Exam 1 WITH Clicker Quizes
Exam 1 WITH Clicker Quizes 10617
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 10617 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 468 views.
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EXAM 1 1719 BSC 216 Chapter 17 Study Guide 1 Define hormone and endocrine system Hormone chemical messengers that are transported by the bloodstream and stimulate physiological responses in cells of another tissue or organ 0 Endocrine System glands tissues and cells that secrete hormones 2 Name the organs of the endocrine system 0 Pineal gland hypothalamus pituitary gland thyroid gland thymus gland parathyroid gland adrenal glands pancreas gonads 3 Contrast endocrine with exocrine glands Endocrine 9 no ducts capillaries intracellular effects 0 Exocrine 9 ducts and extracellular effects 4 Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems 0 Nervous System 9 electrical impulses amp neurotransmitters neurotransmitters target cells local specific effects quick reactivity quick stop adapt quickly to stimulation 0 Endocrine System 9 hormonal communication hormones released into blood general widespread effects slow reactivity stops slow after stimulus ends adapts slowly 5 What are neuroendocrine cells 0 Cells that defy any attempt to rigidly classify them as neurons or gland cells They act like neurons in many respects but like endocrine cells they release their secretions like oxytocin into the bloodstream 6 Describe the anatomical relationships between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland Hypothalamus forms floor and walls of Brains 3rd ventricle located below brainstem and above brainstem size of almond shaped like funnel Pituitary Located in a depression of sphenoid bone size amp shape of kidney bean two independent structures adenohypophysis anterior amp Neurohypophysis posterior 7 Distinguish between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary Anterior Adenohypophysis 9 outgrowth of the pharynx Posterior Neurohypophysis 9 downgrowth from brain 8 Explain how the pituitary is controlled by the hypothalamus and its target organs 0 Has 8 hormones o 6 regulate adenohypophysis 9 4 promote secretion of pituitary hormones and 2 inhibit secretion of pituitary hormones o 2 regulate Neurohypophysis 9 neuroendocrine reflex arcs in hypothalamus 9 Use table 173 to understand the names and functions of the six hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones Hormone Principal Effects Thyrotrophicreleasing hormone Promotes secretion of thyroid TRF stimulating hormone TSH and prolactin PRL Corticotrophinreleasing hormone Promotes secretion of CRH adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH Gonadotropinreleasing hormone Promotes secretion of follicle GnRH stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH Growth hormonereleasing Promotes secretion of growth hormone GHRH hormone GH Prolactininhibiting hormone LH Inhibits secretion of prolactin PRL Somatostatin Inhibits secretion of growth hormone GH and thyroidstimulating hormone TSH 10 Use table 174 to understand the names and functions of the two hormones stored and released by the posterior pituitary and the names and functions of the six hormones made and secreted by the anterior pituitary Pituitary Hormones Hormone I Target Organ I Principal Effects Anterior Pituitary Folliclestimulating Ovaries testes Female growth of hormone FSH ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen Male sperm production Luteinizing hormone Ovaries testes Female ovulation LH maintenance of corpus luteum Male testosterone secretion Thyroidstimulating Thyroid gland Growth of thyroid hormone TSH secretion of thyroid hormone Adrenocorticotropic Adrenal Cortex Growth of adrenal hormone ACTH cortex secretion of glucocorticoids Prolactin PRL Mammary glands Female milk synthesis testes Male increased LH sensitivity Growth Hormone GH Liver bone cartilage Widespread tissue muscle fat growth stated tissues Posterior Pituitary but made in hypothalamus Antidiuretic hormone Kidneys Water retention ADH Oxytocin OT Uterus mammary Labor contractions glands milk release ejaculation sperm transport sexual affection and mother infant bonding 11 Describe the effects of growth hormone Stimulate mitosis and cellular differentiation promote tissue growth 12 Be able to list all organs other than the Hypothalamus and Pituitary that produce hormones Mammary gland Thyroid Testis Ovary Adrenal Cortex and Liver 13 What tissues and organs have a secondary function of secreting hormones Kidney liver heart and gonads 14 Be able to list the source and principal effects of the following hormones Melatonin Thymopoietin