Ch. 1, 2 & 3 Study Guides
Ch. 1, 2 & 3 Study Guides Psych 350 - Paul Kwon
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Social Psych 08212013 Chapter 1 De ning social Psychology 0 The scienti c study of how individuals think feel and behave in a social context Social Context 0 Emphasis is on the social nature of individuals 0 However quotother peoplequot do not have to be real or present 0 Even the implied or imagined presence of others can have important effects on individuals Social Psychology and Sociology How are they different 0 Sociology tends to focus on the group level 0 Social psychology tends to focus on the individual level 0 How do the elds intersect 0 Both can help understanding societal and immediate factors that in uence behavior Social Psychology and Cognitive Psychology 0 How are they different 0 Cognitive psychologists study mental processes overall not just in social situations 0 How do the elds intersect Socia cognition has become an important area within psychology Social Psychology and Clinical Psychology 0 How are they different 0 Clinical psychologists focus on psychological dif cultiesdisorders more than normal behavior 0 How do the elds intersect Social psychologists are interested in all behavior including disordered behavior Social Psychology and Personality Psychology 0 How are they different 0 Personality psychologists are interested in differences between individuals Social psychologists are interested in how social factors affect most people 0 How do the elds intersect Both may examine how situational factors interact with individual differences Table 12 in textbook Distinctions Between Social Psychology and Related Fields A Brief History of Social Psychology Birth and infancy of Social Psychology 1880519205 0 First published social psychology experiment Norman Triplett 1897 0 Found that a bicyclists speed is 20 faster when racing in the presence of other riders than when racing alone 0 First textbooks were by McDougall 1908 Ross 1908 and F Allport 1924 These books established social psychology as a distinct eld of study A Call to Action 1930519505 0 followed great depression 0 Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues formed in 1936 0 stock market crash 1929 leads to an emphasis on social issues in the country Who has the most dramatic impact on social psychology n Adolf Hitler 0 Many of Europe s leading scientists ed Europe to America during World War II 19391945 19405 1960s 0 interest in obedience to authority persuasion and group dynamics Con dence and Crisis 19605mid 1970s Milgram s famous obedience experiments 0 Period of expansion and enthusiasm Also a time of crisis and heated debate 0 Strong reactions against the laboratory experiment as the dominant research method An Era of Pluralism mid 1970s 1990s 0 Crisis led to a stronger discipline 0 Adoption of pluralism 0 Acceptance of many methods of investigation in addition to the laboratory experiment 0 Development of international and multicultural perspectives Increased awareness of gender and racial bias in social psychological research Ethics in Social Psychology Research Deception in experiments Deception may be used to intentionally fool the participant into thinking 0 Something untrue in order to study some aspect of behavior 0 Confederate an accomplice of the experimenter whom research participants assume is a fellow participant or bystander Chapter 3 Sense of self Develops at around 1824 months of age 0 Few other animals possess a sense of self 0 Great apes o Whales and dolphins o Elephants o Magpies Putting Common sense to the test Humans are the only animals who recognize themselves in the mirror FALSE The roles of the self 0 Capacity for selfre ection is necessary for selfunderstanding 0 Private inner self 0 Self is heavily in uenced by social factors 0 Public outer self One s private and public selves may differ 0 Nick Nolte example The ABCs of the self Affect emotion how do we evaluate ourselves enhance our self images and defend against threats to our selfesteem Behavior how do we regulate our actions and present ourselves according to interpersonal demands Cognition how do we come to know ourselves develop a self concept and maintain a stable sense of identity The selfConcept Self is an important object of our attention 0 Cocktail party effect SelfConcept the sum total of beliefs and feelings that people have about themselves 0 At an early age centers around observable physical characteristics sex age hobbies 0 At later ages a greater emphasis on thoughts and feelings and on others opinions Selfconcept is made up of selfschemas o SelfSchema beliefs about oneself that guide processing of selfrelevant information Schema Greek word for quotformquot a General outline of what we know about