Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Anatomy 2300
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This 53 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Rose on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anatomy 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Burgoon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 463 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Anatomy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
Anatomy 2300 02062015 Anatomy 2300 There is a lot of information in these notes recommend rewriting and using your Guy book to quiz yourself and get repetition throughout the material The details are important Happy studying Lecture 1 January 13th went over syllabus Tu Th Hamilton Hall optional recitation 515 7 PM Online quizzes preiminaries followed by quotmaster quizquot buy gloves for cadaver lab Lecture 2 January 14th Unit 1 Overview of Body Systems and The Lower Limb Anatomy means structure 0 Study of structure of the human body Subdivisions of Anatomy 0 Gross Anatomy structures that can be seen with the naked eye 0 Embryology structures that emerge from the time of egg fertilization through 8th week in utero Neuroanatomy structure of the nervous system 0 brain spinal cord tracts nerve pathways etc quotFunction always re ects structurequot and vise versa in anatomy Levels of structural organization see diagram in PP slides 1 Chemical Level atoms molecules organelles 2 Cellular Level 3 Tissue Level Types muscle nervous connective epithelial 4 Organ Level 2 tissue types forming 1 structure 5 Organ System Level 11 organ systems on body 6 Organism Organ Systems 1 Skeletal a Major Components bones 206 bones in body cartilage tendons ligaments joints b Major Functions support scaffolding protection leverage hematopoiesis mineral storage energy storage Muscular a Major Components skeletal muscle cardiac muscle smooth muscle 650 muscles in the body b Major Functions producing movement producing heat thermogenesis Cardiovascular Circulatory a Major Components heart blood vessels 6000 miles in body blood b Major Functions transportation 02 nutrients C02 wastes hormones etc Lymphatic a Major Components lymph vessels lymph nodes thymus gland tonsils spleen b Major Functions uid control ltration of blood immunity WBC activation Nervous a Major Components brain spinal cord nerves sense organs 10 b Major Functions communication homeostasis Endocdne a Major Components hormoneproducing glands and cells b Major Functions communication homeostasis Respiratory a Major Components lungs nasal cavity pharynx larynx trachea bronchi b Major Functions gas exchange Digestive a Major Components alimentary canal GI tract salivary glands liver gallbladder pancreas b Major Functions mechanical and chemical breakdown of food absorption solid waste removal Urinary a Major Components kidneys ureters urinary bladder urethra b Major Functions ltration and elimination Reproductive a Major Components i Males testes penis glands duct system ii Females ovaries uterine tubes uterus vagina external genhaHa b Major Functions hormone production germ cell formation housing of developing fetus females 11 Integumentary a Major Components skin accessory structures hair nails sebaceous oil glands sudoriferous sweat glands b Major Functions protection temperature regulation waste elimination sensation Skin Layers See page 10 in workbook o Epidermis epithelial cells layers Strati es squamous epithelial cells Alive cells are deepest layer of epidermis Most super cial epidermis is dead skin cells ll with keratin keratin is what makes the dead skin cells hard and protects you from harmful substances in the outside world 0 Dermis deep layer of skin Composed of connective tissue blood vessels and receptor cells 0 Hypodermis NOT a layer of skin Anchors skin to deeper structures Composed of mainly adipose fat tissue See pages 35 of lab book for Figure 11A Directional Terminology and Anatomical Position Figure 12 Planes of The Body Figure 13 Regions of The Body Figure 14 Body Cavities Lecture 3 January 15th Unit 2 Osteology the study of bone Functions of Bone P P FP NE Support framework for body structure Protection Movement skeletal muscle attachment bones used as levers Mineral storage ie calcium phosphate Blood cell formation hematopoiesis Triglycerides adipose storage in yellow bone marrow a Potential chemical energy source Humans have 206 NAMED bones and some unnamed bone Bones of skeletal system are divided into two parts Axial Skeleton spine vertebral column thorax sternum and ribs skull bones hyoid bone Appendicular Skeleton a Pectoral girdles clavicles and scapulae b Upper limb humerus ulna radius carpals metacarpals phalanges c Pelvic girdle hip pelvic and coxal bones d Lower limb femur patella bula tibia tarsals metatarsal phalanges Bone types Long bones long diaphysis bones that are longer than they are wide a humerus ulna radius femur tibia bula metatarsals Short bones approximately cubed in shape a Carpals wrist region tarsals ankle region Flat bones thin attened a ribs sternums most bones of the skull 4 Irregular bones a vertebra os coxae pelvic bones 2 05 coxae 5 Sesamoid bones quotseedlike bones that develop in tendons a pateHa Texture of Bone Compact vs Spongy Bone 1 Compact very dense outer portion of most bone a Looks solid to naked eye but actually has little passageways for nerves and blood vessels running through 2 Spongy found inside bone a structure of trabeculae needlelike pieces contains red bone marrow or yellow bone marrow between needlelike pieces a trabeculae formation looks random but actually forms along stress lines Long Bone Structures Diaphysis shaft of long bone longaxis of bone 0 Compact bone on outside 0 Contains medullary cavity in middle which is also called the marrow cavity because it contains red andor yellow bone marrow o remember that red bone marrow is where hematopoiesis takes place and yellow bone marrow is where triglycerides are stored Epiphyses ends of bones o Composed of compact bone on outside and spongy bone on inside 0 Lined with hyaline cartilage o remember that spongy bone can contain red or yellow bone marrow as well 0 Epiphyseal plate in children made of hyaline cartilage that turns into epiphyseal line adults made of bone 0 Site where bone growth occurs via mitosis in children making long bones longer until hyaline cartilage becomes bone 0 Connectsfuses epiphysis and diaphysis in adults when cartilage no longer exists and is composed of bone cells Membranes o Periosteum lines outside of compact bone 2 Layers n Dense thick connective tissue on outside for muscle tendon attachment n Thin layer of different bone cells osteoclast and osteoblasts for bone remodeling a Deep to periosteum are bers called Sharpey s bers than are attached to the bone which causes force of muscle contraction to move the bones o Endosteaum lines inside of compact bone Delicate layer made of up only bone cells Over lifespan bone is constantly being remodeled broken down and added to via bone cells osteoclasts and osteoblasts Over 10 year span you replace your entire skeleton because over time bone becomes brittle so it s important that it recycles by breaking down the older bone and replacing with newer bone 0 Articular cartilage hyaline cartilage 0 Line articular surfaces typically the epiphyses because that is where articulation of bone typically occurs 0 Cushions apposing bone ends during movement and absorbs