Thyroxine and triiodothyronine Epinephrine norepinephrine and dopamine Aldosterone Cortisol Insulin and glucagon Estradiol and progesterone Testosterone Erythropoietin Angiotensin I Calcitriol Atrial natriuretic peptide Gastrin Cholecystokinin Leptin Melatonin Pineal Gland Melatonin suppresses gonadotropin secretion 0 Thymopoietin Thymus stimulate the development of other lymphatic organs and regulate the development and activity of T cells 0 Thyroxine Thyroid Gland tetraiodothyronine 4 idoine atoms 0 Triiodothyronine Thyroid Gland 3 iodine atoms 0 Epinephrine Adrenal Medulla of the stimulation to nerve fibers that the chromaffin cells release the mixture Norepinephrine Adrenal Medulla A of the stimulation to nerve fibers that the chromaffin cells release the mixture Dopamine Adrenal Medulla a trace of the stimulation to nerve fibers that the chromaffin cells release the mixture Aldosterone Adrenal Cortex produced only by the zona glomerulosa Stimulates kidneys to retain sodium in the body fluids and excrete potassium in the urine Cortisol Adrenal Cortex They stimulate fat and protein catabolism gluconeogenesis and the release of fatty acids and glucose into the blood InsulinGlucagon Pancreas hormone of nutrient abundance lowers the level of blood glucose and other nutrients EstradiolProgesterone Gonads ovaries amp testes both endocrine and exocnne Testosterone Gonads ovaries amp testes lesser amounts of weaker androgens and estrogens and inhibin Erythropoietin Liver stimulates the red bone marrow to produce red blood cells Angiotensin I Kidneys renin at first then circulated through various organs Calcitriol Kidneys raises blood concentration of calcium by promoting the intestinal absorption and slightly inhibiting its loss in the urine Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Heart increase sodium excretion and urine output and oppose the action of angiotensin II Gastrin Stomach amp Small Intestine secreted by the stomach upon the arrival of food and stimulated other cells of the stomach to secrete hydrochloric acid Cholecystokinin Stomach amp Small Intestine secreted by the small intestine in response to arriving fats Leptin Adipose Tissue has longterm effects on appetiteregulating centers of the hypothalamus 15 Identify the three chemical classes to which most hormones belong Steroids monoamines and peptides 16 Describe in general how the three types of hormones are synthesized No need to get into the detail of monoamine synthesis on pages 658660 Steroids derived from cholesterol They include sex steroids and corticosteroids produced by adrenal gland Monoamines biogenic amines dopamine epinephrine norepinephrine melatonin and thyroid All made from amino acids Peptide chains of 3 to 200 amino acids Insulin Polypeptides are made by hypothalamus 17 Describe how hormones are transported to their target organs How do hydrophilic and hydrophobic hormones differ in their transport Can bound or unbound hormones leave the blood capillary To get from an endocrine cell to a target cell a hormone must travel in the blood 0 Hydrophilic most of monoamines and peptides Mixing with blood plasma presents no problems Hydrophobic steroids and thyroid hormone Must bind to hydrophilic transport proteins 18 Describe how hormones stimulate their target cells How do steroid and thyroid hormones stimulate their target cells Are they hydrophilic or hydrophobic Hormones only stimulate the cells that have receptors for them target cells The receptors are proteins located in plasma membrane or in nucleus and act like switches to turn certain metabolic pathways on or off when hormones bind to them 0 Steroid and Thyroid hormones are hydrophobic 0 They act on nuclear receptors 0 Thyroid hormone enters target cell by means of an ATP dependent transport protein 19 In general how do peptides and catecholamine s stimulate target cells Are they hydrophilic or hydrophobic Peptides and catecholamine s are hydrophilic and cannot penetrate a target cell they must stimulate the physiology indirectly They bind to the cell surface receptors which are linked to secondmessenger systems on the other side of the plasma membrane 20 What is enzymatic amplification How does this contribute to the potency of hormones and their actions 0 One hormone molecule triggers the synthesis of notjust one enzyme molecule but an enormous number 0 Enables a very small stimulus to produce a very large effect 0 Hormones are powerfully effective in minute quantities 21 Explain how target cells regulate their sensitivity to circulating hormones How does upregulation differ from downregulation 0 Target cells adjust their sensitivity to a hormone by changing