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UCLA / Chemistry and Biochemistry / CHEM 14BL / What is the difference between horizontal and vertical periodic trends

What is the difference between horizontal and vertical periodic trends

What is the difference between horizontal and vertical periodic trends

Description

School: University of California - Los Angeles
Department: Chemistry and Biochemistry
Course: General and Organic Chemistry Laboratory I
Professor: Sharon neufeldt
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Chemistry, UCLA, SN1, SN2, 14D, and Ochem
Cost: 25
Name: 14D Week 2 Notes
Description: Notes from Week 2 lecture and discussion - Sn2 Reactions and beginning of Sn1
Uploaded: 04/08/2016
13 Pages 240 Views 0 Unlocks
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We also discuss several other topics like What is defined as a cost or benefit imposed upon or received by a third party in the production or consumption of a good or service?

All 3 are identical

                                                If you want to learn more check out umb osu

                

        Don't forget about the age old question of What establishes resting membrane potential?

        ⟶                        

Recall: Li, Na, K, Cs compounds with N, O, X, Sp C are ionic

        Don't forget about the age old question of What makes human different from apes?

         no covalent bond

        

        Don't forget about the age old question of What is a person’s consistent way of thinking, feeling, and acting?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is hyperbola in algebra?

Rate of  is affected by:

1. Sterics of Substrate                (C*-LG)

2. LG ability

3. Nucleophile Strength

4. Solvent

1) Substrate Steric (C*-LG)

        Recall: C must be sp3

        Degree of substitution (how many other C’s are attached)

        Methyl                >        1o primary Carbon        >         2o > > > 3o

        

                

Fastest SN2        Slower

                                                So Slow

                                No SN2

                                                        (nothing in the way)

                                                        3o (much harder for Nuc to attack carbon)

B - branching slows SN2

0 branches                1 branch                        2 branches

Rate: 1                        rate: 0.4                        rate: .0012

 3 branches

 Rate: .000012

2) LG ability (better LG = faster SN2)

    ↖Trends with acidity (H-LG)

Review - Acidity Trends (=LG trends)

1. Periodic trends

        ⟶                                        ↓more acidic, better LG

        More acidic, better LG        

  • Horizontal - relates to EN

                more stable        

  • Vertical - atomic radius

                        H falls off easily  stronger acid

2. Formal Charge

        All else equal:        

                        

        LG gains  when it leaves

                                                                Becomes neutral

Memorize                 

                -9                        -2                9

                -7                        5                16                50

3. Resonance Stabilize

SN2 - Bimolecular Nuclear Substitution

        ↓                        ↓

2 parts                        Exchange of parts

F = transition state                                stereo inversion (umbrella flip)

How fast do these reactions occur?

        Factors affecting rate:

1. Sterics of substrate (electrophile)

2. Leaving Group Ability (Acidity)

3. Nucleophile Strength (Basicity, sort of)

4. Solvent Effects

1. Degree of substitution

                >                >                >        

        >                        >                        >        

        Fastest SN2                                                                No SN2

        B Branching

        

2. Periodic Trends

3. Periodic Trends

                                        Larger = more nucleophilic

        Formal charge

                (-) > - > neut >  + > (+)

Resonance generally

Decreases nucleophilicity

                                                                               Better nucleophile

        Hybridization

                Greater S character  acidity

                

                25%        33%        50%

        Which is more acidic?

        (H)R                                        

       greater acidic proton

Rank by which is strongest nucleophile - 1 = strongest

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