some stress As people age red bone marrow sites convert to yellow bone marrow sites except for in the head of the femur and the head of the humerus when doctors take bone marrow for transplant it typically comes from the head of the femur Short Flat Irregular and Sesamoid Bone Structures Compact bone on outside both sides Spongy bone on inside 0 Spongy bone of short at irregular and sesamoid bone is call diploe 0 Yellow or red bone marrow is in the empty spaces of the trabeculae Periosteum is on the outside of the compact bone Endosteum surrounds the trabeculae of the diploe Lecture 4 January 20th Bone Markings Process a roughened bony prominence usually serving as the site of attachment for muscles or connective tissue structure Trochanter relatively large blunt type of process found only on the femur Tuberosity a large blunt or rounded process Tubercle a small blunt or rounded process Spine a pointed projection of bone Crest a prominent border that may be rough Fossa a saucerlike depression Foramen a hole in a bone size is extremely variable Head a rounded articular surface joined to the shaft of the bones by a constriction the neck Condyle a smooth structure either concave or convex joined directly to the shaft of a long bone Facet a smooth surface for articulation Pelvic Girdle 2 ossa coxae hip bones of the appendicular skeleton and the sacrum of the axial skeleton singular of ossa coxae is 05 coxae o sacrum joined to each 05 coxae at sacroiliac joints posteriorly o ossa coxae join together at pubic symphysis anteriorly brocartilage of pubic symphysis is typically larger in women than in men during pregnancy relaxn hormone in the last trimester is released and relaxes the brocartilage it increases the diameter of the pelvic cavity birth canal so fetus can move through 0 To orient the pelvic girdle in the right position ASlSs and pubic tubercles must be in the same coronal frontal plane 0 The pelvic brim marks the difference between the false pelvis and the true pelvis Superior to the pelvic brim and medial to iliac fossas the between the 2 iliac bones is the false pelvis and is part of the abdomen n Contains abdominal viscera such as the large intestine True pelvis is found inferior to the pelvis brim and contains the pelvic organs A midsagittal view of the pelvis shows the true vs false pelvis Bones of pelvic girdle o Sacrum axial skeleton Fusion of 5 sacral vertebrae that are separate during embryonic development they fuse over time Wedgeshaped bone Foramina that branches of spinal nerves pass through a Anterior sacral foramina n Posterior sacral foramina Sacral canal posterior is part of vertebral canal a Different nerves and nerve roots go through that attach to spinal cord Median sacral crest posterior Auricular surfaces lateral where SI joint is formed a This articular surface is shaped like an ear which is why it s called the auricular surface Coccyx is not part of the pelvic girdle but is very often left in pictures of pelvic girdle o Ossa Coxae 2 be able to distinguish right from left Also called the innominate bone coxal bone or hip bone 3 separate bones held together by cartilage in adolescence begin to fuse together in area known as acetabulum at about 1517 years of age and completed by age 23 Bones that make up each 05 coxae 1 llium superior 0 When you put hands on hips this is the iliac crest o The highest point of the iliac crest is found at L4 level same level you nd the umbilicus 0 Typically where lumbar punctures take place 0 ASISPSIS found at either end of iliac spine ASIS allows you to orient hip bone into correct anatomical position because it is supposed to be in same coronal plane as the pubic tubercle o AllSPIIS found just inferior to ASISPSIS respectively 0 Greater sciatic notch more superior than lesser sciatic notch separated by lesser sciatic notch by the ischial spine Foramina created by ligament and notch l greater sciatic foramen l Passage of sciatic nerve o Lesser sciatic notch Foramina created by ligament and notch gt lesser sciatic foramen o Auricular surface medial for SI articulation o lliac fossa muscle attachment for iliacus muscle 2 lschium inferiorposterior o lschial tuberosity very large prominence typically covered by gluteus maximus when the thigh is in extension anatomical position when you ex the thigh the gluteus maximus slides to the side and uncovers the ischial tuberosity sitting o lschial ramus connects with the superior pubic ramus 3 Pubis inferioranterior n Superior pubic ramus connects with ischial ramus to form the obturator foramen not a lot passes through it n Inferior pubic ramus n Pubic tubercle put in same coronal plane as the ASIS to orient the hip in the correct position a Pubis symphysis articulation of two ossa coxae anteriorly n Acetabulum where the 3 hip bones fuse together Translates quotsmall Roman vinegar cupquot 0 Where the head of the femur articulates with pelvis Femur a Head always pointing in medially to articulate with the acetabulum n Neck a Great trochanter n Lesser trochanter n Intertrochanteric crest posterior connects greater and lesser trochanter n Intertrochanteric line anterior connects greater and lesser trochanter n Gluteal tuberosity posterior attachment for gluteas maximus n Linea aspera posterior splits medially and laterally at distalinferior femur creating the popliteal surface a Patellar surface anterior only articulation for the patella n Medial lateral condyles o Medial is on same side as head of the femur o lntercondylar fossa n Popliteal surface superior half of the oor of popliteal fossa n Mediallater epicondyles n Adductor tubercle on medial epicondyle for attachments od any muscles responsible for adduction PateHa n Sesamoid bone bone found in a tendon that helps alter the pull of the muscle a Patella found in quadriceps femoris muscle tendon that attaches quads to tibial tuberosity o Inferior portion of tendon between the patella and the tibial tuberosity can also be called the patellar ligament Tibia medial to bula n Mediallateral condyles superior for articulation with the condyles of the femur to form knee joint for exext n Tibial tuberosity anterior follow sharp edge inferiorly to anterior border of the tibia o shin bone can be felt right under the skin n Medial malleolus bump on medial aspect of ankle Fibula lateral to tibia not a weightbearing bone a Does not participate in exext of the knee a Head of bula articulates with the bular facet found on the posterolateral aspect of tibia n Lateral malleolus bump on lateral aspect of ankle 0 Little fossa on posterior side of malleolus allows tendons to turn 90 degrees before heading into foot Ankle joint made by articulation of the tibia bula and talus n Allows for dorsi exion and plantar exion u If the malleoli break the ankle joint becomes unstable Bones of the foot know ankle joint vs ankle bones n Tarsal bones 7 short bones bones of the ankle region called ankle bones 1 Talus bone that articulates with distal end of tibia and bula to form the ankle joint 2 Calcaneus quotheel bonequot inferior to talus 3 Navicular anterior to the talus on medial side 4 Cuboid l The 3 Cuneiforms located anterior to navicular 5 Medial cuneiform 6 Intermediate cuneiform 7 Lateral cuneiform lntertarsal joints Intertarsal joint between calcaneus and talus allows for inversion and eversion Can to more inversion because the lateral malleolus goes more distal that medial malleolus 0 When you sprain an ankle its often due to