Chapter 10 Study Guide
Chapter 10 Study Guide HLTH 2170
Popular in Health System Organization, Financing, and Delivery
Popular in Public Health
Public health 2000
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Anne on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HLTH 2170 at Ohio University taught by Brian Phillips in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 166 views. For similar materials see Health System Organization, Financing, and Delivery in Public Health at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
Chapter 10 Public Health amp Role of Government Supported Services 0 The New York Poor Law of 1788 provided that any town or city could establish an almshouse Report of Sanitary Commission Lemuel Shattuck documented differences in morbidity and mortality rates in different locations and related them to various environmental conditions 0 New York City Council of Hygiene and Public Health published an expose of unsanitary conditions in the city which lead to creation of a city board of heath US Public Health Service 0 Federal Emergency Relief Act provided federal aid to the states and authorized general medical care for acute and chronic illness obstetric services emergency dental extraction beside nursing drugs and medical suppHes Department of Health Education and Welfare HEW Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1963 provided grants to build health professional schools provided federal aid for the construction and rehabilitation of nursing schools and provided loans to nursing students with the Nurse Training Act in 1964 HEW renamed Department of Health and Human Services 1 National Institutes of Health NIH a World39s premier medical research organization b Supports over 30000 research projects on a variety of medical conditions c Includes 18 separate health institutes the National CAM and National library of medicine 2 Food and Drug Administration FDA a Responsible for ensuring the safety of foods and cosmetics b Safety and ef cacy of pharmaceuticals biologic products and medical devices 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC a Primary federal agency responsible for protecting the American public39s health through monitoring disease trends investigations of outbreaks and health and injury risks and implementation of illness and injury control and prevention measures 4 Indian Health Service lHS a Operates hospitals health centers school health centers health stations and village clinics to 15 million Native Americans and Alaska Natives 5 Health Resources and Service Administrations HRSA a Provide a coordinated agency for multiple programs serving low income uninsured and medically underserved populations b Provides funds for comprehensive primary and preventive services through communitybased health centers c Supports maternal and child health programs increased diversity and number of health care professionals in rural underserved areas Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SAMHSA a Improves quality and availability of substance abuse prevention addiction treatment and mental health services through federal block grants to states and local communities Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ a Lead agency for supporting research to improve the quality of health care reduce its cost improve patient safety address medical errors and broaden access to essential services b Conductsponsor research to provide evidencebased info on health care outcomes in respect of quality costs uses and access Centers for Medicare and Medical Services CMS a Administers the Medicare and Medicaid programs b Administers the Children39s Health Insurance Program Administration for Children and Families ACF a Administers programs to promote the economic and social wellbeing of families children individuals and communities b Welfare Temporary Assistance to Needy Families national child support enforcements and the Head Start program 10Administration on Aging AoA a Administers federal programs under the Older Americans Act b Assist older persons to remain in their own homes by supporting services such as Meals on Wheels c Develop communitylevel systems of services that meet needs of older individuals and their caregivers Veterans Health Administration System Initiated to provide care for Civil War veterans who were disabled or indigent or both 0 World39s largest health care delivery systems Operates medical centers ambulatory care and community outpatient clinics nursing homes residential rehabilitation treatment programs Veteran Centers and comprehensive home care programs Af liated with medical and dental schools throughout the United States 0 Longterm relationships with patients allows more preventative care higher quality of services and greater patient satisfaction along with monetary savings 0 Department of Defense Military Health Service program 0 Provides both direct health care services and support for health care services 0 Most civilian care is purchased through managed care support contracts implemented under a program entitled TRICARE Decline in In uence of the Public Health Service 0 Failure to improve access to at least minimally adequate medical care to underserved populations 0 Efforts to provide incentives to state and local agencies for more innovative approaches to meeting these demands through categorical and project grants were judged ineffective o Other agencies assigned to administer new and important programs for improving access to medical care 0 Medicare assigned to Social Security Administration 0 Medicare assigned to the Social and Rehabilitation Services 0 Of ce of Economic Opportunity assigned to Head Start and Neighborhood Health 0 Housing and Urban Development assigned to Model Cities Program 0 quotNew Federalismquot o Involved the progressive removal of federal responsibilities for a uniform cooperative national public health system and transfer those responsibilities to the states 0 Convert federal program support to block grants reducing the available funds and sending them to the states for Administration 0 Unsuccessful during the NixonFord administrations Decline accelerated after the election of Regan in 1980 when public health became the primary