complex resources such as culture teamwork trust and reputation is not easy Test Example According to resourcebased view a resource is more valuable when it is rare and A complex B simple C inimitable D transparent Rule of oneeighth 0 12 of organizations wont believe the connection between how they manage their people and the profits they earn 0 12 of those who do see the connection will try to make a single change to solve their problems 0 Of the firms that make comprehensive changes probably only about 12 are ong01ng What s so Hard 0 Commitment from top down the leaders of the organizations have to be the example you have to be integrative 0 The culture has to support it improving OB is a long term process There is no magic bullet OB practice one thing that in and of itself can increase profitability Effective OB requires a belief that different practices are important alone with longterm commitment to improving these practices 0 High job performance depends not only on employee motivation but also on fostering high levels of satisfaction effectively managing stress creating a trusting climate and committing to employee learn Methods of knowing how did OB come up with the Integrative Model I Four ways 0 Experience our own observations and experiences 0 Intuition stands to reason common sense drives research 0 Authority a respected official agency or source said so 0 Science scientific studies have tended to replicate the results using a series of samples settings and methods textbook I Wall Street Journal Article A California City is into Tweeting Chirping Actually in a Big Way 0 Change something response may not necessarily be causal external factors how do we figure out with X is causing Y Reference Article and Handout on Blackboard I TakeAways i Theory both verbal and symbolic that specifies how and why variables are related as well as the conditions in which they should and should not be related ii A correlation statistic that expresses the strength of a relationship between to variables 0 1 l 5gt strong lgt weak Chapter 2 Job Performance Job Performance value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute either positively or negatively to organizational goal accomplishment Counterproductive Behavior employee behaviors that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment tings that employees mean to do Property Deviance behaviors that harm the organizations assets and possessions Sabotage purposeful destructions of physical equipment organizational processes or company products Theft up to of all employees have engaged in this very costly quotSerious Production Deviance behaviors focused specifically on reducing the efficiency of work output Wasting Resources Substance Abuse the efficiency of their work is significantly inhibited Political Deviance behaviors that intentionally disadvantage other individuals rather than the larger organization Gossiping Incivility communication that is rude impolite discourteous and lacking in good manners Personal Aggression hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other employees Harassment employees are subjected to unwanted physical contact or verbal remarks Abuse employee is assaulted or endangered in such a way that physical and psychological injuries may occur Test Example Behaviors that intentionally harm the organization s assets and possessions are known as A Production deviance B Political deviance C Property deviance D Personal aggression I Knowledge Work cognitive work applying theoretical and analytical knowledge acquired through formal education and continuous learning accountants lawyers teachers and engineers because their work requires them to engage in cognitive work and apply theoretical and analytical knowledge 0 Historically focus was on physical aspects on job performance 0 Knowledge work is more uid and dynamic facts data and information is always changing as time goes by it becomes easier to access more and more of these facts and data I Service Work work that provides nontangible goods to customers through direct electronic verbal or physical interaction 0 Accounts for 55 of the economic activity In the US 0 Implications I Places a greater premium on high levels of citizenship behavior and low levels of counterproductive behavior I EX Amazon I Management by objectives MBO management philosophy that bases an employee s evaluations on whether the employee achieves performance goals 0 An employee meets with his or her manager to develop a set of mutually agreed upon objectives that are measurable and specific I They agree on the same period for achieving those objectives and the methods used to do I Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales measures performance by directly assessing job performance behaviors 0 Critical incidents short descriptions of effective and ineffective behaviors to create a measure that can be used to evaluate employee performance 0 Feedback from BARS can help an employee develop and improve over time I 360degree Feedback involves collecting performance information not just from the supervisor but from anyone else who might have firsthand knowledge about the employee performance behavior 0 From subordinates peers even yourself 0 Problem can be biased how do you weight each opinion I Forced Ranking developed by Jack Welch also known as the death curve or rank and yank ranks employee performance on a bell curve A being the overachievers B being the backbone and C being the ones who are about to be fired I Social Networking 0 Ex Facebook performance multiplier requires employees to post and update weekly and quarterly goals managers then monitor the information and provide feedback 0 Adv performance information is more timely Test Example The management technique that involves collecting performance information not just from the supervisor but from anyone else who might have firsthand knowledge about the employee39s performance behaviors is known as A behaviorally anchored rating scales B management by objectives C 360 degree feedback D 180 degree feedback Task Performance