overinversion because Can go further with inversion Ligaments on lateral side are a lot weaker than ligaments on medial ankle region can more easily tear ligaments on lateral side Metatarsals 5 long bones 0 1st is most medial 5th is most lateral Phalanges 14 long bones o Proximal digits 12345 0 Middle digits 2345 no 1 for hallux o Distal digits 12345 Lecture 4 January let Arthrology the study of joints Joint Articulation sites where two or more bones meet Classi cation of Joints Based on Structure binding material 1 Fibrous Joint Bones joined by brous connective tissue 0 No joint cavity 2 CartilaginousJoint Bones held together by cartilage No joint cavity 3 Synovialjoint Bones separated by uidcontaining joint cavity 0 Joint cavity present 0 Based on Function amount of movement 1 Synarthrosis synarthrotic joint 0 Immovable joint 2 Amphiarthrosis amphiarthrotic joint 0 Slightly movable joint 3 Diarthrosis diarthrotic joint 0 Freely movable joint Furthering structural classi cation of joints Fibrous 0 Amount of movement permitted depends on the length of the connective tissue bers holding the bones together 0 Very short bers holding bones together will permit very little or no movement ampiarthrosis vs synarthrosis 3 Types of Fibrous joints 1 Suture very very short bers connect the interlocking edges of articulating bones 0 occurs only between bones of the skull 0 sutures are synarthrotic joints 2 Syndesmosis ligaments connecting two bones 0 syndesmoses are either classi ed functionally as synarthrotic or amphiarthrotic joints 0 very short ligaments permit no movement while longer ligaments permit slight movement a Ex distal tibio bularjoint ligament holds bones together 3 Gomphosis a peginsocket joint 0 only example is a tooth in the alveolar process of the mandible or maxillae bones 0 gomphoses are synarthrotic joints 0 periodontal ligaments holds bone together Cartilaginous Two Types of Cartilaginous Joints 1 Synchondrosis bar or plate of hyaline cartilage joining bones chondro cartilage o synarthrosis immovable Ex epiphyseal plates act as synchrondosis sternum and ribs 2 Symphysis a pad or plate of brocartilage between bones o amphiarthrotic slightly movable brocartilage acts as a shock absorber 0 you are shorter at night than in the morning because the intervertebral discs shrink because water quotleaks outquot due to pressure from gravity water reabsorbs over night 0 Ex pubic symphysis big piece of brocartilage vertebral column between the bodies of the vertebrae Synovial o All synovial joints are diarthrotic freely movable most joints in the body are synovialdiarthrotic jionts Distinguishing Features of Synovial joints 1 jointsynovial cavity Synovial Fluid to reduce friction between bones lubricant o Articular Capsule walls of the articular cavity 2 Parts I Fibrous capsule thick holds bones together a Synovial membrane delicate produces synovial uid 2 Reinforcing ligaments helps hold bonesjoint together outside of articular capsule 3 Bursae uid lled sacks for cushioning and to reduce friction Can cause problems ie pain due to bursitis 4 Articular hyaline cartilage Covers opposing bone surfaces always hyaline l Furthering structural types of synovial joints 6 all diarthrotic 1 Plane Joints 0 Simplest of synovial joint structures 0 Two at articular surfaces that glide over one another 0 Gliding movement is called translation which is the simplest of movement 0 Ex intercarpal joints intertarsal joints vertebral column in facet joints 2 Hinge joints Cylindrical shape of one bone tting into the troughlike shape of another bone looks like a mechanical hinge o Permits exion and extension one axial plane 0 Ex elbow joint distal end of humerus with proximal end of the ulna interphalangeal joints UPS 3 Pivot joints Rounded end of one bone protruding into a sleeve or ring of another bone andor ligament o Permits rotation 0 Ex atlantoaxial joint C1C2 dens of C2 into C1 allowing for rotation proximal radioulnarjoint 4 Condyloid joints 0 Oval articular surface of bone tting into the depression of another 0 Allow for all types of angular motions to occur exion extension abduction adduction circumduction Ex wrist radius and a couple of the carpal bones metacarpophalangeal joints metatarsophalangeal joints 5 Saddlejoints Sort of like a condyloid joint with a greater freedom of movement 0 Both articular surfaces have a concave and convex portion that makes it look like a saddle Allows for exion extension abduction adduction circumduction and opposition 0 Ex carpometacarpal joints of rst digit thumb only example 6 BallandSocketjoints Spherical end of one bone tting into a cuplike socket of another 0 Universal motion most freely movable joint structure 0 Ex glenohumeral joints hip joints See PP for pictures and charts Lecture 5 january 22nOI joints of the Lower Limb Sacroiliac joints between the sacrum and the ilium Synovial structure but varies throughout lifetime 0 Functional classi cation changes over time 0 Pubic symphysis connect 2 pubic bones at anterior midline of pelvis Cartilaginous structure Amphiarthrotic function brocartilage Hip joint acetabulum and head of femur Synovial structure Knee o Ballandsocket most freely movable synovialdiarthrotic joint type Diarthrotic function Tibiofemoral joint 0 Synovial structure Modi edhinge joint allows for exion and extension 0 Diarthrotic function Patellofemoral joint patella sitting on top of femur o Synovial structure Planar joint allows for glidingtranslations o Diarthrotic Proximal tibio bularjoint o Synovial Planarjoint Distal tibio bularjoint o Fibrous structure Syndesmosis ligaments connecting 2 bones o Synarthrotic function immovable for the most part An kleFoot Talocrural joint true ankle joint 0 Synovial Hinge plantar exion and dorsi exion o Diarthrotic o Intertarsal joints ankle region 0 Synovial Planarjoints glidingtranslation Gliding of tarsal bones especially the talus and the calcaneus allows for inversion and eversion o Diarthrotic Tarsometatarsal joints between some of tarsal bones and proximal ends of metatarsals o Synovial Planarjoints glidingtranslation o Diarthrotic Metatarsophalangeal MP joints 0 Synovial Condyloid 2 planes of motion exionextension abduction adduction circumduction o Diarthrotic o lnterphalangealjoints o Synovial Hinge 1 plane exion and extension 0 Diarthrotic Lecture 6 january 27th Myology the study of muscles Muscles Main Function use ATP stored energy to generate physical force o Stimulation of force via ATP from nerves intrinsic system regulation or hormones Muscular force is responsible for body movement movement of limbs organs blood vessels etc Muscles contain myo laments ie actinmyosin which interact to produce tension Helpful concepts when talking about muscles 1 Pre xes myo mys or sarco all refer to muscle 2 Muscle the tissue vs muscle the organ are 2 different things 3 Muscle cell muscle ber 3 Types of muscle tissue 1 skeletal voluntary striated 0 very very long multinucleated striated striped appearance attach to bone or skin 2 cardiac involuntary striated branching cells that breaks up striation pattern 0 muscle cells bers attach to each other through intercalated discs that are specialized junctions so when the cells contract they pull on one another makes a STRONG contraction found in walls of heart 0 propels blood through circulatory system 3 smooth involuntary nonstriated spindleshaped cells wide in middle and narrow at ends uninucleated typically in middle of cell wide part 