someone or something u Based on prior knowledge and experience a A schema guides and speeds up information processing 0 Information consistent with a schema is quickly processed 0 Information inconsistent with a schema is often dismissed Social factors in uence development of a selfconcept o quotlookingglass selfquot others serve as a mirror in which we see ourselves 0 Self as relational Where does our selfconcept comes from Source 1 lntrospection o Selfknowledge through looking inward at one s own thoughts and feeHngs But does introspection always lead to accurate selfknowledge 0 Not always being too analytical about one s feelings preferences can lead to confusion 0 Does smiling make you happier TRUE Source 2 Perceptions of our own behavior 0 People can learn about themselves simply by watching their own behavior Selfperceptions of Emotion Facial Feedback Hypothesis changes in facial expression can lead to changes in emotions 0 Through selfperception 0 Alternate theory produces physiological changes that produce emotion Robert Zajonc SelfPerceptions of Emotion The TwoFactor Theory of Emotion Two factors are necessary to feel a speci c emotion 0 We must experience physiological arousal 0 We must make a cognitive interpretation that explains the source of the arousal Subject to misinterpretation 0 Bridge experiment 0 Excitation transfer SelfPerceptions of Motivation 0 Intrinsic Motivation Originates in factors within a person Extrinsic Motivation Originates in factors outside the person 0 What happens to intrinsic motivation once a reward is no longer available 0 Over justi cation effect Understanding the Paradox Should rewards NOT be offered 0 If seen as sincere and justi ed rewards are OK Source 3 In uences of Other people 0 We de ne ourselves in part by using others as a benchmark Social Comparison Theory 0 Festinger 1954 When uncertain about our abilities or opinions we evaluate self through comparisons with similar others Goals of Social Comparison Accurate selfevaluation SelfEnhancement o Downward social comparisons Comparison to those who are worse off SelfImprovement o Upward social comparisons comparison with people who are doing better Source 4 Autobiographical Memories 0 Typically report more events from the recent than the distant past 0 Exceptions quotReminiscence Bumpquot among older adults Tendency to remember transitional rsts Flashbulb memories serve as prominent landmarks in autobiographies o Often motivated to distort the past in ways that are selfin ated Source 5 Cultural In uences on the selfConcept Contrasting cultural orientations o Individualism one s culture values the virtues of independence autonomy and selfreliance o Collectivism one s culture values the virtues of interdependence cooperation and social harmony SelfEsteem Affective emotional component of self consisting of a person s positive and negative selfevaluations 0 Those with a negative selfimage tend to be more depressed pessimistic about the future and prone to failure 0 Those with a positive selfimage tend to be happy healthy productive and successful But is this always true Chapter 3 SelfRegulation Selfregulation is the process by which we seek to control or alter our thoughts feelings behaviors and urges Selfcontrol is a limited resource 0 The more effort you spend on selfcontrol selfregulation fatigue can set it lronic Mental Processes Sometimes the harder we try to inhibit a thought feeling or behavior the less likely we are to succeed 0 Example For the next 30 seconds think about anything but DO NOT think about a white bear Method 1 for SelfEnhancement SelfServing Cognitions 0 People tend to take credit for success and distance themselves from failure 0 Most people are unrealistically optimistic depressed individuals more accurate about view of worldlife Method 2 SelfHandicapping Selfhandicapping Behaviors designed to sabotage ones own performance in order to provide a subsequent excuse for failure 0 Way of protecting self from seeing failure as due to lack of ability 0 quotSandbaggingquot downplaying own ability lowering expectations or openly predicting failure Method 3 Basking in the Glory of Others 0 To raise our selfesteem we often bask in re ected glory quotBIRGquot by associating with others who are successful 0 To protect our selfesteem we will quotcut off re ected failurequot quotCORFquot by distancing ourselves from others who fail or are of low status Method 4 Downward Social Comparison Strategic SelfPresentation Our efforts to shape others impressions in speci c ways 0 Common strategic selfpresentation goals 0 lngratiation Desire to quotget alongquot with others and be liked o SelfPromotion Desire to quotget aheadquot and gain respect for one s competence SelfVeri cation Desire to have others perceive us