the number of receptors for it 0 Upregulation is when a cell increases the number of hormone receptors and becomes more sensitive and a downregulation is when a cell reduces its receptor population and becomes less sensitive to a hormone 22 Discuss how hormones are removed from circulation after they have performed their roles 0 Most hormones are taken up and degraded by the liver and kidneys then excreted in the bile or urine 0 Some are degraded by target cells 0 Removal of hormones is called metabolic clearance rate MCR 23 Explain some general causes and examples of hormone hyposecretion and Hypersecretion Hyposecretion inadequate hormone release Can result from tumors or lesions that destroy an endocrine gland or interfere with its ability to receive signals from another cell 0 EX a fractured sphenoid bone can sever the hypothalamo hypophyseal tract and prevent the transport of oxytocin and ADH Hypersecretion Excessive hormone release Some tumors result in the overgrowth of functional endocrine tissue 0 EX a tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes excessive amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine 24 Briefly describe some common disorders of pituitary and thyroid function Pituitary Disorder 0 Acromegaly 9 thickening of the bones and soft tissues with especially noticeable effects on the hands feet and face 0 Gigantism 9 before the epiphyseal plats growth zones of the long bones are depleted GH hypersecretion causes this 0 Pituitary dwarfism 9 hyposecretion Thyroid Disorder 0 Congenital hypothyroidism 9 thyroid hyposecretion present from birth 0 Myxedema 9 severe or prolonged adult hypothyroidism Endemic Goiter 9 abnormality of thyroid A deficiency of dietary iodine 25 In more detail describe the causes and pathology of diabetes mellitus 0 Diabetes Mellitus is a disruption of carbohydrate fat and protein metabolism resulting from the hyposecretion or infaction of insulin 0 Signs and Symptoms are 3 polys 9 polyuria excessive urine output polydipsia intense thirst and polyphagia ravenous hunger 26 What is type 1 What is type 2 What are their causes and treatments 0 Type 1 510 of cases The body produces autoantibodies that destroy pancreatic beta cells 0 Caused by heredity require insulin to survive 0 Type 2 9095 of cases Insulin resistance unresponsiveness of the target cells to the hormone o Caused by heredity although unsure Develops slowly after the age of40 Cicker 1 which of the following best describes a hormone a A signaling molecule released into the blood stream thereby having a longrange widespread effects 2 Which of the following statements is false regarding the hypothalamus a It is located in the sella turcics of the sphenoid bone 3 Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin are both synthesized in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland a False made in hypothalamus 4 Which of the following hormones is produced and secreted by the hypothalamus and stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete prolactin a Thyrotrophic releasing hormone BSC 216 Chapter 18 Study Guide 1 Can you name at least 3 major functions of blood and provide examples a Transport i Oxygen wastes signaling molecules hormones bPmmdbn i Against blood loss clotting and infection immune system c Regulation i Body temperature pH buffering bicarbonate fluid volume 2 What is a formed element a Formed elements are cells and cell fragments including the red blood cells white blood cells and platelets b They are membrane enclosed bodies with a definite structure visible with the microscope 3 What is plasma What types of things are dissolved in plasma a Plasma is the liquid portion of blood a clear light yellow fluid constituting a little over half of the blood volume about 55 total volume that holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension b It is mostly water 92 c It contains dissolved proteins albumins globulins antibodies and fibrinogen nutrients electrolytes nitrogenous wastes hormones and gasses 4 Why is blood not a typical connective tissue a It lacks collagen and elastic fibers 5 What are the 3 primary cellular components of blood a Erythrocytes RBCs oxygentransporting cells of blood b Platelets cell fragments that signal blood clotting c Leukocytes WBCs immune function and defense 6 Approximately what volume of blood does plasma occupy a 55 total volume 7 Do erythrocytes have nuclei a No they are nonucleated and have no organelles 8 What is the benefit of erythrocytes being flattened a Large surface area volume ration ideal for gas exchange b They can acquire a greater volume of oxygen 9 What is hemoglobin What is it composed of