Note for CH 104 with Professor Woski at UA-Study Guide Exam 4
Note for CH 104 with Professor Woski at UA-Study Guide Exam 4
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Exam 4 Outline CH 104 Fall 2009 You need to bring a pencil a calculator and your ACT card ALL other materials must be left at the front of the classroom in an unsecured area ALL cellphones must be turned 019 during exam Chapter 9 Solutions 1 Kinds of mixtures of liquids Section 91 0 Solution 0 Very small particles 0 Cannot be filtered 0 Transparent 0 Colloid o Mediumsized particles 0 Scatter light 0 Suspension 0 Large particles 0 Can be ltered will settle out if not stirred o Opaque 2 Identify the solute and solvent in a solution 0 The solute is dissolved in the solvent 0 Presence of solute lowers freezing point and raises boiling point of solvent Section 911 3 Solubilty Sections 9496 0 Like dissolves like 0 Polar compounds dissolve polar compounds 0 Nonpolar compounds dissolve nonpolar compounds 0 Ionic compounds disassociate into ions 0 Each ion is solvated surrounded by water molecules 0 Cations interact with the negative ends of dipolar bonds in water oxygens o Anions interact with the positive ends of the dipolar bonds in water hydrogens 0 These solutions can conduct electricity electrolytes 0 Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Section 99 o Ionic compounds that completely disassociate in water conduct electricity well and are strong electrolytes o Ionic compounds that only partially disassociate in water conduct electricity poorly and are weak electrolytes o Covalent compounds that do not disassociate in water do not conduct electricity and are nonelectrolytes 0 Measuring solubility Section 94 o Solubility describes the maximum amount of a material that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent under given conditions temperature pressure 0 Units of solubility are typically in g solute g solvent 0 Saturated solutions have the maximum amount that will dissolve a small amount of solid 0 Unsaturated solutions have less than the maximum amount 0 Generally the solubility of solids increase with increasing temperature while the solubility of gases decreases Section 95 0 Generally the solubility of gases increases with increasing pressures Section 96 0 Solubility rules slide 8 Chapter 9 graphics MEMORIZE THESE o Salts containing NH4 Li Na and K cations are always soluble o Salts containing N03 and acetate C2H302 anions are always soluble o Salts containing Cr Br and I are soluble except with Ag Pb2 and Hg22 o Salts containing SO42 are soluble except with Ba2 Pb2Ca2S o Salts containing CO32 S2 PO43 and H0 are insoluble except with NHf Lil Na and K 4 Concentration Section 97 2 1 0 Molarity o Molarity M moles solute L of solution 0 Can be used as a conversion factor to nd moles in a given volume or volume containing a given number of moles 0 Do not forget that moles are related to mass using the molar masses 0 Percent massvolume mV concentration 0 massvolume g solute milliliters solvent X 100 0 this can be used as a conversion factor to find grams in a given volume or volume containing a given mass 0 Parts per million ppm 0 parts in a million of chosen units 0 mass solute mass of solution X 106 0 volume solute volume of solution X 106 5 Dilutions Section 98 C1V1 Csz where C is the concentration in mv or in M 6 Osmosis and dialysis Sections 912 amp 913 Semipermeable membranes allow the movement of small molecules H20 but not larger molecules When two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane water will move to the side with the higher concentration until the concentrations are equal Pressure that will prevent the ow of water is the osmotic pressure Cell membranes are semipermeable o Isotonic solutions same osmotic pressures as biological uids 0 Hypotonic solutions lower osmotic pressures than biological uids 0 Hypertonic solutions higher osmotic pressures than biological uids Dialysis 0 Uses semipermeable membrane to remove small molecules into solution with lower concentration 0 Small molecules transfer across membrane from the higher concentration side to the lower until the concentrations are equal Chapter 10 Acids and Bases 1 Names of Acids Section 102 know these Strong acids 0 HCl hydrochloric acid 0 HNO3 nitric acid 0 HZSO4 sulfuric acid Weak acids 0 H2CO3 carbonic acid 0 H3PO4 phosphoric acid 0 CH3COOH acetic acid 2 Names of Bases Section 102 know these Strong bases 0 Metal hydroxides for example NaOH sodium hydroxide Weak bases 0 Metal carbonates and bicarbonates 0 Ammonia 3 BronstedLowry AcidBase Theory Section 103 0 Acid proton donor 0 Base proton acceptor 4 Acid dissociation constant Section 106 Ka H30A39 HA where HA is a weak acid and A39 is its conjugate base Be able to use this equation 5 Ionization of water Section 107 KW H3OHO39 1 x 10 14 know this constant In neutral solutions H3O HO39 1 X 10397M 0 In acidic solutions H30 gt HO39 0 In basic solutions H30 lt HO39 Be able tofiml to calculate H 30 from known H 039 and visa versa 6 The pH scale Section 108 0 Used to indicate acidity of a solution 014 range 0 pH 7 neutral 0 pH lt 7 acidic 0 pH gt 7 basic o pH flogH30 Be able to calculate pH from H 30 or H07 o H30 10 pH Be able to calculate H 3 0 or H 039 from pH 7 Buffers Section 1011 0 Resist changes in pH upon addition of acid or base 0 Consists of a solution of a weak acid and its conjugate base 0 To calculate pH ofa buffer Ka H30A39 HA Rearranging 1130 Ka HA A39 Then pH flogH30 8 Neutralization reactions Section 1014 0 Reaction of acid and base to give water and a salt 0 Can be performed with acid or base solution of known concentration to find concentration of the other solution titration Section 1015 0 Know how to calculate concentration from titration data see Fig 109 Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry 1 2 Know de nition of radioactive isotope Identify the types of radiation as alpha particles beta particles positrons or gamma radiation Section 112 0 Know symbols mass number and charge ofeach Write an equation for an atom that undergoes radioactive decay Section 114 0 You must be able to balance nuclear reactions i Balance mass numbers ii Balance atomic numbers iii Remember that when balancing reactions beta particles and positrons act as they have atomic numbers of 1 and 1 respectively Calculate the amount of radioisotope that remains after a given number of halflives Section 115 0 Know definition of half life 0 Be able to calculate amount of radioisotope remaining after given number of halflives have passed 5 Descn39be nuclear fission and fusion Section 1111 0 Be able to define and identify each process 0 Fission fragmenting of a heavy nucleus 0 Fusion joining together two light nuclei 0 Know de nition ofchain reaction and critical mass
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