0 cells arranged in same direction 0 found in walls of hollow organs eg GI tract urinary tract 0 propels compounds through tracts via peristalsis found in places to regulate size of structure for particular func on o walls of blood vessels regulate blood ow 0 pupil of eye Functions of muscle tissue 1 2 3 4 Producing body movement including moving substance within the body eg peristalsis change size of certain structures eg pupil of eye Maintaining posture Skeletal muscle secondary to ght against gravity Stabilizing Joints Generating heat thermogenesis Muscle tissue Macroscopic structure A skeletal muscle the organ contains Skeletal muscle bers Blood vessels artery capillaries veins Nerve bers Connective tissue Connective tissue sheaths associated with skeletal muscle organ Endomysium wraps each individual muscle ber Perimysium creates fascicles by wrapping bundles of muscle bers Epimysisum wraps groups of fascicles Endomysium perimysium and epimysium are all connected to each other listen to 1640 Most skeletal muscles cross at least one joint and are usually attached to the articulation bones that form the joint When a muscle contracts and shortens it pulls one of the articulation bones towards the other so one bone remains relatively stationary while the other moves Origin the muscle s attachment to the immovable or less moveable bone Insertion the muscle s attachment to the moveable bone Origin and insertion can be 1 Direct attachments the epimysium of the muscle is fused to the periosteum of the bone 2 Indirect attachments the muscle s connective tissue wrappings usually epimysium extend beyond the muscle as either a tendon or aponeurosis which will attach to the bone Movements at synovial joints 3 general types of movements at synovial joints 1 gliding movement also called translation simplest of all movements 0 at articular surfaces plane joints glide or slide over one another 0 Ex intertarsal joints intercarpal joints some intervertebral articulation 2 angular movement includes exext addabd lateral exion circumduction motions that increase or decrease the angle between 2 bones o exion decrease extension increase a hip shoulder wrist elbow humeroulnar MCPS atlantooccipital cspine lumbar spine 0 adduction decrease abduction increase a hip shoulder wrist MCPS o circumduction moving a limb so it creates a cone in space a hip shoulder rotation o turning of a bone along its long axis 0 atlantoaxial joint shoulder hip o elbow proximal radioulnar suppro o tspine Note There are other movements that apply to speci c joints or don t t into the categories listed above these are called special movements 0 This includes dorsi exion plantar exion supination pronation inversion eversion protraction retraction elevation depression and opposition DFPF talocrural joint Supinationpronation radius around ulna lnversioneversion intertarsal joints mostly between talus and calcaneus Protractionretraction TMj scapulothoracic sternoclavicular Elevationdepression TMj scapulothoracic sternoclavicular Opposition MCP thumb metacarpal 1 and trapezium saddle joint Lecture 7 january 28th Muscles of the Hip and Thigh Muscles of posterior gluteal region Divided into two layers super cial and deep Super cial muscles posterior gluteal region important for maintaining upright posture Need to know all of the information in this section including listed OlANs Gluteus maximus iv 0 ORIGIN posterior surface of the ilium sacrum and coccyx INSERTION iliotibial tract of fascia ata gluteal tuberosity of femur ACTIONS 1 Extension of thigh hip main extensor of hip 2 Lateral rotation of thigh hip INNERVATION inferior gluteal nerve common site for intramuscular injection Gluteus medius lateral largely covered by gluteus maximus I ii iii iv 0 ORIGIN external surface of the ilium INSERTION greater trochanter of the femur ACTIONS abduction of the thigh hip INNERVATION superior gluteal nerve common site for intramuscular injection Gluteus minimus inferior to gluteus medius i ii iii iv ORIGIN external surface of the ilium INSERTION greater trochanter of femur ACTIONS abduction of the thigh hip INNERVATION superior gluteal nerve Tensor fasciae atae anterior to hip joint ORIGIN anterior portion of the iliac crest INSERTION iliotibial tract of the fascia ata ACTIONS 1 exion of thigh hip 2 abduction of thigh hip iv INNERVATION superior gluteal nerve quottensesquot deep fascia and by doing so helps to support the femur on the tibia while standing Fascia lata deep fascia that surroundsinvests the thigh 0 Works like an elastic stocking that prevents outward movement of skeletal muscles when they contract making muscular contraction more efficient and helps propel blood in veins back toward the heart by compressing the veins 0 lliotibial tract thickened later portion of the fascia lata 0 Runs from the iliac crest to the knee attaches near the lateral condyle of the tibia o Helps stabilize the femur on top of the tibia and acts as insertion point for gluteus maximus muscle Deep muscles posterior gluteal region Deep lateral rotators including piriformis Need to know all information in this section including Piriformis OlANs listed 0 All stabilize the hip joint by helping to hold the head of femur in the acetabulum originate on the ilium and ischium insert on the greater trochanter and participate in lateral rotation of the hip joint Superior gemellus lnferior gemellus Obturator internus Obturator externus Quadratus femoris Piriformis i ORIGIN anterior surface of the sacrum inside the true pelvis n Passes through greater sciatic foramen and is known as organizer in greater sciatic foramen region because other structures coming through are organized relative to piriformis Superior to piriformis superior gluteal nerve superior gluteal artery 0 lnferior to piriformis inferior gluteal nerve sciatic nerve P P FP NE ii INSERTION greater trochanter of the femur iii ACTIONS lateral rotation of the thigh hip iv INNERVATION nerve to piriformis Muscles of the anterior hipiliac region lie over the anterior hip joint 0 Need to know all of the information in this section including listed OIANs These muscles ex the hip joint as a result they can ex the trunk or ex the thigh Two Major Anterior Hip Muscles iliac region 1 Psoas major i ORIGIN all 5 lumbar vertebrae ii INSERTION lesser trochanter of femur iii ACTIONS hip joint exion a Can result in exion of the thigh toward the trunk or exion of the trunk toward the thigh iv INNERVATION lumbar spinal nerves 2IHacus i ORIGIN Iiac fossa ii INSERTION lesser trochanter of femur iii ACTIONS hip joint exion a Can result in exion of the thigh toward the trunk or exion of the trunk toward the thigh iv INNERVATION femoral nerve Psoas major and iliacus join and become one muscle inferior to the inguinal ligament referred to iliopsoas iliopsoas is the muscle primarily responsible for hip exion O Muscles of the thigh 3 muscle groups surround the femur and are divided from one another by connective tissue sheets muscle groups create anterior medial and posterior compartments 0 Muscles within compartments typically have similar actions and innervations so it is often easy to start studying them in groups and then looking at the exceptions to the commonalities Compartments o Anterior compartment of the thigh sartorius and quaddceps 0 Need to know all of the information including listed OIANs in this section except 3 action of sartorius muscle information 1 Sartorius means quottailor s musclequot i