specifically What is its function a Hemoglobin is a red protein that is responsible for transporting oxygen in blood of vertebraes b It is composed of4 protein chains called globins 2 alpha amp 2 beta each containing an iron atom bound to a heme group i Each polypeptide chain is bound to ringlike heme group ii Each heme group contains one iron atom iii Each iron atom can bind reversibly with one molecules of oxygen 02 10What is hematopoiesis a Hematopoiesis hemopoiesis is the production of blood especially its formed elements 11Where is most of the red bone marrow located a Primarily in axial skeleton girdles epiphyses of humerus and femur 12Can you describe the process of erythropoiesis including the types of stem cells from which erythrocytes are derived what commitment means what happens during the different phases when they eject the nucleus and why it s important to know how many reticulocytes are being produced a Hemopoietic stem cell HSC9 erythrocyte colonyforming unit EUFU which has recepors for the hormone erythropoietin EPO 9 erythroblast normoblast ejection of nucleus 9 reticulocyte 9 erythrocyte b Derived from hemopoietic stem cells HSC hemocytoblast c A committed cell is the fundamental structural unit of living organisms It is any of the protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue consisting of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane d Nucleus is discarded after the erythroblast normoblast multiplies and synthesizes hemoglobin to form a reticulocyte which is known for it s fine network of endoplasmic reticulum e It is important to know how many reticulocytes are being produced because its count indicates whether enough red blood cells are being produced in the bone marrow i These values can be used to determine if there is a production problem contributing to the anemia and used to monitor the progress of the treatment for anemia 13Can you explain why it s important to maintain proper erythrocyte counts in the blood a To avoid hypoxemia oxygen deprivation or viscosity too many RBCs 14Which hormone is responsible for maintaining blood oxygen homeostasis eg correcting for hypoxia How does the process of maintaining blood oxygen homeostasis work a Erythropoietin EPO b Process i Drop in RBC count causes kidney hypoxemia ii Kidney production of erythropoietin EPO stimulates bone marrow iii RBC count increases in 3 to 4 days 15 How are erythrocytes destroyed Where does the iron go What are the heme pigments transformed into and where do they go for excretion a Destroyed by the phagocytic activities of macrophages in the liver spleen and lymph nodes b The iron atoms are recycles c The heme pigments are degraded into biliverdin 9 bilirubin 9 bile 9 feces i They are exerted with urine and feces 16What is anemia and can you distinguish between the major types a Anemia is the decrease in blood s oxygencarrying capacity b Major types i Inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis ii Hemorrhagic anemia which is anemia caused by blood loss acute or chronic iii Hemolytic anemia which is anemia caused by erythrocytes rupturing prematurely bacterial parasite infection 17Do leukocytes possess nuclei and organelles a Yes 18What is the main role of leukocytes a To combat diseases derived from bacteria viruses parasites toxins and cancerous cells 19What is diapedesis and how does it relate to the primary function of leukocytes a Diapedesis is the ability of WBCs to travel out of capillaries and into tissues inflammatory response b Diapedesis allows WBCs to go into tissues so that they can fight off the harmful bacteria cells 20What is positive chemotaxis and how does it relate to leukocyte behavior a Positive chemotaxis is the amoebid motion triggered by chemical cues that are released by damaged cells i Causes leukocutes to move towards harmful cells in order to fight them off and get rid of them 21 How can you identify granulocytes under the microscope a The granules are clearly apparent when stained 22What are the 3 major types of granulocytes Their functions a Neutrophils i Phagocytize eats bacteria ii Releases antimicrobial chemicals b Eosinophils i Phagocytize eats antigenantibody complexes and allergens ii Releases parasitedestroying enzymes c Basoths i Secretes histamine increases flood flow 1 Causes inflammation first step in healing ii Secretes heparin prevents clotting and allows EBC mobility iii Communicator 23What are the 2 major types of agranuloctyes Their functions a Lymphocytes i Destroy cancer cells viral infections foreign cells ii Activate other cells of immune system iii Secrete antibodies iv Serve in immune system b Monocytes i Differentiates into