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Final Study Guide

by: Chelsea Gavranich

Final Study Guide Psych 350 - Paul Kwon

Chelsea Gavranich
GPA 3.1

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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chelsea Gavranich on Friday February 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 350 - Paul Kwon at Washington State University taught by in Fall2013. Since its upload, it has received 84 views.


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Date Created: 02/06/15
Test 4 chapters 1114 Ch11 Aggression What is aggression 0 Behavior that is intended to harm another individual Aggressive behavior comes in many forms words deeds Violence extreme acts of aggression Emotions and attitudes of aggression Anger consists of strong feelings of displeasure in response to a perceived injury Hostility is a negative antagonistic attitude toward another person or group 0 Proactive aggression in which harm is in icted as a means to a desired end aggression aimed at harming someone for personal gain attention or even selfdefensel also called instrumental aggression o Reactive aggression the means to an end coincide harm is in icted for its own sakel also called emotional aggression Individual Differences 0 Some genetic component is likely o Narcissistic personality correlates with aggression Feeling entitled to preferential treatment Willingness to exploit others Low empathy for others 0 Higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin reduces aggression o Impaired prefrontal cortex linked to aggression o Hostile Attribution Bias the tendency to perceive hostile intent in others 0 Columbine Killers fir the pro le of narcissistic personality 0 Social Learning Theory 0 Bandura s Bobo Doll Study Modeling of aggression 0 Social learning theory emphasizes that we learn from the example of others as well as from direct experience with rewards and punishments o LongTerm Media Effects 0 Includes video gaming 0 Modeling of attitudes and values 0 Through habituation repeated exposure watching excessive media violence causes desensitization to violence 0 Prosocial televisiongames associated with children s prosocial behavior COO o FrustrationAggression Hypothesis Dollard 1939 o Frustration always leads to the motive to aggress o All aggression is caused by frustration 0 Both of these points have been later found to be overstated FrustrationAggression Hypothesis Revised 0 Any negative feeling can trigger aggression Likelihood of a riotviolence is positively correlated with temperature Hit batters goes up with temperature in baseball also Catharsis Dollard Freud o The idea that quotblowing off steamquot Watching aggression being aggressive in a safe manner thinking about aggression reduces aggression NOT TRUE True or False oln virtually every culture males are more violent than females true For virtually any category of aggression males are more aggressive than females false oChildren who are spanked or otherwise physically disciplined but not abused for behaving aggressively tend to become less aggressive false Blowing off steam by engaging in safe but aggressive activities such as sports makes people less likely to aggress later false 0 Exposure to TV violence in childhood is related to aggression later in life true Ch 12 Law 0 quotVoir Direquot o Pretrial interview of potential jurors to uncover signs of bias Clearly biased individuals are excused by the judge Lawyers permitted peremptory challenges 0 Reject potential jurors without stating a reason 0 Lawyers rely on their own personality theories and stereotypes 0 These are inaccurate leading to discrimination o Innocent people confess to crimes they did not commit true Approaches to Police Interrogations 0 Pressure the suspect into submission by expressing certainty of his or her guilt bad cop o Befriend the suspect good cop o The Risk of False Confessions 0 May confess merely to escape a bad situation 0 lnternaization can lead innocent suspects to believe they might be guilty of the crime 0 Two factors that increase the risk of false confessions Lack of a clear memory of the event in question Presentation of false evidence 0 Confessions and the Jury o Juries are powerfully in uenced by evidence of a confession even if the confession was coerced or thee is evidence of innocence Fundamental attribution error revisited LieDetector Test 0 Polygraph A mechanical instrument that records physiological arousal from multiple channels Unreliable o Truthful people often fail the test 0 The test can be faked by arti cially in ating arousal responses to quotinnocentquot questions 0 Eyewitness Testimony o Eyewitnesses are imperfect 60 minutes case 0 Woman picked the wrong man who raped her out of a lineup 0 Actual rapist was not in the lineup DNA testing proved that Bobby Pool and not Ron Cotton was the rapist Ron Cotton spent 11 years in jail before being released Now friends with the woman who wrongly accused her 0 Certain person and situational factors can impair eyewitness performance Emotional state Memories for faces amp events decline over time Misinformation Effect the tendency for false post event information to become integrated into people s memory of an event 0 How questions are asked can create different responses Crossrace identi cation bias people