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by: Grant Peterson

ATMOSTUDYGUIDE8911121314.pdf 105

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Chapters 8-14 test prep
Introductory Meteorology ATMO 105
Skylar Koerner
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grant Peterson on Monday December 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 105 at Kansas taught by Skylar Koerner in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 211 views. For similar materials see Introductory Meteorology ATMO 105 in Geology at Kansas.


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Date Created: 12/21/15
Exam 2 Chapters:  –  8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 I suggest that you do the problems listed below to help you think about and understand the  material that we have covered in class. Chapter 8: Questions for Review: 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 19 Questions for Thought: 2, 8*?,9 QR: 5. How does sea­level pressure differ from station pressure? Can the two ever be  the same? Explain.  Station pressure is the actual pressure, recorded at the station. They  can be the same if that station is at sea level. 8.Explain why, in the Northern Hemisphere, the average height of contour lineson  an upper­level isobaric chart tend to decrease northward.  Because cold air is denser, the further north you go, the more dense the atmosphere is   9. What is the force that initially sets the air in motion? The Pressure Gradient Force     11. Explain how each of the following influences the Coriolis force: a) rotation of  the earth; b) wind speed; c) latitude.  1.) The rotation of the earth generates the effect                                  2.) Wind speed effects how much the effect applies                                  3.) Latitude effects how strong the Coriolis effect can apply 12. How does a steep (or strong) pressure gradient appear on weather maps? ­Isobars that are close together   13. Explain why on a map, closely spaced isobars indicate strong winds, and  widely spaced isobars (or contours) indicate weak winds. ­Pressure and height are related since areas of low pressure are of low heights. The relation of pressure and height are then linear?     14. What is a geostrophic wind? Why would you not expect to observe a  geostrophic wind at the equator? ­Straight winds in the upper atmosphere ­You would not see these winds, because the Coriolis effect does not apply at the equator. 16.Describe how the wind blows around highs and lows aloft and near the surface  a) in the northern hemisphere and b) in the southern hemisphere.   19. Describe the type of vertical air motions associated with surface high­ and low­ pressure areas. HIGH pressure: subsidence / downward (vertical) and divergence / spreading out (horizontal)  LOW pressure: ascent / upward (vertical) and convergence / contracting (horizontal) QT: 2. The gas law states that pressure is proportional to temperature times density. Use the gas law  to explain why a balloon will deflate when placed inside a refrigerator. Use the law to explain  why the same balloon will inflate when removed from the refrigerator and placed in a warm  room. 8. If the earth were not rotating, how would wind blow with respect to centers of high and low  pressure? 9. Why are surface winds that blow over the ocean closer to being geostrophic than those that  blow over the land?   Chapter 9: Questions for Review: 1, 5, 9, 22, 23, 25 QR: 1. Describe the various scales of motion. Give an example of each. 1.) Microscale (Cigarette smoke) 2.) Mesoscale (smoke Stacks) 3.) Synoptic Scale 4.)  Planetary Scale (Global) 5. Why are winds near the surface typically stronger and more gusty in the afternoon? The sun heats the ground and creates low level instability, mixed with convective heating,  creates strong gusts. 9. What is wind shear and how does it relate to clear air turbulence? An air mass moving in any direction. When a body of air moves horizontally, and doesn’t  form precipitation, it is unseen and still creates turbulences. 22. Which wind will most likely produce clouds: a valley breeze or a mountain breeze? Why? ­A mountain breeze, due to Orographic lifting. 23. Explain why Chinook winds are warm and dry. ­All of the moisture is condensed out as the parcel lifts over a mountain 25. What atmospheric conditions contribute to the development of strong Santa Ana condition?  Why is a Santa Ana wind warm? –Strong high pressure system, it is warm air moving from  the desert area and heated by compression to a higher temperature.   Chapter 11: Questions for Review: 7, 8, 14, 15, 16 7. List the temperature and moisture characteristics of each of the major air mass types. ­cT –mT –cP ­ mP 8. What are lake­effect snows and how do they form? On which side of a lake do they typically  occur? Generated by cold dry air passing over the warm moist water. Generally on the lee­ ward side, or dryer side 14. How does the weather usually change along a dryline? There is generally a sharp drop in humidity 15. Based on the following weather forecasts, what type of front will most likely bass the area? a) Light rain and cold today, with temperatures just above freezing. Southeasterly winds shifting  to westerly tonight. Turning colder with rain becoming heavy and possibly changing to snow. b) Cool today with rain becoming heavy at times by this afternoon. Warmer tomorrow. Winds  southeasterly becoming westerly by tomorrow morning. c) Increasing cloudiness and warm today, with the possibility of showers by evening. Turning  much colder tonight. Winds southwesterly, becoming gusty and shifting to northwesterly by  tonight. d) Increasing high cloudiness and cold this morning. Clouds increasing and lowering this  afternoon, with a chance of snow or rain tonight. Precipitation ending tomorrow morning.  Turning much warmer. Winds light easterly today, becoming southeasterly tonight and  southwesterly tomorrow.   16. Sketch side views of a typical cold front, warm front, and cold­occluded front. Include in  each diagram cloud types and patterns, areas of precipitation, surface winds, and relative  temperature on each side of the front.   Chapter 12: Questions for Review: 4, 6, 9, 12, 17 Questions for thought: 2 Problems and exercises: 1 QR: 4. Explain this fact: without upper­level divergence, a surface open wave would probably persist  for less than a day. Air spirals into a surface low due to the effect of friction on air flow.  Unless divergence exist above the low, it will fill in and dissipate.   