ORIGIN ASIS ii INSERTION medial surface of the proximal tibia pes anserinus do not need to know this term iii ACTIONS 1 Flexes leg knee 2 Flexes thigh hip 3 also responsible for external rotation of the thigh which you don t need to know But it is called quotthe tailor s musclequot because these 3 actions combined cause you to sitstand how a tailor would while tailoring clothing ie hip and knee bent knee rotated outward meaning the hip is externally rotated so that the clothing can rest on the leg iv INNERVATION femoral nerve 2 Rectus femoris one of the largest and most powerful muscles in the body quotkicking musclequot i ORIGIN AIIS and superior margin of acetabulum ii INSERTION tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament iii ACTION 1 Extends leg knee kicking 2 Flexes thigh hip iv INNERVATION femoral nerve 3 Vastus lateralis i ORIGIN lateral lip of linea aspera ii INSERTION tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament iii ACTION 1 Extends leg knee iv INNERVATION femoral nerve 4 Vastus medialis i ORIGIN medial lip of linea aspera ii INSERTION tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament iii ACTION 1 Extends leg knee i INNERVATION femoral nerve 5 Vastus intermedius deep to rectus femoris i ORIGIN anterior and lateral surface of shaft of femur ii INSERTION tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament iii ACTION 1 Extends leg knee iv INNERVATION femoral nerve Patellar ligament also called the patellar tendon all 4 quad muscles combine at the patellar ligament and then cross the knee joint Rectus femoris is the only quad muscle that cross the hip joint and therefore is the only quad muscle that quotacts onquot or moves the hip joint 0 Medial compartment of the thigh quotthe adductor groupquot 0 Only need to know BOLDED information in this section but do know which compartment the muscles are in 1 Gracilis i ORIGIN pubis ii INSERTION medial surface of proximal tibia pes anserinus do not need to know this term iiiACTION 1 adducts thigh hip iv INNERVATION obturator nerve v Only adductor muscle to cross the knee joint 2 Pectineus i ORIGIN pubis ii INSERTION posterior surface of proximal femur iiiACTION 1 Adducts thigh hip 2 Flexes thigh hip iv INNERVATION femoral nerve 3 Adductor longus most super cialanterior longus brevis and magnus i ORIGIN pubis ii INSERTION linea aspera of femur iiiACTION 1 adducts thigh hip iv INNERVATION obturator nerve 4 Adductor brevis found deep to pectineus and longus i ORIGIN pubis ii INSERTION linea aspera of femur iiiACTION 1 adducts thigh hip iv INNERVATION obturator nerve 5 Adductor magnus largest of adductor muscles triangular in shape deep to all other adductor muscles ORIGIN pubis and ischium INSERTION linea aspera of femur and adductor tubercle of femur iiiACTION 1 adducts thigh hip iv INNERVATION obturator nerve o Posterior compartment of the thigh 0 Need to know all of the information in this section including listed OlANs These all are quotthe hamstring muscles 1 Biceps femoris lateral thigh ORIGIN 1 Long head ischial tuberosity 2 Short head linea aspera of femur INSERTION head of bula long and short head have a common tendon ACTION S 1 Both longshort head exes leg knee 2 ONLY long head extends thigh hip 39 INNERVATION 1 Long head tibial nerve division of sciatic nerve 2 Short head common bular peroneal nerve Short head is deep to long head of b femoris Sciatic nerve is deep to and therefore protected by long head of b femoris 2 Semitendinosus medial thigh i ORIGIN ischial tuberosity ii INSERTION medial surface of proximal tibia pes anserinus do not need to know this term iii ACTION 1 Flexes leg knee 2 Extends thigh hip iv INNERVATION tibial nerve division of sciatic nerve 3 Semimembranosus medial thigh deep to semitendinosus i ORIGIN ischial tuberosity ii INSERTION posterior surface of medial condyle of tibia iii ACTION 5 1 Flexes leg knee 2 Extends thigh knee iv INNERVATION tibial nerve division of sciatic nerve Begins as very big aponeurosis broad at tendon that comes off of ischial tuberosity so it looks like a membrane Lecture 8 Muscles of the lower leg Crural fascia deep fascia that quotinvests the legquot Wraps all the muscles holding them in like an elastic stocking Holds the muscles in so that when they contract the pressure is directed inward to the tendons instead of outward o By directing inward the deep veins are compressed helping to return blood to the heart Crural fascia extend deep creating the different compartments of the lower leg quotcruralquot means leg 3 Compartments of the lower leg Overview muscles in the same compartment typically have similar actions and nerve innervation 1 anterior 0 important dorsi exors of the foot and extensors of the toes 0 includes tibialis anterior extensor halluces longus extensor digitorum longus anterior tibial artery and deep vein deep bular nerve 2 posterior a super cial o plantar exors o gastrocnemius soleus plantaris tibial nerve b deep 0 plantar exors inverters of the foot and exors of the toes o popliteus exor halluces longus exor digitorum longus tibialis posterior posterior tibial artery and vein tibial nerve 3 lateral o everters and somewhat important plantar exors o bularis longus bularis brevis super cial bular nerve Anterior crural compartment 0 Only need to know BOLDED information in this section but do know which compartment the muscles are in 0 IMPORTANT DORSIFLEXORS OF FOOT AND TOE EXTENSORS 1 Tibialis anterior i ORIGIN Lateral conder and upper tibia interosseous membrane ii INSERTION medial surface of 1st cuneiform and 1st metatarsal iiiACTIONS 1 Dorsi exes foot 2 Inverts foot iv INNERVATION deep bular peroneal nerve 2 Extensor digitorum longus i ORIGIN lateral condyle of tibia upper 34 anterior bula interosseous membrane ii INSERTION dorsal surface middle and distal phalanges of digits 25 iiiACTIONS 1 Extends digits 25 2 Dorsi exes foot iv INNERVATION deep bular peroneal nerve 3 Extensor halluces longus i ORIGIN anterior middle bula interosseous membrane ii INSERTION dorsal surface bas of distal phalanx of hallux big toe iiiACTIONS 1 Extends hallux 2 Dorsi exes foot iv INNERVATION deep bular peroneal nerve 4 Fibularis peroneus tertius i ORIGIN lower third of medial bula interosseous membrane ii INSERTION base 5th metatarsal iiiACTIONS 1 Dorsi exes foot 2 Everts foot iv INNERVATION deep bular peroneal nerve Lateral crural compartment Only need to know BOLDED information in this section but do know which compartment the muscles are in IMPORTANT EVERTES 1 Fibularis peroneus longus 2 i ORIGIN head and upper 23 of lateral bula ii INSERTION base of rst metatarsal rst cuneiform iii ACTIONS 1 Plantar exes foot 2 Everts foot iv INNERVATION super cial bular peroneal nerve Fibularis peroneus brevis i ORIGIN lower 23 of lateral bula ii INSERTION base of 4th metatarsal iii ACTIONS 1 Plantar exes foot 2 Everts foot iv INNERVATION super cial peroneal nerve Super cial posterior crural compartment Only need to know BOLDED information in this section but do know which compartment the muscles are in VERY IMPORTANT PLANTAR FLEXORS 1 Gastrocnemius crosses both knee and ankle joints 2 3 i ORIGIN medial and lateral condyles of the femur ii INSERTION posterior calcaneus via calcaneal tendon iii ACTIONS 1 Flexes leg 2 Plantar exes foot iv INNERVATION tibial nerve v crosses both knee and ankle joints Soleus i ORIGIN upper bula soleal line and middle 13 of tibia ii INSERTION posterior calcaneus via calcaneal tendon iii ACTIONS 