macrophages ii Phagocytizes eats pathogens and debris iii Activates other cells of immune system 24Which types of chemicals trigger leucopoiesis a A bacterial infection or allergies 25Which type of primary stem cell gives rise to ALL leukocytes a Hemopoietic stem cells HSCs hemocytoblast 26Which type of secondary stem cell gives rise to granulocytes and monocytes a Myeloid stem cell 27Which type of secondary stem cell gives rise to the lymphocytes a Lymphoid stem cells 28 How does the differentiation process differ for granulocytes and monocytes a They have different committed cells i Granulocytes committed cell is myeloblast ii Monocytes committed cell is monoblast b Granulocytes go through 3 different developmental pathways creating 3 types of cells c Monocytes only go through one developmental phase until they are fully grown 29 How does the differentiation process differ for monocytes and lymphocytes a Have different stem cells i Monocytes are from myeloid stem cells ii Lymphocytes are from lymphoid stem cells b Have different committed cells i Monocytes committed cell is a monoblast ii Lymphocytes committed cells are B lymphocyte precursor and T lymphocyte precursor c Lymphocytes are completed and monocytes still go through being a promonocyte before completed 30What are platelets Which hormone triggers their development What kind of stem cell are they derived from What is unique about the megakaryocyte a Platelets are cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes not complete cells that signal blood clotting b Thrombopoietin triggers platelet development c They are derived from a hemopoietic stem cell called a hemocytoblast d What s unique about the megakaryocyte is that very large it breaks apart into many tiny platelets 31Define hemostasis a A process which causes bleeding to stop 32What is the first step of hemostasis What exactly is a vascular spasm and how does it prevent blood loss a First step is vascular spasms i Vascular spasm is the constriction of a damaged blood vessel which reduces the amount of blood flow through the area and limits the amount of blood loss 33 How does a platelet plug form What s the role of collagen a A platelet plug forms by platelets attaching to damaged tissue then release chemicals which causes more platelets to stick which builds a plug of platelets i The platelets adhere to the collagen fibers which are in the damaged tissue 34What is the general series of events that promotes fibrin mesh formation beginning with the platelet plug and ending with a fibrin clot a 1 The platelet plug forms preventing blood loss b 2 Clotting factors are released c 3 Fibrin formation polymerization of fibrinogen catalyzed by thrombin i Thrombin helps us convert fibrin to fibrinogen d 4 Fibrin fibers form mesh that traps red blood cells 35Why is important to understand your blood type a In case of emergency where a blood transfusion is needed you need to know your blood type so you can have a safe transfusion If you do not know it and you get the wrong blood type it is potentially fatal 36What is the antigen agglutinogen What is the antibody agglutinin a Antigen agglutinogen i Antigen complex molecules on the surface of cell membrane that are unique to the individual tags 1 Agglutinogen antigens on the surface of the RBC that Is the basis for blood typing b Antibody agglutinin i Antibody proteins gamma globulins secreted by plasma cells part of immune response to foreign matter bind to an gens 1 Agglutinins antibodies in the plasma membrane that bring about transfusion mismatch 37What types of antigens and antibodies are found in people with A B AB and 0 blood types a Blood type A i A antigen ii AntiB antibody b Blood type B i B antigen ii AntiA antibody c Blood type AB i A antigen amp b antigen ii No antibodies d Blood type O i No antigens ii AntiA an AntiB antibodies 38 If asked whether a certain blood type eg A could be donated to a person with another blood type eg AB would you be able to tell me if they are compatibleand why a Antigen letter is same as blood type letter b Antibody letter is the opposite than the blood type letter c You can t receive something you don t already have i Ex Type AB blood could not be donated to type A blood because type A blood does not have the B antigen Type O is the universal donor Type AB is the universal recipient Most common Type O Rarest Type AB some 39Could you do the same as in the above bullet when adding Rh antigens into the mix a Means you DO NOT have the Rh antigen i Have the ability to make the antibody b Means you DO have the Rh antigen i Do not have the ability to make the antibody c YOU ONLY HAVE A PROBLEM WHEN THE DONAR