employee behaviors that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces the task duties and responsibilities that are a core part of the job Adaptive Task Performance adaptability involves employee responses to task demands that are novel unusual or at the very least unpredictable Creative Task Performance degree to which individuals develop ideas or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful needed for innovation to stay ahead of the competition Routine Task Performance wellknown responses to demands that occur in a normal routine or otherwise predictable way Citizenship Behavior voluntary employee activities that may or may not be rewarded but that contribute to the organization by improving the overall quality of the setting in which work takes place Organizational Citizenship Behavior benefit the larger organization by supporting and defending the company working to improve its operations and being especially loyal to it Boosterism representing the organization in a positive way when out in public away from the office and away from work Civic Virtue participating in the company s operations at a deeperthannormal level by attending voluntary meetings and functions reading and keeping up with organizational announcements Voice involves speaking up and offering constructive suggestion for change Interpersonal Citizenship Behavior benefit coworkers and colleagues and involve assisting supporting and developing other organizational members in a way that goes beyond normal job expectations Helping assisting coworkers who have heavy workloads aiding them with personal matters and showing new employees the ropes Courtesy keeping coworkers informed about matters that are relevant to them Sportsmanship involves maintaining a good attitude towards coworkers Occupational Information Network ONet is an online database that includes among other things the characteristics of most jobs in terms of tasks behaviors and the required knowledge skills and abilities Chapter 3 Organizational Commitment Organizational Commitment the desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of the organization in uences whether an employee is retained or turns over 0 Affective a desire to remain a member of an organization due to an emotional attachment to and involvement with that organization 0 Erosion Model employees with fewer bonds will most likely to quit 0 Social In uence Model employees who have direct linkage with leavers will themselves become more likely to leave contagious these cause companies to value employees connections and help foster them 0 Continuance costbased reasons like salary or benefits 0 Profit associated with staying costs with leaving total amount of investment time effort energy and lack of employment alternatives nowhere else to go plays a role 0 Embeddedness employee s links to their organization and community together I Link I Fit I Sacrifice 0 Normative obligationbased sense of debt owed to a boss 0 Personal work philosophies general code of right and wrong feeling in the companies debt and even becoming a charitable organization These are your focus of commitment inspire your desire to stay with an organization Test Example While speaking with a colleague at work Stacy said It would be very hard for me to leave the organization even if I wanted to It s just that I feel I have too few options to consider leaving right now I guess I will have to stick it out until other opportunities arise These statements suggest that Stacy has what type of organizational commitment to her organization A Affective commitment B Normative commitment C Continuance commitment D There is not enough information to tell which type of commitment Stacy has Ben amp Jerry s Joy Gang is devoted to making the workplace fun for all employees They do this with special events like Dress Up day Elvis Presley Day Casino Night and Dog Days of Summer These events likely promote which types of commitment in employees A Affective commitment B Normative commitment C Continuance commitment D These types of events have no in uence on organizational commitment Withdrawal behavior actions that employees perform to avoid the work situation 0 Exit active destructive response by someone ends or restricts organizational membership 0 Psychological actions that provide a mental escape from the work environment 0 Cyberloafing using intemet email and instant messaging access for their personal enjoyment rather than work duties 0 Moonlighting use time and resources to complete something other than their jobs such as assignments for another job 0 Socializing verbal chatting about nonwork topics that goes on in cubicles or at the mailbox or vending machines 0 Daydreaming employees appear to be working but are actually distracted by random thoughts concerns 0 Physical actions that provide a physical escape whether shortterm or longterm from the work environment Tardiness tendency to arrive to work late Long breaks longerthannormal lunches soda breaks coffee breaks etc Absenteeism employees miss an entire day of work Quitting voluntarily leaving an organization OOOO Types of changing circumstances 0 Voice active constructive response in which individuals attempt to improve their situation 0 Loyalty passive constructive response that maintains public support for the situation 0 Neglect passive destructive response in which interest and effort in the job declines Types of Employees 0 Stars high commitment high performance role models 0 Citizens high commitment low performance voluntary extrarole activities 0 Lone wolves low levels of commitment but high levels of task performance motivated to achieve work goals for themselves not the company 0 Apathetic low levels of both merely exert the minimum effort to meet their jobs Test Example Managers can predict how employees will react to dissatisfying or negative events by simultaneously considering employees task performance and organizational commitment Which of the follow types of employees will respond to dissatisfying situations by quitting their job A Stars B Citizens