as we truly perceive ourselves 0 At times we even selfverify negative selfconcepts even at the expense of selfenhancement SelfMonitoring Tendency to regulate one s own behavior to meet the demands of the situation 0 High selfmonitors behavior is dependent on the situation and others reactions o More concerned with strategic selfpresentation 0 Pro exible outgoing 0 Con may be seen phony Low selfMonitors behavior is based on internal values and attitudes regardless of the situation 0 More concerned with selfveri cation 0 Pro principled 0 Con stubborn unwilling to compromise Chapter 4 Social Perception An active process through which we seek to know and understand others quotJudging a book by its coverquot 0 First impressions are often in uenced by different aspects of a person s appearance 0 We read personality traits in people based on facial features quotBabyFaced Adults seen as trustworthy submissive o humans are genetically programmed to respond gently to infantile features 0 we learn to associate infantile features with helplessness and then generalize this expectation to babyfaced adults Scripts 0 a schema about how events unfold in a certain situation 0 we re more likely to see what we expect to see Nonverbal Behavior Facial expressions of the six major emotions Anger fear disgust sadness happiness surprise 0 These emotions are universal across cultures 0 However recognition of facial emotions is better with greater familiarity with that person s ethnicity Other Nonverbal cues Body movements 0 0 Excessive movement can indicate discomfort anxiety and or emotional arousal Palms up Friendly inviting begging Palms down Con dence dominance Fingers are nervelinked to speech areas of the brain 0 Fingertips touching together in steeple position thoughtfulness Fingers touching the lipsselfsoothing due to discomfort or indecision Lack of nger movement can be a sign of drug intoxication Other Nonverbal Cues Pigeontoed O Submissive Penguintowed 0 Dominant Social distance 0 Public gt12 feet 0 Social 412 feet 0 Personal 154 feet Intimate lt18 inches Touching Can suggest any of the following o Affection sexual interest dominance caring aggression Signs of lying Microexpressions More frequent blinking 0 Average blinking rate 21 per minute 0 Rate increases under excitement eg anxiety tension resulting from lying Usually lowhigh eye contact 0 Evidence of guilt or anxiety 0 Fidgeting o Hesitant or interrupted speech 0 Exaggerated facial expressions 0 lnterchannel discrepancies sound happy but body posture looks sad Detecting a fake smile 0 Eyes don t crinkle Genuine smile quotcrows feetquot wrinkles on the outer corner of the eyes Attribution Understanding the causes behind peoples behavior 0 Theory explanations can be grouped into two categories 0 Personal attributions Dispositions stable characteristics such as personality traits o Situational attributions Dispositional or situational o Kelley s Convariation Theory 0 Consider three dimensions Consensus How are other people reacting to the same stimulus Distinctiveness does the person react the same or differently to different stimuli Consistency is the person s behavior with this stimulus consistent over time An example Your Date just cried watching a move the stimulus Is the cause of this event dispositional due to my date s personality or situational due to the movie 0 Consensus how often do others cry at this movie High gt situational Low gt dispositional o Distinctiveness how often does your date cry at other movies High very distinctive don t cry at other movies gt shua onal Low not distinctive cry at lots of movies gt dispositional 0 Consistency how often do your date cry when seeing this movie High gt situational or dispositional Low gt uncertain about any attribution Remember Dispositional attribution low consensus low distinctiveness high consistency o Consensus how often do others cry at this movie High gt situational Low gt dispositional o Distinctiveness how often does your date cry at other movies High very distinctive don t cry at other movies gt shua onal Low not distinctive cry at lots of movies gt dispositional Consistency how often does your date cry when seeing this movie 0 High gt situational or dispositional 0 Low gt uncertain about any attribution Cognitive Heuristics Cognitive heuristics are informationprocessing rules of thumb 0 Enable us to think in ways that are quick and easy 0 Unfortunately they can frequently lead to error Representativeness Heuristics Judgments are made based on the similarity between the current stimulus and a prototype Base rates the frequency with which something occurs in the general population 0 Base rate fallacy the tendency to ignore base rates in favor of the representativeness heuristic Also leads to the conjunction