target Responsibilities of the Public Health Sector 0 Focus on primary prevention 0 Protect communities from infectious and toxic agents through monitoring or surveillance Respond to unanticipated natural or humangenerated disasters 0 Promote the wellbeing of the public through programs to notify and educate people about risks and protective measures that can be applied at the community level 0 Target hardtoreach populations with clinical services 0 Maintain diagnostic laboratory services to support diverse monitoring and prevention programs 0 Collect information on health outcomes to ensure the quality of services through hospitals nursing homes and other medical care delivery institutions Healthy People 2000 o 90 of the population to be served by local health departments that would effectively carry out the three core functions of public health assessment policy development and quality assurance 0 US failed to meet 85 of the goals Healthy People 2010 o 10 year plan released in 2000 by HHS Government admitted that the nation had met only 15 of the 319 targets from HP2000 o Particularly in the areas of obesity marijuana use exercise asthma and diabetes 0 Set two broad goals to increase the years and quality of life and to eliminate health disparities Developed by Healthy People Consortium group of 650 nation professional and voluntary organizations the business community and state and local public health agencies Absence of Preventive Care 0 Current system fails to provide effective preventive services even when they are demonstrated to be the most costeffective procedures available 0 New treatment technologies are implemented despite serious reservations about their ef cacy and cost effectiveness 0 US has the world39s most costly and inef cient health care system Decline of prenatal care and rise of costly technology to save premature babies Challenge of an Aging America 0 Major causes of disease and disability among the increasing numbers of older adults are chronic conditions that result from multiple causes that are not usually amenable to technologic remedies Traditional medical model of clinical practice poorly serves many older individuals 0 Older patients need a multidisciplinary approach that focuses on overall needs 0 Medical and public health systems place emphasis on tests drugs surgeries vaccines and environmental controls 0 Medical insurance companies rarely reimburse for preventative services in general Changing Roles of Government in Public Health 0 Federal o Surveys the population39s health status and needs 0 Sets policies and standards 0 Passes laws and regulations 0 Supports biomedical and health services research 0 Provides technical assistance and resources to state and local health agencies 0 Helps nance health care through support of programs 0 Delivers personal health care services through networks of facilities 0 State 0 Financed regulated and delivered through a variety of organizational structures 0 Some activities are divided among several entities including health departments social service welfare again and Medicaid 0 Many combine health and social service agencies to create large human service operations that join health and social services for children and youth developmental disabilities other special populations and special problems with drugsalcohol 0 Contribute heavily to the nancing of Medicaid medical education and public health programs and stateoperated psychiatric hospitals 0 Involved in the regulation through health codes licensing of facilities and personnel and supervision of the insurance industry 0 Local 0 Counties districts and other local governments may have health social service environmental and mental health departments oThey can be independent or divisions of state agencies 0 Many cities and counties support and operate local health departments public hospitals clinics and various other services 0 Establish and enforce local health codes Nation has moved toward increased privatization withdrawn support from public health activities and allowed the system to fall into disarray Public Health in an Era of Privatization and Managed Care 0 Trend toward privatization of public health services have left many local health departments with minimal staff focused on only the most essential public health services Privatization have made health departments shrink with little cost savings 0 Hard to maintain strong community presence Requires health departments to employ management knowledgeable for contracting and businessrelated skills Future Role of Government in Promoting the Public39s Health Populationwide public health approaches have the potential to help prevent some 70 of early deaths in the US through measures targeted to the social environmental and behavioral contributing factors Pressures for improving state and local public health services are developing outside the community of public health advocate Leaders in business and industry have connect a health and educated public to economic growth and development 0 Voting public will only respond to legislative and policy errors only after faulty decisions effect them 911 and public health 0 Need to prepared health care professionals hospitals etc to respond quickly and effectively to threats or actual disasters 0 Department of Homeland Security largest reorganization of the federal government since WWII 0 Combined governmental agencies under new leadership 0 Broad mission of strengthening this country39s borders improving intelligence analyses infrastructure protection and comprehensive response and recovery operations should there be a terrorist attack with chemical or biologic weapons 0 Liaisons with the NIH CDC US Public Health Service FDA etc 0 State and local governments are expected to play principal roles in prevention of spread or in response and recovery operations should any attacks occur 0 Resulted in a series of completely disjointed public health activities and practices across local agencies operating under 50 state health departments 0 Without nationally consistent plans and systems will make it dif cult to coordinated with other responders during disasters that cross political jurisdictions
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