C Lone wolves D Apathetics Avoidable Turnover Compensatory Forms Model argues that various withdrawal behaviors negatively correlate with one another that doing one means you are less likely to do another Independent Forms Model argues that the various withdrawal behaviors are uncorrelated with one another occur for different reasons and fulfill different needs on the part of employees Progression Model argues that the various withdrawal behaviors are positively correlated The tendency to daydream or socialize leads to the tendency to come in late etc Transactional Contracts based on a narrow set of specific monetary obligations the employee owes attendance and protection of proprietary information the organization owes pay and advancement opportunities Chapter 4 Job Satisfaction 1 Job Satisfaction pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one s job or job experience how you feel about your job and what you think about it a Values things that people consciously or subconsciously want toe seek or attain these vary for different people b Values play a key role in explaining job satisfaction i Valueperception theory job satisfaction depends on whether you perceive that your job supplies the things that you value 1 Dissatisfaction VwamVhaveVimportance 2 This theory also suggest that people evaluate job satisfaction according to specific facets of the job Test Example In valuepercept theory the strongest sense of dissatisfaction is created when there are differences between wants and haves and when the value in question is A minor irrelevant B major irrelevant C minor important D major important ii Pay satisfaction employee s feelings about their pay including whether it is as much as they deserve secure and adequate for both normal expenses and luxury items iii Promotion satisfaction employees feelings about the company s promotional policies and their execution including whether promotions are frequent fair and based on ability iv Supervision satisfaction feelings about their boss including whether the boss is competent polite and a good communicator 1 Can they help me attain the things that I value 2 Are they generally likable v Coworker satisfaction feelings about their fellow employees including whether coworkers are smart responsible helpful fun and interesting c Satisfaction with work itself about the actual work tasks whether those tasks are challenging interesting respected and make use of key skills rather than being dull repetitive and uncomfortable what employees actually do 1 Meaningfulness of work 2 Responsibility for outcomes 3 Knowledge of results Test Example Best Consultants is an HR consulting company They specialize in improving job satisfaction of employees To achieve this in very short time they can only concentrate on three factors so as to deliver results effectively Which set of three factors would you suggest A Pay satisfaction promotion satisfaction and supervision satisfaction B Promotion satisfaction coworker satisfaction and satisfaction with the work itself C Supervision satisfaction satisfaction with the work itself and pay satisfaction D Coworker satisfaction supervision satisfaction and satisfaction with the work itself ii Job characteristics theory central characteristics of intrinsically satisfying jobs argues there are five core job characteristics VISAF II III IV 1 Variety degree to which the job requires a humber of different activities that involve a number of different skills and talents 2 Identity degree to which the job requires completing a whole identifiable piece of work from beginning to end with a visible outcome 3 Significance job has substantial impact on the lives of other people particularly people in the world at large 4 Autonomy job provides freedom independence and discretion to the individual performing the work 5 Feedback carrying out the activities required by the job provides employees with clear information about how well they re performing feedback obtained directly from the job as opposed from coworkers or supervisors iii Job enrichment duties and responsibilities associated with a job are expanded to provide more VISAF heighten work accuracy and customer satisfaction though labor and training costs result as well d Ex The Office i Dwight really high in growth and strength lacks knowledge and skills ii Jim high in knowledge of skills low in growth and strength doesn t want to do the work 1 You want both knowledge and skills and the desire to do well iii Job crafting shape mold and redefinition of jobs in a proactive way 1 Switch certain tasks change specific collaborative relationships Mood states of feeling that are often mild in intensity but last for a extended period of time and are not explicitly directed at or caused by anything a Pleasantness b Activation Affective events theory workplace events can generate affective reactions reactions that then can go on to in uence work attitudes and behaviors a Emotions states of feeling that are often intense last for only a few minutes and are clearly directed at someone or some circumstance i Positive and Negative Emotions ii Emotional labor need to manage emotions to complete job duties successfully waiters iii Emotional contagion one person can catch the emotions of another person Job satisfaction affects job performance citizenship behavior and organizational behavior i But it is uncorrelated with continuance commitment because satisfaction does not create a costbased need to remain with the organization b Life satisfaction degree to which employees feel a sense of happiness 1 Vital to component of one s identity 2 Spill over effect crappy day and work crappy energy at home hard to disengage the two 3 Disposition Tracking Satisfaction a Focus groups interviews and attitude surveys a EX Ex Zappos big commitment toward happiness i Tony Hsieh author of delivering happiness CEO focus on company culture in order to then strengthen customer service 1 Get culture right everything else will fall into place ii Work life integration
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