Chapter Four Outline
Chapter Four Outline Sociology 1101: Introductory Sociology
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Grese on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 1101: Introductory Sociology at Ohio State University taught by J. Craig Jenkins in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/05/15
Alexandra Grese Chapter Four Outline Types of Society 0 Society group of people living in a definable community and share the same culture beliefs ideas 0 Gerhard Lenski defined society in terms of technological sophistication I As a society advances so does tech and vice versa I Rudimentary societies depended environment I Industrialized societies had more control over impact of surroundings so developed different cultural features 0 Preindustrial Societies I Small rural and dependent on local resources Hunter Gatherer o Strongest dependence on environment 0 Based on kinship of tribes 0 When resources scarce moved to new area Pastoral o Domesticated animals 0 Rely on them as a resource for survival bred livestock for clothing food transportation 0 Remained nomadic had to follow the animals 0 Specialized occupations began to develop and societies began to trade with local groups Horticultural 0 Around same time as pastoral 0 Based on ability to raise and cultivate plants 0 Occurred where rainfall allowed this 0 Dependent on environment but could develop permanent settlements I Created stability and thus surpluses Agricultural o Relied on permanent tools for survival 0 3000BC explosion of new tech Agricultural Revolution I rotate crops fertilizer new tools for digging towns and cities centers for trade and commerce 0 more time music poetry philosophy development of leisure dawn of civilizationquot 0 as resources became more pletiful social classes became more diverse I ownership and preservation of resources became more important Feudal 0 9th century 0 strict hierarchy of power based on land ownership and protection I fiefdom in exchange for protection 0 Industrial Society 18th century Eur rise of tech inventions Watt and Boulton steam engine Textile mills mechanical seeders gas lights Rise in productivity and tech meant rise of urban centers Diverse population lots of factory workers Focus on acquiring wealth and mobility for family As capitalism increased so did social mobility This is when sociology was born Life changing quickly Many people moving finding filthy overcrowding and poverty Money moved from aristocracy to the business savvy o Postindustrial Information societies digital societies recent rooted in production of material goods driven by knowledge not material goods power in those who store and distribute info More likely to see the selling of services than goods Theoretical Perspectives on Society 0 Three main people Durkheim Marx Weber Durkheim and Functionalism Stressed interconnectivity of society s elements Individual behavior not the same as collective Collective conscience communal beliefs morals attitudes of society Social integration strength of ties people have to social groups key to social life Punishment of crime reaffirms moral consciousness Social forces are real and exist outside of the individual Division of Social Labor in Society as society grows more complex social order transitions from mechanical to organic Mechanical solidarity type of social orders maintained by collective conscious preindustrial societies things done because they have to be done that way Strong bong of kinship and low division of labor created shared moral values Organic solidarity social order based around acceptance of economic differences industrial societies Laws exist as formalized morals rather than for revenge Anomie situation in which society no longer has the support of a collective o Experienced during times of social uncertainty war economic down upturn Once society achieves organic solidarity it has finished its development I Marx and Con ict Theory Society s econ base superstructure cultural social institutions on top of that Con ict primary reason for change 0 Bourgeoisie ownersproducers o Proletariat laborers 19th century labor more exploited Conditions of the Working Class Engels described horrid conditions Alienation individual isolated from societyworksense of self 4 types 0 From product of one s labor I Unskilled doesn t care may not know how he s contributing 0 From process I No control over conditions of job because don t own means of production no room for creativity or change 0 From others I Compete rather than cooperate 0 From self I Nothing to tie worker to labor so there is no longer a sense of self just a cog in the machine 0 On the whole means individual has no control over life False consciousness beliefsidealsideology not in person s best interest Class consciousness a way to overcome false consciousness aware of one s rank in society become class for itselfquot 0 This political consciousness would mean society ready for revolution I Max Weber and Symbolic Interactionism Concerned with social changes around industrialization like the others Focused on class status and popwer Class economically determined Society split between owners and laborers Status noneconomic determined by education kinship religion etc Status and class determine power in uence over ideas Believed ideas formed base of society Rational society built on logic and efficiency not morality and tradition 0 Capitalism is rational o Supermarkets chain stores etc Emphasizes viewpoint of individual how people experience society Iron cage individual trapped by institution Social Constructions of Reality 0 O 0000 Habitualization repeated action becomes pattern which can be performed in future in same manner and with same economic effort Peter Berger and Thomas Luchmann The Social Construction of Reality Institutionalization implanting a convention norm into society Thomas theorem behavior can be determined by perception not objective reality Selffulfilling prophecy a false idea can become true if acted upon How od people interpret the symbols of their reality Roles patterns of behavior we recognize as indicative of social status Status responsibilities and benefits experience due to rank I Ascribed no not select age gender I Achieved through action I Roleset array of rules I Role con ict one or more roles contradict I Role strain requiring too much Role performance how a person expresses his or her role I Goffman people like actors on a stage I Cooley lookingglass self base our image on what we think others see
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