error the violation of the statistical rule that a subset of a group can never be larger than the group itself Availability Heuristics o The tendency to estimate the likelihood than an event will occur by how easily instances of it come to mind Leads to problems 0 ignores baserates o falseconsensus effect Example adcapswsuedu eCHUG eTOKE Fundamental Attribution Error 0 When we explain other people s behavior we tend to o overestimate the role of dispositional factors 0 overlook the impact of situations Experiment 0 College students talked with a confederate who pretended to be a clinical psychology graduate student 0 Condition 1 Half of the students were told that her behavior would be spontaneous 0 Condition 2 The other half were told that she was asked to behave in a friendly or unfriendly manner 0 Result No difference in dispositional inferences Experiment 0 Students were randomly assigned to play the role of either the questioner or a contestant of a quiz game 0 Result Both the audience and contestant rated the questioner as being more intelligent than the contestant 0 only the questioner avoided the fundamental attribution error and rated them equally Actorobserver effect falling in the snow 0 The tendency for people to attribute their own behavior to situational factors and to attribute others behavior to dispositional factors 0 Due to a difference in perspective 0 When we are doing something our attention is on the environment 0 When others are doing something our attention is on them 0 Advice columns and the actorobserver effect Motivational Biases o Belief in a Just World the belief that individuals get what they deserve in life 0 Can lead to a tendency to blame victims Impression formation 0 How do we come up with rst impressions 0 Experiment participants read one of two lists of trait words describing a person Intelligent skillful industrious warm determined practical cautious Intelligent skillful industrious cold determined practical cautious 0 List 1 was rated far more favorably than List 2 Asch s quotcentral traitsquot theory 0 We view traits not additively but as an integrated whole One trait can color perception of other traits Some traits count more than others a Warmcold is a central trait 0 Experiment participants read one of two lists of trait words describing a person 0 Intelligent industrious impulsive critical stubborn envious o envious stubborn critical impulsive industrious intelligent List 1 was rated far more favorable than List 2 o Primacy effect initial information is more heavily weighted than later information 0 Our initial perceptions color subsequent perceptions 0 Also due to our forming a schema based on the initial information Also called the con rmation bias The quotwarmcold study Kelley 1950 o A guest instructor lectured in several sections of intro economics 0 Students were given a schema of the instructor Condition 1 he is a cold person Condition 2 he is a warm person 0 This initial schema in uenced ratings of the instructor although the instructor behaved the same Counterfactual thinking 0 Evaluating events based on quotwhat might have beenquot o If a negative outcome can be more easily altered in our minds we will experience more regret TEST STUFFFFFF 50 multiple choice straight forward 52013 Chapter 5 Stereotypes beliefs that associate a whole group of people with certain traits Preiudice negative feelings about other because of their connection to a social group Discrimination negative behaviors directed against persons because of their membership in a group Less acceptable than ever before but still persistent Example post 911 antiMuslim attitudes o Ageism 0 Sexual orientation Modern racism a subtle form that seems safe socially acceptable and easy to rationalize Ex quotnormal to darker skinquot tanning lotion Ambivalent sexism forms of sexism characterized by two different components Hostile sexism negative resentful beliefs and feelings Benevolent sexism affectionate and chivalrous but potentially patronizing Cause 1 of problem group Identi cation lngroups groups with which an individual feels a sense of membership belonging and identity 0 Ex country religion political party gender etc Outgroups any group you don39t feel these things with Ultimate attribution error people in ingroups are seen more favorably while people in outgroups are seen more negatively Social identitvtheorv threats to ones self esteem heighten the need for in group favoritism Robbers cave experiment sheriff 1961 o 20 boys 1112 yrs Old randomly divided into 2 groups 0 athletic competition between the two groups quickly produced prejudice and hostility Superordinate goal a mutually shared goal that can only be achieved through intergroup cooperation reduces prejudice Realistic con icttheorv