IS AND THE RECIPIENT IS i YOU CAN GO FROM TO TO or TO BUT NOT TO d In an emergency situation you assume the person has blood and has the ability to make the antibody 40Can you describe why it is important to consider Rh factors in couples that plan to have a child a If mother and E child s blood mix and the mother is and the baby is then it will not be a problem except the mother will begin to make the antibodies to fight off the baby s blood b If the mother has a second child and that baby is and their blood becomes mix there will be a problem because the mother already has made the antibodies to fight off the blood so if the blood mixes the mothers antibodies will attack the baby s red blood cells BSC 216 Chapter 19 Study Guide What is the medial thoracic cavity in which the heart sits a In the mediastinum between the lungs What is the membranous sac surrounding the heart a Pericardium i It is a doublewalled sac Where are the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium located a Parietal outer wall lining the pericardial cavity b Visceral inner wall covering the heart What is the function of serous membranes and associated fluid a To reduce friction Can you identify the right and left atria and ventricles of the heart a Atria are above ventricles b Atria are smaller c Ventricles are larger Which internal structures divide the right and left atria and ventricles a Atrioventricular sulcus coronary sulcus i lnteratrial septum 1 Separates right and left atria ii lnterventricular septum 1 Separates right and left ventricles Which external structures can you use to delineate the atria from the ventricles a Right and left coronary artery Which external structures can you use to delineate the two ventricles of the heart a Posterioranterior interventricular artery 9 Do atria receive or discharge blood a Receives blood 10Starting at the right atrium can you describe the flow of blood through each structure of the heart ending at the aorta a Blood enters right atrium from superior and inferior venae cavae deoxygenated b Blood in right atrium flows through right AV tricuspid valve into right ventricle Contraction of right ventricle forces pulmonary valve Blood flows through pulmonary valve into pulmonary trunk e Blood is distributed by right and left pulmonary arteries to the lungs where it unloads C02 and loads 02 becomes oxygenated f Blood returns from lungs via pulmonary veins to left atrium 9 Blood in left atrium flows through left AV bicuspidmitral valve into left ventricle h Contraction of left ventricle simultaneous with step 3 forces aortic valve open i Blood flows through aortic valve into ascending aorta j Blood in aorta is distributed to every organ in the body where it unloads 02 and loads C02 k Blood returns to heart via venae cavae 10 11From which veins does the right atrium receive blood And where are these veins bringing blood from a Receives blood from the superior and inferior vena cava b They are bringing blood from various parts of the body 12 From which veins does the left atrium receive blood And where are these veins bringing blood from a Receives blood from the pulmonary veins b They are bringing blood from the lungs 13 Do ventricles receive or discharge blood a Discharges 14Where does the right ventricle pump blood to a To the lungs 15Where does the left ventricle pump blood to a To all parts of the body except the lungs 16What are the papillary muscles Where are they located a They are located in the ventricles of the heart b They contract to prevent AV valves from flipping inside out or bulging into the atria when the ventricles contract 17Starting at the right ventricle can you take me through the pulmonary and systemic circuits of blood flow a Pulmonary circuit right ventricle 9 lungs 9 left atrium b Systemic circuit left ventricle 9 body 9 right atrium 18What is the primary difference between arteries and veins a The direction in which they travel b Veins mainly carry deoxygenated blood and arteries mainly oxygenated blood 0 Veins are thinner and more flexible than arteries which have thick elastic walls d Valves are present in veins and they are not present in arteries e In veins blood flows under low pressure and in arteries blood flows under high pressure 19What are the differences in anatomy between the left and right ventricles Why a The left ventricle is larger thicker and more muscular than the right ventricle because the left ventricle supplies blood all over the body and the right ventricle only supplies blood to the lungs 20Why must the heart have its own set of coronary arteries and veins a Because it is a living organ itself and if the heart cells do not receive