Exam3.pdf ANTH 0582
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laura Spilker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 0582 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Arkush in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
STUDYING ATIFACTS PRODUCTION USE AND TRADE How were things made Ethno Archeology and Experimental Archeology Metals and ceramics Level of difficulty Control of leaders over that craft Looking at isotopic levels to determine age and location How were things used Wear analysis Context Analogy How they were displayed and stored Trade and movement Movement of materials from their point of origin Thin sections of stonemetalpottery to examine content Chemical signature of isotopes Trace element analysis Looking at the distribution can show path of movement and routes used THE RISE OF STATES Aspects Hereditary leadership Large scale Central planning Centralized city with hierarchy of smaller cities and communities Bureaucracy with many branches and functions Highly productive system of agriculture Coercive power Bureaucracy Multiple branches Writing system Taxes Specialized functions represented by archeological complexity Power of leadership Fostering internal con ict and external crises Coercion 0 Religious power tied to leadership 0 Police 0 Military control First generation states the rst states in an area to arise Secondary states created on the margins of primary states Why did states arise Leaders arose to manage societal commands and solve problems Coercive and exploitative reasons Early quotPrime Moverquot Theories One factor that was needed to become a state Debated what that one factor was 1 Metallurgy and craft specialization 0 Labor intensive Technological advances Skilled artisans must be supported by farm surplus 2 Irrigation Karl Wittfogel and the quotHydraulic Hypothesisquot Radical feature Required a lot of labor Early states arose to manage the labor needed to maintain this agricultural system 3 Population Pressure 0 Esther Boserup Growing populations had to be supported and reaching a critical level Argued that this was a result of states not a cause 4 Trade Leaders controlled trade and distribution of goods and products 5 Warfare and Circumscription One ruler conquers surrounding areas Warlords Multivarient Explainations Different states formed in different regions for different reasons 0 States are an adaptation to conditions and pressures Elite strategies agency not just conditions 1 Economic control 2 Ideology 3 Force AgencyResistance of commoners and facions 11102014 Studying Religion and Ideology o Ethnographic Analogy lconography Ritual Objects spaced and actions Archeoastronomy certain monuments and features align with important dates in the calendar as well as religious practices ANCIENT EGYPT Fertile river valley due to ood plain allowed early agriculture 0 Important area on trade route Settlements of common people were located in ood area so much of their sites have been lost we know less about them and more about the wealthy Predynastic Period 40003050 BC 0 See burial and grave goods already a leadership 0 Why Perhaps via storage or leading reigns towns may have been forti ed Leaders are organizing trade ceramicsboats also Mesopotamian cylanders trade within the ancient world 0 Upper Egypt based on elevation Hierakonpolis Nekhan Still predynastic becomes the largest and most important center of the time Rulers and Nobles have much richer tombs Production and trade Seev King Namer Palette Upper and Lower Egypt is united under his rule 0 No writing but readable through images 0 Symbol of conquering o Wearing the crown of lower egypt 0 Looking at people with no heads conquered enemies of lower Egypt 0 Memphis is the border between lower and upper Egypt and holds itself as a capital ARCHAIC PERIOD 0 Royal tombs super important and assert power Old Kingdom 25252180 BC De nitely has all the aspects of a state o Flourishing under king control Ancient Egypt was a continuous state for about 3000 years Broke into two intermediate periods conquered by greeks Persians and romans but was always recognizany Egypt Basically long continuation of theological religious cultural and ideological things Longest unbroken civilization other than china Pyramid Greek word based on biquit IDEOLOGY AND POWER IN ANCIENT EGYPT Pyramids of the Old Kingdom Stepped Pyramid of Djoser 2650 BC 0 Mstaba Tomb stepped pyramid very monumental o Oldest probably 0 First few pyramids sucked o Pyramids at Giza Kings Khufu Khafre and 0 Massive amounts of labor 0 Sides are almost exactly the same length very signi cant planning 0 Tallest structure in the world for 30000 years Elements of a Pyramid Causeway leading to a mortuary chamber outside where offerings were made 0 Workers quarters were found 0 NOT slaves but actually paid peasants that were housed and fed usually offseason farmers Also had skilled workerslaborers Helped to improve the economy 0 ldle labor was paid so they could have a job in off seasons End of Pyramids They were great at rst and jump started the economy but then got less popular Mortuaries became the new thing 0 Valley of the Kings 0 Kept hidden to prevent raiding 0 Massive wealth found inside Diving