direct competition for valuable but limited resources breeds hostility between groups Eg land jobs power etc 92313 NEED Causes of Prejudice Cause 2 0 Social categorization The classi cation of persons into groups on the basis of observable characteristics Like any schema this is in some ways natural and adaptive Saves time and energy 0 Can lead to critical errors Overestimation of differences between groups Overestimation of similarities within groups Stereotyping o How stereotypes survive 1 Con rmatory bias due to use of schema 2 Subtyping n Exceptions to a stereotype are placed in a separate category rather than used to revise the held stereotype 3 Selfful lling prophecy n The process by which one s expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that conform to the expectations 4 Socialization a Gender stereotypes are learned early as early as age 2 5 Modeling a Imitating important others friends parents 6 Media effects I Men shown close up woman in long shots Reducing prejudice and discrimination Allport39s contact hypothesis 0 Important conditions 0 Equal status 0 Personal interaction 0 Cooperative activities superordinate goals 0 There must be clear understanding from authorities that prejudice is not accepted 92513 Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination Allport39s contact hypothesis 0 Important conditions equal status personal interaction cooperative activities superordinate goals there must be a clear understanding from authorities that prejudice is not accepted School Intervention Education level is the strongest predictor of level of prejudice Recategorization shifting the boundary to include outgroup members in the ingroup Challenging Stereotypes through greater cognitive effort 0 information inconsistent with a schema can be incorporated but requires effort 0000 Chapter 6 Attitudes What is an attitude o A positive negative or mixed reaction to a person object or idea expressed at some level of intensity How attitudes are measured Selfreport questionnaires 0 direct and straightforward 0 may not be accurate for sensitive questions Bogus pipeline a phony liedetector device that is sometimes used to get respondents to give truthful answers to sensitive questions 0 Observable behavior 0 Facial Electromyograph EMG An electronic instrument that records facial muscle activity associated with emotions and attitudes o Neuroscience research ongoing 0 appears attitudes may be measureable by electrical brain activity lmplicit Association Test IAT o implicit unconscious 0 measures the speed with which one responds to pairings of concepts How attitudes are formed 0 personal experiences attitudes of family and friends enemies etc 0 social and cultural context Do attitudes predict behavior 0 based on a review of the literature Wicket 1969 concluded that attitudes and behavior are only weakly correlated Kraus 1995 quotattitudes signi cantly and substantially predict future behaviorquot Other factors that increase the attitudebehavior relationship o the stronger the attitude the greater its impact on intention and behavior 0 factors affecting attitude strength if it affects our selfinterest related deeply to held philosophical political religious values attitudes shared by close friends family social ingroups a personality 0 increasing selfawareness 92713 10213 Why do people Conform Informational in uence people conform because they believe others are correct 0 Sherif39s Study light in a dark room 0 Leads to Private Conformitv changes in both behavior and belief Normative In uence people conform because they fear the consequences of appearing deviant o Asch s study 0 Leads to Public Conformitv change in behavior but not beliefs In uence of Group Size Conformity increases with group size but only up to a point about 3 or 4 others 0 Law of quotdiminishing returnsquot 0 Perception that others are either in quotcollusionquot or quotspineless sheepquot Having an Ally in Dissent When there was an ally in Asch s study conformity dropped by almost 80 0 An ally can reduce the normative pressures to conform The costs of conformity Can lead to maladaptive change in behavior or beliefs 0 Examples Asch study voting Bene ts of conformity Sometimes people conform to social norms that are adaptive Littering study 0 Observed a parking lot cluttered with trash 0 Confederate either threw paper on the ground or picked up a piece of trash 0 Flyers were placed on car windshields Confederate s behavior in uenced littering of yers 38 when confederate littered 4 when confederate cleaned up litter Culture and Conformity Greater conformity in collectivistic cultures compared to individualistic cultures Compliance 0 Talking fast and catching people off guard can improve compliance 0 People can be disarmed by the