oxygen then they will die and therefore not be able to provide oxygen to any other part of the body 21 Which arteries branch from the left coronary artery a The anterior interventricular branch i Which goes to the ventricles b The circumflex branch i Which goes to the left marginal branch 1 Which goes to the left atrium and wall of left ventricle 22 Which arteries branch from the right coronary artery a The right marginal branch i Which goes to the lateral side of the right atrium and ventricles b The posterior interventricular branch i Which goes to the posterior walls of both ventricles 23 lnto which atrium does the coronary sinus empty a Right atrium 24Which vessels merge into the coronary sinus a Great cardiac vein middle cardiac vein and left marginal vein 25What causes myocardial infarction Why is it important to catch artery blockage before a heart attack occurs a A myocardial infraction is caused by the interruption of blood supply to the heart from a blood clot or fatty deposit atheroma b Its important to catch an artery blockage because if you don t catch the blockage it can completely block blood through a coronary artery and lead to a heart attack 26n which direction does blood flow within the heart a Right atrium 9 right ventricle 9 pulmonary artery 9 lungs 9 pulmonary vein 9 left atrium 9 left ventricle 9 aorta 9 small artery Capillaries 9 small veins 9 large veins 9 right atrium 27What is the primary function of the atrioventricular AV valves a They control the flow of blood between the ventricles and atria 28Where are the AV valves located a Between the atria and ventricles 29What is the main anatomical difference between the tricuspid and mitral valves a Tricuspid is on the right side and has 3 cusps b Mitral bicuspid is on the left side and has 2 cusps 30Which of the AV valves is located between the right atrium and right ventricle a Tricuspid 31 Which of the AV valves is located between the left atrium and left ventricle a Mitral bicuspid 32What is the function of the papillary muscles and chordae tendinae heart strings a To prevent AV valves from flipping inside out or bulging into the atria when the ventricles contract 33Can you describe how the AV valves operate to prevent blood backflow into the atria a They are parachute shaped so that they inflate when the pressure underneath the valve tissue increases and when they deflate completely block off the passage so nothing can go in and nothing can come out 34Where are the semilunar valves located a Found between the aorta and left ventricle and between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle 35What is the primary function of the semilunar valves a They separate ventricles and great arteries to prevent the back flow of blood within the heart s chambers 36Which of the semilunar valves is located between the left ventricle and the aorta a Aortic semilunar valve 37Which of the semilunar valves is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery a Pulmonary semilunar valve 38How can cardiac muscle be distinguished from skeletal muscle a lnterdigitating folds b Mechanical junctions i Fascia adherens ii Desmosomes c Electrical junctions gap junctions 39What is the function of intercalated discs Desmosomes Gap junc ons a lnterdigitating folds folds interlock with each other and increase surface area of contact b Desmosomes weldlike mechanical junctions between cells prevent cardiocytes from being pulled apart c Gap junctions allow ions to flow between cells can stimulate neighbors 40What is the benefit for cardiac muscle of having lots of mitochondria a The more mitochondria the more energy that is produced and the heart needs a lot of energy 41 How can the heart contract independent of nervous stimulation and in a coordinated manner a Because of the independent pacemaker 42What are the 5 locations for autorhythmic cardiac cells Are autorhytmic cardiac cells contractile What is their main function a Sinoatrial SA node atrioventricular AV node atrioventricular AV bundle of his purkinje fibers atria 43Which ion leaks through open channels in the autorhythmic cardiac cells to generate a slow depolarization current the pacemaker potential a Na sodium 44Which ion is responsible for the rapid rise in membrane potential action potential associated with muscle contraction a K potassium 45Can you take me through the series of events involving authorhythmic cardiac cells that is responsible for propagating impulses from the SA node to the ventricles SA node fires Excitation spreads through atrial myocardium AV node fires Excitation spreads down AV bundle Purkinje fibers distribute excitation through ventricular myocardium 909955 