1 Plantar exes foot iv INNERVATION tibial nerve Plantaris i ORIGIN posterior femur above lateral conder ii INSERTION posterior calcaneus iii ACTIONS 1 Flexes leg 2 Plantar exes foot iv INNERVATION tibial nerve v crosses both knee and ankle joints 2 heads of gastrocnemius muscle and soleus muscle that converge at the calcaneal tendon make up what is called tricepssurae produce about 94 of the power needed for plantar exion plantar exion is necessary when pushing body off of ground while walkingrunning Deep posterior crural compartment Only need to know BOLDED information in this section but do know which compartment the muscles are in IMPORTANT PLANTAR FLEXORS AND ALSO FLEX TOES AND INVERT THE FOOT Popliteus i ORIGIN lateral condyle of femur ii INSERTION posterior tibia above soleal line iii ACTIONS 1 Flexes leg 2 Rotates tibia medially iv INNERVATION tibial nerve Flexor halluces longus i ORIGIN lower 23 bula interosseous membrane ii INSERTION base of distal phalanx of hallux iii ACTIONS 1 Flexes hallux 2 Plantar exes foot iv INNERVATION tibial nerve Flexor digitorum longus i ORIGIN posterior tibia ii INSERTION base of distal phalanx of digits 25 iii ACTIONS 1 Flexes digits 25 2 Plantar exes foot iv INNERVATION tibial nerve 4 Tibialis posterior i ORIGIN posterior interosseous membrane tibia and bula ii INSERTION navicular cuneiforms cuboid metatarsals 24 iii ACTIONS 1 Plantar exes foot 2 Inverts foot iv INNERVATION tibial nerve When a nerve is cutdamaged everything below the point of damaged is not longer innervated Example Drop foot syndrome is caused by damage to the common bular nerve at the neck of the bula because dorsi exion and eversion are no longer able to happen Extrinsic vs intrinsic muscles of the foot Only need to know BOLDED information in these sections but do know which compartment the muscles are in Extrinsic muscles muscles originates on surface of another body part 0 The muscle of the leg listed in the compartments above are extrinsic muscles of the foot 0 Intrinsic muscles muscles that originate within the same body part Intrinsic muscles of the foot 1 Intrinsic muscle of the dorsum of the foot 1 Extensor digitorum brevis i ORIGIN lateral calcaneus ii INSERTION base of proximal phalanx into extensor digitorum longus tendon od digits 14 iiiACTIONS 1 Extends digits 14 iv INNERVATION deep bular peroneal nerve o Intrinsic muscles of the plantar aspect foot These intrinsic plantar muscles are arranged in 4 layers and covered by plantar aponeurosis a think fascial structure Abductor hallucis rst layer plantar intrinsic muscles i ORIGIN calcaneus and exor retinaculum ii INSERTION proximal phalanx of hallux iiiACTIONS 1 Abducts hallux iv INNERVATION medial plantar nerve Flexor digitorum brevis i ORIGIN calcaneus and plantar aponeurosis ii INSERTION middle phalanx of digits 25 iiiACTIONS 1 Flexes digits 25 iv INNERVATION medial plantar nerve Abductor digiti minimi i ORIGIN calcaneus and plantar aponeurosis ii INSERTION base of proximal phalanx of fth digit iiiACTIONS 1 abducts fth digit iv INNERVATION lateral plantar nerve 4 Quadratus plantae no info needed for this muscle Lecture 9 Intro to the nervous system 3 major functions of the nervous system 1 Gather information gather sensory input via sensory receptors 2 Integration process and interpret sensory input and decides what actions to take if any 3 Produce response produce motor output via activation of effector organs 0 Effector organ can include skeletal muscle cardiac muscle smooth muscle organ or gland Divisions of nervous system CNS and PNS 1 CNS Central Nervous System 0 The integrative and control centers of the body i Brain major control center protected by the skull ii Spinal Cord considered a direct extension of the brain protected by the bones of the spinal column 2 PNS Peripheral Nervous System 0 Communication lines between CNS brain spinal cord and rest of the body all nervous tissue outside of the brainspinal cord i Cranial nerve originate in the brain ii Spinal nerves originate in the spinal cord Ganglia groups of neuron cell bodies not in CNS iv Plexuses intermingling of neuronal cell process from different rami of various cord levels a nerve is a collection of nerve axons found in the PNS 2 types of cells nervous tissue 1 Neuroglia glia supporting cells 0 support neurons small than neurons in CNS and PNS CNS neuroglia 1 Astrocytes 2 Microglial cells 3 Ependymal cells line CNS 4 Oligodendrocytes produce myelin sheath that wrap axons PNS neuroglia 1 Schwann cells produce myelin sheaths that wrap axons 2 Satellite cells 2 Neurons functional excited cells of the nervous system 0 transmit action potentials for communication Basic structure of a neuron 1 Cell body main function is biosynthetic center of neuron meaning the organelles in the cell produce what the cell needs to survive Ex a lot of rough endoplasmic reticulum in cell body to produce proteins for cell function 2 Dendrites main function is to receiveinput signal to neuron neuron can have more than one dendrite Other neurons can synapse at the dendrite put input into the next neuron Dendrites have receptive endings 3 Axon main function is to conducttransmit nerve impulses via generating action potential Neurons can only have one axon 0 Another name for nerve axon is nerve ber 0 At the end of axon what s called an axon terminal which releases neurotransmitters when an action potential reaches it a neurotransmitteris a chemical messenger that can effect another effect cell such as another neuron a gland or a muscle Classi cation of neurons 0 Classi cation by structure 0 Name based on number of processes connected to cell body 1 Multipolar neuron 3 processes from cell body Ex 1 axon and multiple dendrites l can either be a motor neuron or interneuron func onaHy 2 Bipolar neuron 2 processes from cell body Ex 1 axon and one dendrite l can be sensory neurons speci cally as part of special sense organs ie eye ear nose etc 3 Unipolar neuron 1 process Rarest structure of neuron Ex only 1 process connected to cell body even though there is still an axon and dendrite the 1 process from cell body is connected to 1 axon conducting region with a dendrite at one end receptive ending and at the other end the release of neurotransmitters look at diagrams on Carmen slides the 1 process connected to the one axon makes a T shape 0 l sensory neurons functionally bring general information towards CNS 0 Classi cation by structure 0 Name based on direction of impulse relative to CNS 1 Sensory or afferent neuron impulse towards CNS 2 Motor of efferent neurons impulse away from CNS 3 lnterneurons or association neurons impulses between motor and sensory neurons Nerves a nerve is a collection of nerve axons found in the PNS o A nerve contains WNH 4 5 Neuron process more speci cally axon AKA nerve ber Myelin directly on axon below endoneurium Connective tissue i Endoneurium innermost connective tissue around each neuron ii Perineurium creates fascicles iii Epineurium around bundles of fascicle blood vessels and lymphatic tissue Blood vessels Lymphatic tissue Nerve classi cations Nerve classi cation based on nerve impulse direction 1 2 Sensory afferent 0 Contain only sensory bers 0 Only transmit towards CNS Motor efferent 0 Contain only motor bers 0 Only transmit away from CNS 3 Mixed nerves 0 Most common 0 Contain sensory and motor bers Sensory bers transmit impulses towards CNS while motor neurons transmit away from CNS Nerve classi cation based on