simple phrasing of the request Norm of Reciprocity Dictates that we treat others as they have treated us 0 This norm leads us to feel obligated to repay acts of kindness even when unsolicited Cialdini39s sequential request strategies Footinthedoor Technique when you have to catch your foot with the door Person begins with a very small request secures agreement then makes a separate larger request 0 Based on commitmentconsistency Freedman and Fraser 0 A study that asked people what household products they use 0 Intrusive only low compliance 0 Initial then intrusive higher compliance LowBalling An offer is changed to make it less attractive after it appears that it has been accepted 0 Based on commitmentconsistency Cialdini et al experiment 0 Told 7 am rst low volunteer percent 0 Told 7 am later high volunteer percent Doorintheface technique person begins with a very large request that will be rejected then follows that up with a more modest request 0 Perceptual contrast second request quotseems smallerquot 0 Alleviates guilt second request appears to be a quotcompromisequot 0 Example willing to take delinquents to the zoo Real request only low agreed After declining initial request high agreed 0 That39s Not All Folks 0 Additional bene ts are added to the main offer 1011 Chapter 8 Group Processes Group 0 set of individuals with at least one of these characteristics 0 Direct interactions with each other over a period of time 0 Joint membership in a social category sex race etc 0 Shared common fate identity or set of goals 0 The complexities and ambitions of human life require that we work in groups Humans have an innate need to belong to groups 0 Social brain hypothesis our brain is bigger than animals to negotiate group life as a human Group Characteristics Roles behaviors expected of an individual in a group 0 Status social standingrank within a group Norms rules within a group indicating expected behaviors 0 Formal or informal Cohesiveness extent to which there are strong forces keeping the members in the group 0 Related to group performance o Tripletts 19971898 kids reeled in their shing lines faster when others were present 0 Later research found con icting research 0 Ex public speaking golf gymnastics Social Facilitation Zajonc 1965 o The arousal that results when other people in a group are present may improve or impair performance 0 Why it happens Zajonc s mere presence theory awareness increases in presence of others 0 Evaluation Apprehension theory fear of judgment Social Loa ng The decrease in motivation and effort that occurs when individuals work in a group this relaxation impairs performance Rope pulling experiment 0 Individual 187 lbsperson o 7 people 143bs o 14 people 134bs 1014 Culture and Social Loa ng When you are a group of people and everyone feels less responsible to put in work 0 Research has found social loa ng to be less prevalent among women than men and less prevalent in collectivist culture than in individualist cultures Social facilitation in a group of people if there are people watching you it is easier to do things like ride a bike the individual is standing out Social facilitation versus social loa ng Others presenceindividual efforts evaluatedevaluation apprehensionarousal is social facilitation Others presence individual efforts pooled and NOT evaluatedno evaluation apprehensionljless arousal is social loa ng Group performance type of task 0 Additive task group performance is the sum of individual efforts 0 Examples pushing a truck 0 Social loafing will occur but overall group performance is better than a single individual s performance Conjunctive Tasks Group performance is determined by the poorest performing member of the group 0 Overall group performance is typically worse than an individual s performance 0 Disjunctive Task group performance is determined by the skills of the most skilled member of the group 0 Solving a math problem 0 Overall group performance is typically better than an individual s performance Brainstorming Rules 0 No criticisms allowed 0 Free wheeling suggestions allowed the wilder the better 0 The more ideas the better 0 Combinations of ideas and improvements of ideas are sought 0 Does it work 0 The average number of ideas per individual in a group of 5 is about half the average of ideas generated by an individual alone 0 quotTwo heads are better than onequot but quottwo heads together are worse than two heads alonequot Reasons for the inefficiency of brainstorming One person speaks at a time others rehearse their ideas wasting time that they could spend thinking of other ideas 0 Hearing everyone ese s ideas can distract you fro thinking about your own ideas 0 Evaluation apprehension 0 Electronic brainstorming reduces these problems Group Polarization o The