6. If upper­level diverging air above a surface area of low pressure exceeds converging air  around the surface low, will the surface low­pressure weaken or intensify? Why?   9. How are longwaves in the upper­level westerlies different from shortwaves? Long waves are thousands of kilometers long, shortwaves are small disturbances or  ripples. 12. How does the polar­front jet stream influence formation of a mid­latitude cyclone? The polar front Jet Stream provides areas of divergence aloft. 17. What are the roles of warm, cold, and dry conveyor belts in the development of a mid­ latitude cyclonic storm system? Warm conveyor belt: originates at the surface in the warm sector, ahead of the cold front. As the warm airstream moves northward, it slowly rises along the sloping warm front.  Water vapor in the rising air condenses, and clouds form. Aloft, the warm air flow  gradually turns toward the northeast or east, parallel to the upper­level flow. The rising  warm air causes cloudiness to appear ahead of the surface low and its surface warm  front. From these clouds, rain or snow usually falls. Directly below the warm conveyor  belt, a cold, moist airstream, the cold conveyor, belt moves slowly westward north of the  surface low and the warm front. As the airstream moves into the vicinity of the surface  low, rising air gradually forces the cold conveyor belt upward. The rising airstream  usually turns as it ascends, producing a comma­shaped cloud. If the airstream rises high enough, it gets caught in the southwesterly flow aloft and swings northeastward. The last conveyor belt is a dry one that forms in the upper atmosphere. Called the dry conveyor  belt, this airstream slowly descends from the northwest behind the surface cold front,  where it brings generally clearing weather. If a branch of this dry air sweeps into the  storm, it produces a clear area that, in the comma cloud, appears to pinch off the  comma's head from its tail. This phenomenon tends to show up on satellite pictures as  the storm becomes more fully developed. QT: 2. Would a mid­latitude cyclone intensify or dissipate if the upper trough were located to the  east of the surface disturbance? Explain your answer. The wave cyclone would dissipate. The air aloft would be converging and  descending directly above the surface cyclone.   Chapter 13: Questions for Review: 3, 7, 9, 11, 14 Questions for Thought: 4, 5 3. List some of the tools a weather forecaster might use when making a short­range forecast.   7. What are some of the problems associated with computer­model forecasts? Inaccuracy due to the spacing in stations, to decrease the error would mean to increase the  number of stations, this would result in an increase of calculation time. 9. Describe four methods of forecasting the weather and give an example of each.  Persistence Persistence forecasting is based on the concept that current weather conditions  can Synoptic Statistical ● Statistical or climatological forecasting allows meteorologists to  make predictions based on historical trends. Computer Modeling ● Computer modeling forecasts represent the most advanced method  of predicting the weather. Synoptic ● Synoptic, or analogue forecasting is a method of predicting the  weather based on accepted theories and principles of meteorology. This  technique requires some skill and training, and incorporates weather maps, radar and satellite images. Forecasters combine these tools with  information about atmospheric pressure, air flow and temperatures to  come up with a forecast. 11. How can ensemble forecasts improve medium­range weather forecasts? This ensemble allows forecasters to run the model multiple times to test the  solidity of the parameters. This use of multiple models allows forecasters to  eliminate uncertainty. 14. Do all accurate forecasts show skill? Explain. When Persistence and or climatology methods are less accurate than the  predictor, skill is shown.  QT: 4. Since computer models have difficulty in adequately considering the effects of small­scale  geographic features on a weather map, hwy don’t numerical weather forecasts simply reduce the  grid spacing? 5. Explain how the phrase “sensitive dependence on initial conditions” relates to the final  outcome of a computer­based weather forecast.   Chapter 14: 5. why do ordinary cell thunderstorms form most frequently in the afternoon?  Convection currents in the atmosphere are responsible for the formation of the  cumulonimbus clouds which produce thunderstorms.These convection currents  form only in the day time and they become very strong particularly in the  afternoon and the evening due to intense solar heating. 6. explain why ordinary cell thunderstorms tend to dissipate much sooner than multicell storms.  Unlike the ordinary storm (ordinary storm weakens once it enters the dissipation  stage), the supercell storm is an enormous rotating thunderstorm whose updrafts and downdrafts are sufficiently structured so that the storm is able to maintain  itself as a single entity for hours on end.  7. How does the National Weather Service define a severe thunderstorm?  A thunderstorm having a least one of the following: -large hail with a diameter of at least one inch. -surface wind gusts of 50 knots (58 mph) or greater -or produces a tornado 2. what atmospheric conditions are necessary for the development of ordinary cell  thunderstorms? & 15. Describe the atmospheric conditions that are necessary for the  development of most supercell thunderstorms. (note how these conditions differ from 2.)   18. In what region of the United States do drylines most frequently form? Why there?  In Western Texas, Kansas, and Oklahoma. 29. Why is the central part of the US more susceptible to tornadoes than any other region of the  world? Because of the mountain region, continental polar (cP) and maritime Tropical  (mT) air colliding. 31. How does a tornado watch differ from a tornado warning?  A watch is issued when conditions are favorable, warnings mean that severe  weather is imminent and is based on specific criteria and existing reports  received by the NWS QT: 3. Explain why squall line thunderstorms often form ahead of advancing cold fronts, but seldom  behind them.  Squall lines form ahead of cold fronts because the atmosphere is steamy and  warm. Squall lines need the heat and humidity to really build up strength, but  once the cold front passes, the cooler and less humid air has arrived and  thunderstorms no longer have the fuel they need to form.


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