where nerve originate 1 Cranial nerves 12 pairs Originate in brain Innervate head and neck region 0 Still part of PNS even though they originate in brain 2 Spinal nerves 31 pairs 0 Spinal nerves formed from the union of a dorsal nerve root which contains sensoryafferent bers and ventral nerve root which contains motorefferent bers n Nerve roots originate from spinal cord and exit through spinal vertebrae n Ventral and dorsal roots come together to from mixed nerves the 31 pairs of nerves right and left form the spinal column 0 A dorsal ramus mixed bers and ventral ramus mixed bers emerge from each spinal nerve look at diagram on Carmen PPT o Originate in spinal cord part of PNS 31 pairs 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeaD More on dorsal vs ventral rami rami are not nerve roots notice the difference 0 Dorsal rami mixed bring in sensory information from 3 inch strip down middle of back and will also efferently take information from the spinal cord to those same back muscles 0 Ventral rami mixed 0 T1 T12 wrap around the trunk and become intercosta nerves that wrap around the trunk of body sensory and motor 0 Rest of ventral rami form PLEXUSES Plexuses start with spinal nerve bers from ventral rami mixed neurons In Innervate limb muscles depending on plexus n Plexuses prevent complete paralysis of muscles because plexuses are formed when the nerves from the ventral rami rearrange so axons for particular nerves come from multiple vertebral levels 0 Eliminates complete paralysis of any limb when one root nerve ramus is damaged at a particular vertebral level n Spinal nerves except T1T12 merge with one another to form plexuses i Cervical plexus C1 C4 ii Brachial plexus C5 T1 iii Lumbar plexus T12 L4 iv Sacral plexus L4 S4 Lecture 10 Nerves of the lower limb Lumbar plexus and sacral plexus innervates the lower limbs What is a spinal nerve o Spinal nerve forms when dorsal root and ventral root merge to forma a mixed nerve sensory and motor and typically comes out through intervertebral foramen of spinal vertebra Once mixed nerve comes out of intervertebral foramen it splits into a dorsal and ventral rami still mixed nerves n Dorsal rami innervate 3 inch column down middle of back sensory and motor a Ventral rami innervate lateralanterior trunk portion of neck upper limb and lower limb Most go to plexuses except T1T12 o 31 pairs on spinal nerves right and left 0 What is a plexus o Axons of different ventral rami reorganized themselves so that axons from several vertebral levels of ventral rami make up nerves that innervate body muscles Prevents complete paralysis of muscles when a particular ventral rami is damaged or severed Ex herniated disc because axons of nerve to muscles come from several different spinal levels Major branches of the lumbar plexus ventral rami of T12 and L1 L4 Lumbar plexus innervates the muscles of the anterior and medial thigh muscles 1 Femoral nerve Largest nerve of the lumbar plexus o Enters thigh by passing under the inguinal ligament the ligament that runs from ASIS to pubic tubercle lnnervates iliacus pectineus and the anterior thigh muscles 2 Obturator nerve Passes through the obturator foramen to enter the medial thigh Innervates most medial femoral muscles including adductors except pectineus Major branches of the sacral plexus ventral rami L4L5 and 5154 1 Superior gluteal nerve Exits pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen superior to piriformis muscle Innervates gluteus medius gluteus medius and tensor fasciae lata muscles 2 Inferior gluteal nerve o Exits pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen inferior to piriformis muscle Innervates the gluteus maximus muscle 3 Sciatic nerve o Largest nerve of in the body 0 Exits pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen inferior to the piriformis muscles 0 23 s of the way down the tight it divides into the tibial nerve and common bular nerve 1 Tibial nerve o Medial division of the sciatic nerve Found in popliteal fossa Innervates most of the posterior femoral muscles and posterior crural lower leg muscles 0 Divides into the lateral and medial planter nerves that innervate the sole of the foot 2 Common bular peroneal nerve 0 Lateral division of the sciatic nerve Innervates the short head of biceps femoris Wraps around the neck of the bula very vulnerable in this area 0 Divides into the super cial and deep bular peroneal nerves 1 Super cial bular peroneal nerve 0 Lateral branch of common bular nerve o Innervates the lateral crural lower leg muscles 2 Deep bular peroneal nerve Medial branch of common bular nerve Innervates the anterior crural muscles 0 Passes into dorsum of foot Lecture 11 Intro to the cardiovascular system Major function of cardiovascular system 0 Transportation 0 Nutrients and 02 0 Waste products 0 hormones Major components of the circulatory system 1 Heart 0 is a double pump two pumps sidebyside for transport system pushes blood through blood vessels 2 Blood vessels 0 Distribution pathway for blood 0 Over 60000 miles of blood vessels running through an average adult s body 3 Blood 0 Transport medium nutrients 02 C02 and other waste products hormones HEART Left side of heart 0 Pump for systemic circuit pushes blood throughout the body systemically 0 Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from lungs 0 Left ventricle discharges oxygenated blood into the systemic circuit 0 Right side of heart 0 Pump for the pulmonary circuit pushes blood through the lungs 0 Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from systemic circuit 0 Right ventricle discharges deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary circuit BLOOD VESSELS 3 major types of blood vessels 1 Arteries always carry blood away from the heart Carriers oxygenated blood in systemic circuit Carries oxygen poor deoxygenated blood in the pulmonary circuit l away from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated Smallest artery types is called an arteriole arteries decrease in diameter the further they get fro the heart 2 Veins always carry blood towards the heart Carries oxygenpoor blood in the systemic circuit back to the heart to be pumped into the pulmonary circuit Carries oxygenated blood oxygenated blood in the pulmonary circuit back to the heart to then be pumped into arteries for systemic circulation Smallest vein type is a venule 3 Capillaries 4 pm to 10 pm diamter Smallest of blood vessels 0 Thin wall to allow easy exchange of substances for blood transport 0 Main role is to allow exchange of material between the blood and body tissues 3 types of arteries SEE PPT for diagrams 1 Elastic or conducting arteries diameter greater than 1 cm 0 First arteries when blood leaves the heart 0 Blood pressure decreases the further blood gets from the heart in arteries and further decreasing as it enters the veins and returns to the heart 0 Walls contain large amounts of elastic bers that allow for expansion and recoil 0 Elastic bers function as pressure reserve so that blood pressure remains constant as the ventricles pumping blood relax and contract 0 Help propel blood onward when ventricles relax decreased pressure by recoiling thereby increasing pressure or in this case preventing pressure from decreasing expand artery walls to prevent blood pressure from increasing when ventricles contract 0 Aorta is an example of an elastic artery 2 Muscular or distributing arteries diameter 01mm to 10mm 0 Walls contain large amounts