exaggeration through group discussion of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members 0 Video 1016 Groupthink Excessive tendency to seek agreement among group members nterferes with good decisionmaking Chaenge disaster 1986 space shuttle blew up Strive for agreement Sef censor your individual thoughts Study 85 in textbook group think Social Dilemmas Situations in which a selfinterested choice by each individuals create the worst outcome for the group Figure 88 The prisoner s Dilemma in the book Resource Dilemmas commons dilemma quottakesome dilemmaquot public goods dilemma individuals expected to contribute to a common pool Riots Vancouver riot 2011 lost hockey game crowd of 700 peoples 58 injuries 10 cars over turned Deindividuation the loss of a person s sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior Put on a mask or costume not accountable because people don t recognize you occurs only in presence of group Individuation highlighting the separateness of individuals reduces deviant behavior forces people to be responsible for their behavior 1018 1021 What s physically attractive Some surprises 0 We like average faces 0 We like symmetrical faces When it comes to romantic relationships do opposites attract FALSE Importance of similarity We tend to associate with others who are similar to ourselves 0 Demographics geographical race 0 Attitudes and experiences similar experiences we have had 0 Physical attractiveness quotmatching hypothesisquot where the initial matching in terms of attractiveness n predicts progress in a relationship a mismatch in attractiveness may be countered by other assets eg fame money quotasset matchingquot Why don t opposites attracts Complementarity hypothesis people seek others whose needs oppose their own 0 Not supported by research Reciprocity quotI ll like you if you like mequot 1023 Does the ha rdtoget effect exist Only to a point we prefer people who are moderately selective to those who are nonselective or too selective Reactance 0 Can increase attraction if a relationship is forbidden 0 Can decrease attraction if a relationship is encouraged by others Attachment Styles Attachment styles the way a person typically interacts with signi cant others 0 In uenced by early relationships with parents and moderately stable over time Secure 56 of adults ability to trust and love another person a lack of concern about being abandoned Avoidant 25 of adultsdiscomfort with closeness due to lack of trust tend to be distant in relationships Anxious ambivalent 19 of adults dears of abandonment desire extremely close relationships tend to scare others away Types of love Eros passionate love Ex my lover and i were attracted immediately Storge friendship love Ex Its hard to say when our friendship turned to love Ludusuncommitted love Ex I try to keep my lover a little uncertain about my commitment to him or her Maniaobsessive love Ex When things aren t going right with my lover and I my stomach gets upset Pragma practical love Ex I considered what my lover was going to become in life before I committed myself to himher Agapesel ess love Companionate Love 0 Form of affection found between close friends as well as romantic partners 0 Less intense than passionate love 0 But in some respects it is deeper and more enduring Characterized by high level of selfdisclosure o Often reciprocal Keys to a Happy Marriage 0 At least 51 ratio of positive interactions to negative interactions 0 Avoid Gottman s quotFour Horsemen of the Apocalypsequot Gottman s quotFour Horsemen of the Apocalypsequot 0 Criticism call attention to perceived problems with the partner and relationship Contempt putting down the partner Defensiveness denying responsibility Stonewalling withdrawing 1025 Chapter 10prosocial behavior Actions that bene t others Evolutionary Factors Kin selection tendency to help genetic relatives Ensure survival of one s genes Reciprocal altruism helping a nonrelative can also aid in genetic survival Increases the likelihood that you will be helped in return Rewards of helping Negative state relief model More likely to help If selfesteem has been threatened by failure Feeling guilty about something Egoism sel sh motives Based on moral principles More likely among those high in empathy ability for perspective taking Essential for altruism desire to improve others welfare The Murder of Kitty genovese 1964 38 witnesses watch without coming to her aid or calling the police Bystander Effect Bystander effect the presence of others inhibits helping Diffusion of responsibility Darley and Latane studies Example confederate in another room fakes seizurew durin an experiment With one bystander 85 helped With two ll 62 helped With 5 31 helped
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