Kingship Horus son of the sun god Ra Osiris is god of the dead Pharaoh is said to be connected to Horus Wears a crown that symbolized this 0 Holds a shepard s crook that means he is a shepard to the seep which are his people Responsible to maintain Ma39at which is the wellbeing and balance 0 Wealth economy prosperity conquering new land and territory Long series of drought famine bad poverty and agricultural disaster 0 Means that pharaohs constantly replaced and upheaved 11172014 lnter Elite Competition THE MAYA ELITE AND COMMONERS Competition ln Classic Period Warfare Frequent warfare between rulers and centers Depicted in maya images of conquest and victory Campaigns targeted at rulers 0 Usually sacri ced the nobles and rulers when a place was taken over 0 Symbolic of dominance Trade Prestigious trade goods were under competition 0 Trade routes and access points Symbolism and Propaganda Usually after the death of a leader 0 Not a seamless transition Struggle for leadership role Monuments and other propaganda to legitimatize leadership position 0 Fabricate Divine lineage ExPacal Competition intensi es into the Late Classic Tikal Guatemala 0 Building programs for leaders Bunch of temples and palaces Elaborate rich tombs Large amount of trade and trade goods Obsidian Wars Tikal vs Calakmul and Caracol Tikal fell to Caracol THE MAYA COLLAPSE 800900 AD 0 Decline in building and monuments Dramatic fall in population size Centers became abandoned Lost specialized knowledge that would have been kept by the royals and specialists 0 Like historical and language Why 0 Poor soils that are eroded and depleted Population got too high Series of severe droughts that crippled farming Strain on resources THE BASIN OF MEXICO Settlement Archeology o Arial topography 0 Field walking 0 Survey What do you get 0 Settlement Patterns Distribution of human settlement over the landscape 0 Settlement Determinants Reasons why people live where they live 0 Soil viability 0 Water source 0 Resources 0 Carrying capacity 0 Enemy locationDefensive position 0 Connection to trading partners 0 Population over time 0 Density and areas 0 Site Hierarchy Hierarchy of settlements of different sizes and functions and locations 0 When there is a really large central site they need smaller surrounding sites to send in resources 0 Usually central city has all the royals and specialists who don t farm Nonsite features Other human modi cations to the environment o Cemeteries shrines roads agriculture sites canals irrigation systems Teotihuacan Mexico 400600 AD 0 Central planning 0 Grid plan ts lots of people and architecture in one place 0 Avenue of the Dead cuts through center 0 Lots of big monuments Huge city one of the largest cities in the world at the time o Monumental temple construction 0 Pyramid of the Sun 0 The Ciudadela religious mass human sacri ce 0 Temple of Feathered Servant part of Ciudadela o Marketplace 0 Apartment complexes 0 Multiple generations of families living in one apartment over time MISSING NOTES 11192014 11242014 Urbanism at Teotihuacan Wrap up The Collapse of States Apartment Compounds 0 High perimeter wall surrounding apartments multiple families 0 Central templeworship area 0 Multiple generations over time in one apt 0 High standard of living 0 Ethnic identity of quotneighborhoodsquot craft neighborhoods 0 Similar to current cities that maintain ethnic identity ie China town Painted murals o No depiction of rulers 0 Perhaps power was held by a councilgroup of people Collapse 700 AD 0 Series of re 0 People move out quickly over time abandoned Perhaps invasion THE COLLAPSE OF STATES What does collapse mean 0 Political regime falls and loses power o Rulers are gone 0 Palaces are abandoned o No more monuments Complex centralized economic activity ceases 0 Crafts 0 No more in ow of goods Cities die 0 People move out o Physically destroyed Dark aged 0 Complex crafts lost 0 Loss of language 0 Less labor intensive less agriculture Not everything is always lost Copan Honduras 400950 AD 0 Minor Mayan city Exploited land in less desirable land 0 quotHill slope farmingquot o Erosion of soil 0 Quickly abandoned Skeletal investigation showed signs of malnutrition and anemia 0 Even elites showed these signs Very bad droughts o Monuments diminished 0 One left un nished 0 Some destroyed Palace and elite homes burned City abandoned Why did this happen Overpopulation Preoccupation by rulers 0 Climate change Tiwanaku Bolivia 5001000 BC 0 ln Andes mountain 0 Cold but you can grow potatoes 0 Raised elds for massive potato production 0 Urban core with massive monuments o Pyramid with water running down Ruler s natural power 0 Cranial modi cation to identify different groups 0 Done at early age Collapse in 1000AD o Abrupt abandonment and burning o Monuments defaced 0 Few people remain after 0 No more raised elds people who leave became herders in surrounding areas 0 No more people worship their god Fall of religion as well as the state VVhy Political unrest Huge drought crippled raised elds ls collapse inevitable o Is it all part of being a state 0 Can it be avoided ls culture adaptive Everything has its weakness 0 Too centralized Cycles 0 Lots of things
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