46Why is the propagation of impulses delayed at the atrioventricular node a It slows because there is thinner cardiocytes so there are fewer gap junctions it delays the signal 100ms which allows the ventricles to fill 47 In addition to the authorhythmic cells which other factors influence heart contraction eg the rate and force with which the heart contracts a Parasympathetic slows heart rate b Sympathetic nerves speeds up heart rate 48Which heart behavior does the Pwave of an EKG correspond to a Excitation of the atria i Atria depolarize and contract 49Which heart behavior does the QRS complex of an EKG correspond to a Excitation of the ventricles i Ventriculardepolarization 50Which heart behavior does the T wave of an EKG correspond to a Relaxation and repolarization of the ventricles 51Can you tell me which authorhythmic regions are associated with the Pwave and QRS complex of an EKG a Pwave i SA node fires atria depolarizes and contracts ii Atrial systole beings 100ms after SA signal b QRScomplex i Ventriculardepolarization ii Complex shape of spike is due to different thickness and shape of the two ventricles 52What is systole a Systole atrial or ventricular contraction 53What is diastole a Diastole atrial or ventricular relaxation Clicker Quizes Clicker quiz 1 5 Which of the following best describes a hormone a A signaling molecule released into the blood stream thereby having a longrange Widespread effects 6 Which of the following statements is false regarding the hypothalamus a It is located in the sella turcics of the sphenoid bone 7 Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin are both synthesized in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland a False made in hypothalamus 8 Which of the following hormones is produced and secreted by the hypothalamus and stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete prolactin a Thyrotrophic releasing hormone Clicker quiz 2 1 The most likely cause of seasonal affective disorder is a Not enough light to inhibit the Pineal gland from converting serotonin into melatonin 2 Which one of the following hormones acts to increase the body s metabolic rate a Thyroid hormone 3 Which of the following is a possible cause of the kidneys NOT retaining sodium a Complete atrophy of the Zona Glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex 4 Which of the following hormones causes cells to release glucose into the bloodstream a Glucagon and growth hormone epinephrine cortisol norepinephrine 5 Which of the following terms best describes the exocrine function of the gonads a Cytogenic Clicker Quiz 3 1 Each Hemoglobin molecule in the blood can carry a maximum of how many oxygen molecules a 4 2 Myeloid hemopoiesis refers to formed element synthesis in a Red bone marrow 3 Which of the following are physiological mechanisms for transporting C02 from tissues to the lungs a Dissolves in blood plasma binds to the glob in components of hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase in the erythrocyte cytoplasm catalyzes the reaction b C02 H20 9 H2C03 4 In order to get to the bone marrow got hemopoiesis heme production Ferrous ions are transferred amongst the following proteins a Gastroferritin and Transferrin 5 What is the uffy coat a Thinnest layer of centrifuged blood and layer that contains white blood cells leukocytes and platelets Clicker Quiz 4 1 From superficial to deep which order of layers correctly describes heart anatomy a Parietal sac pericardial cavity visceral pericardium myocardium endocardium 2 Based on your knowledge of veins arteries and heart valves which of the following represent the correct order of blood ow through the heart chambers a Into right atrium into right ventricle to lungs into left atrium into left ventricle out aorta Clicker Quiz 5 1 The coronary circuit which supplies the heart is simply an extension of the pulmonary circuit where two arteries branch out from the aorta and encircle the coronary sulcus as soon as it leaves the left ventricle a False goes to lungs 2 Cardiomyocytes differ from skeletal myocytes in the following ways a Cardiomyocytes have larger mitochondria less developed cytoplasmic reticulum larger ttubules more complex intercalated disks and often branch at their end to interconnect with multiple cells 3 Cardiomyocytes do not fatigue because a They undergo almost exclusively aerobic respiration and the lack of anaerobic respirations means no lactic acid build up which requires oxygen debt to break down 4 The conduction system of the heart involves the following pathway 3 SA node atria AV node AV bundle Perkinje fibers ventricles
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