of smooth muscle that are important in regulating the blood ow to speci c body regions 0 Walls contain smooth muscles cells in circular orientation responsible for vasoconstriction reduction of vessel s lumen diameter via smooth muscle contraction and vasodilation increase in vessel s lumen diameter via smooth muscle relaxation o Vasoconstriction increases blood pressure because lumen size decreases o Vasodilation decreases blood pressure because lumen size increase 3 Arterioles diameter 10 pm to 100 pm 0 Connect arterioles to venules 2 types of veins 1 Venules formed when several capillaries unite 10 pm to 100 pm in diameter 2 Veins formed when several larger venules unite 01 mm to greater than 1 mm in length 0 Most veins have valves that prevent back ow of blood especially veins in the limbs because gravity prevent blood from going back into heart when there isn t enough blood pressure 0 Valves create by folds of vessel wall 0 Remember that blood pressure is higher in arteries and lower in veins 0 Look at diagram in PPT on Carmen Lecture 12 Blood vessels of the lower limb know the order of blood vessels from the heart to one side of the lower limb including where the arteries bifurcate arteries are rather deep within muscle most of the time o protects arteries from blood loss super cial veins 0 found immediately under the skin within super cial fascia deep veins same name as the corresponding artery because they travel with the arteries within skeletal muscle Blood ow to the lower limb on one side from the heart though arteries l oxygenated blood from left ventricle l l ascending aorta l l arch of aorta l descending thoracic aorta l through the diaphragm l descending abdominal aorta l bifurcates at L4 landmarklj bifurcation of descending abdominal aorta leads to right common iliac artery and left common iliac artery 0 Where R and L division of arteries start 6 I common iliac artery l past Sljointlj bifurcation of common iliac artery leads to external iliac artery and internal iliac artery 0 l internal iliac artery will give rise to gluteal branches that give some blood supply to the buttocks and an obturator artery that gives blood supply to the medial thigh 7 l external iliac artery l passes deep to inguinal ligament l U39lbUUNH 0 external iliac artery becomes the femoral artery after passing under the inguinal ligament 8 l femoral artery l femoral artery and its branches supplies blood to the majority of thigh all of the leg and all of the foot 0 l deep femoral artery nonterminal goes dorsal and posterior posterolaterally l turn around and goes to the posterior in the thigh a deep femoral artery and its branches give blood ow to posterior thigh muscles l femoral artery goes through adductor canal l goes through adductor hiatus hiatus of adductor magn us tendon l femoral artery becomes the popliteal artery when it passes though the adductor hiatus 9 l popliteal artery l passes posterior to the knee popliteal fossa l popliteal artery bifurcates when in reaches the inferior border of the popliteus muscle into the anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery a H anterior tibial artery branch of popliteal artery passes between tibia and bula anteriory to become this anterior tibial artery l supplies the muscles skin and joints of the anterior compartment of the leg 0 I anterior tibial artery passes anterior to the ankle joint to dorsum of foot and becomes dorsalis pedis artery l dorsalis pedis artery terminal branch 0 supplies structures of the dorsum of the foot b I posterior tibial artery nonterminal l i l bular artery nonterminal branch l goes lateraly in leg to more branches ii l wraps around posterior aspect of the medial malleous becomes medial plantar artery and lateral plantar artery l medial plantar artery terminal branch l lateral plantar artery terminal branch look at quotBlood Supply to the Lower Limbsquot PPT in unit 1 on Carmen 0 last link under Unit 1 tab N 39 CDI Blood ow to the heart from the lower limb though veins 2 sets of veins super cial and deep that have different ow Flow of deep veins to heart 0 Pretty much have the same name ow as arteries to lower limb except owing toward the heart Medial plantar vein and lateral plantar vein along with bular vein combine into l posterior tibial vein l dorsalis pedis vein l becomes anterior tibial vein anterior tibial vein and posterior tibial vein l passes between tibia and bula and goes posterior to the knee l becoming popliteal vein lpopliteal vein l comes through popliteal fossa and reaches adductor hiatus the inferior part of the adductor canal l then known as femoral vein l I femoral vein l goes deep to inguinal ligament lexternal iliac vein l external iliac combines With internal iliac vein l passes through 5 joint l common iliac veinl common iliac veins from both sides R and L of body combine at L4 l l inferior vena cava l goes through diaphragm and thorax I right atrium of heart look at quotBlood Supply to the Lower Limbsquot PPT in unit 1 on Carmen last link under Unit 1 tab Flow of super cial veins to heart 1 Greater saphenous veins R and L o Larges vein in the human body Begins from the dorsum of the foot l crosses in front of the medial malleolus l ascends superiorly up the medial aspect of the leg and thigh l dumps into the femoral vein 2 Lesser saphenous veins R and L Begins on the dorsum of the foot l ascends superiorly along the lateral aspect of the leg l wraps posteriorly and dumps into the popliteal vein in the popliteal fossa Lecture 13 Blood vessels of the lower limb Special areas are regions that are de ned by anatomical structure 1 Femoral triangle Triangular space in the superioranterior third of the thigh at the junction between the trunk and the lower limb Found best when thigh is exed abducted and slightly laterally rotated Contents are very super cial including the femoral artery in this region it is therefore a good place to compress to minimize rapid blood loss of the lower limb o Borders i Superior inguinal ligament ii Medial adductor longus muscles iii Lateral Sartorius muscle 0 Floor i Lateral oor iliopsoas muscle ii Medial oor pectineus muscle 0 Contents from medial to lateral VAN driving out i Femoral vein ii Femoral artery iii Femoral nerve 2 Adductor canal Compartment found between the quadriceps femoris muscles and the medial femoral muscles in the medial 13rCI of the thigh Deep to sartorius muscle found in diagrams when Sartorius muscles is cut 0 Sartorius muscle is quotroofquot of adductor canal o Adductor hiatus of adductor magnus muscle is inferior border of adductor canal 0 Contents i Femoral artery ii Femoral vein iii Saphenous nerve a Branch of the femoral nerve a Is a cutaneous nerve that brings information back from the skin 3 Popliteal fossa Diamondshape depression of the posterior aspect of the knee 0 Borders muscles i Superior medial Semimembranosus and semitendinosus ii Inferior medial medial head of gastrocnemius iii Inferior lateral lateral head of gastrocnemius iv Superior lateral long head of biceps femoris 0 Contents i Popliteal artery n deepest for protection ii Popliteal vein a Between popliteal artery and tibial nerve iii Tibial nerve medial a Most super cial n Medial branch of sciatic nerve iv Common bular peroneal nerve lateral n Lateral branch of sciatic nerve v Termination of the small saphenous vein I Where small saphenous vein dumps its contents into popliteal vein N 39
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