are less use to seeing faces of a different race 0 Judges juries and lawyers are not well informed about these factors True or False Eye witnesses nd it relatively dif cult to recognize members of a race other than their own true The more con dent an eyewitness is about identi cation the more accurate he or she is likely to be false It is not possible to knowingly fool a liedetector test false Without being beaten or threatened innocent people sometimes confess to crimes they did not commit true Contrary to popular opinion women are harsher as trial jurors than men are false One can usually predict a jury s nal verdict by knowing where the individual jurors stand the rst time they vote true De nitions What is aggression behavior that is intended to harm another individual What is violence extreme acts of aggression What is hostility negative feelings and thoughts towards another persongroup Basic information Murders are most common in Africa then the Americas The lowest rates in Oceania Asia and Europe It seems than men in individualistic cultures are more likely to respond with violence The United States has an extremely high amount of gun violence o Attitudes in the US on guns are more passive especially in men 0 In the US most violence is by an individual In the Middle East and other area group violence political riots etc is more common 0 Countries vary on what they consider acceptable 0 le Japanese men groping school girls on the train 0 le female genital mutilation o Bullying o lnvolves intentional harm repetition power imbalance 0 Some guess 510 of children are involved in bullying others guess 7090 0 Most shooters in the past couple decades have admitted to feeling bullied o Nonviolent cultures 0 A very few cultures around the world have been identi ed as nonviolent Many are near Malaysia or on the peninsula o In 2006 there was a shooting in an Amish schoolhouse and the community offered forgiving Subcultures in a country 0 Teenagers and young adults have the highest amount of involvement in violent crime as victims and those committing the crime 0 Murderers tend to kill people of their own race in high percentages o In the US the south and west are the most violent Culture honor Gender and aggression 0 Universal men are more violent than women 0 90 of murderers in the US are men 77 victims are men All school shooters have been male Women commit murder of family membersspouses more o en Women show the same amounts of anger but don t act on it Both boys and girls show indirect or relational aggression 0 Possibly because females tend to care more about relationships and intimacy 0 As well boys are taught to be more aggressive than girls Think of toys boys play with vs girls There is research showing that gay men are less aggressive than straight men Aggression involving an intimate partner is about equal between men and women 0 Men are less likely than women to report 0 Women s injuries are typically more serious then men in domestic disputes 0 quotWomen were more often the victims of severe partner assault and injury not because men strike more but because men strike harderquot Individual differences Aggression in childhood predicts later aggression Alcohol abuse criminal activity and other antisocial behaviors quotBig five factors vary in individuals 1 Agreeableness 2 Conscientiousness 3 Openness to experience 4 Extraversion 5 Neuroticism 0 Being low in agreeableness is a strong predictor as well as low in openness to experience and high in neuroticism Traits that predict aggressiveness in situations of provocation o Emotional susceptibility Reactive to situations 0 Type A personality Driven by feelings of inadequacy o lmpulsivity Remember personality disorders in psychology psychopathy amp antisocial People with high self esteem are likely to be aggressive as opposed to common thought if they have a narcissistic personality and if their ego is under threat 0 Children with low self control tend to be more aggressive adu s ORIGINS OF AGGRESSION ls aggression innate VIDEO NOTES quotFalse Confessionsquot Saul Kassin How common are false confessions 0 People often confess to crimes they did not commit o Occur voluntarily Police in uence 0 Juveniles are vulnerable 0 Mental retardation o Na39ive suggestible overly compliant it is clear that in police interrogation o The role of interrogation tactics 0 US police are allowed to lie about facts 0 Are false confessions discernible o It is virtually impossible to tell if it is a false confession by looking at it or hearing it 0 Research 0 Lab more diagnostic quotThe makings of a false confessionquot Lowery had 6 months left in the Army when he was arrested for rape in 1981 Top reasons for wrongful Convictions o 79 mistaken eyewitness identi cation 0 57 incorrect forensic testing 0 18 bad informant testimony o 16 False confessions Took 20 years to prove innocence quotEye witness Testimony Part amp llquot One type of evidence is the most pervasive DNA Pattern has emerged 230 exonerated by DNA more than 34 were sent to jail because of eyewitness Eye witness will pic the person who looks most like the suspect they think it is Should be instantaneous when remembering no longer than 10 15 sec Reinforcement alters memory solution have someone independent deliver the lineup


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