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Geology Exam 4 Study Guide

by: Carter Cox

Geology Exam 4 Study Guide GEO 101

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Geology > GEO 101 > Geology Exam 4 Study Guide
Carter Cox

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About this Document

cover all material since the end of exam 3
Dynamic Earth
Study Guide
Dynamic Earth, Geology 101
50 ?




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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carter Cox on Friday April 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
Geo 101 – The Dynamic Earth Exam 4 Study Guide THIS IS NOT ALL INCLUSIVE – especially if you don’t fill it out fully.  What are the types of fossilization that we covered and how do they work? o Frozen or Dried o Amber or Tar  Sticky sap on a tree, tar is when oil has seeped to the surface looking like a drinking hole o Preserved or replaced o Permineralization o Carbonization o Molds and Casts (Replica or original) o Trace Fossils  o Extraordinary fossils (DNA)  What are evolution and natural selection? o Evolution   Both fact and theory  Change in a population over a succession of generations, due to the transfer of inheritable characteristics  o Natural Selection   Is theory that explains fact   Organisms are different  Same differences are advantages   More advantages = more offspring  Population of organisms are always changing to adapt to their environment   What are some the many pieces of evidence that help us understand how organisms evolve? o Anatomy­ skeletons, teeth, anything left behind  Fossils   Modern o Vestigial organ  Organ that no longer functions in the same way that it did o Embryology   Way bone develops  o Genetics  PNAS  Phylogenic relationships among the major cetartiodactly subgroups o Biogeography  o Homology  The sameness  How anatomy looks the same in different creatures  What causes extinction? o Climate change o Tectonic activity   Causes sea level to rise   Habitat changes  o Asteroid or comet impact o New Predators   You must know the definitions of the relative dating techniques we covered in class and be able to use  them like we did during the class activity. o Original Horizontality   How sediment is deposited  Fairly horizontal  o Superposition  Applies to   Sedimentary only  Undeformed   Older on bottom  Can get tricky o Lateral Continuity  Sediments are deposited in continuous layers  Can be distributed later o Cross cutting relationships   Formations in relation to each other  Baked contact  Inclusions   What do unconformities tell us?  o Abrupt transitions in a stratigraphic column  Missing time  Non deposition  Erosion  How do geologists use fossils for dating? o Principle of Fossil Succession  Fossils are found in limited strata  Found in a definable order (amphibians, mammals, etc.)  Don’t reappear o How we use fossil  Index fossils Trilobites   Well dated   Widespread  Short lived  How was the geologic column created? o Represents entire Earths History  o Graphic representation of the layers of rock that make up the earths crust  o Divided into segments each of which represents a specific time interval   How does a radioactive isotope give us a numerical age?  o Decay and Half Life  Unstable atoms eject particles predictably   Become more stable atom (14C – 14 N)  Parent isotope  Daughter Isotope  o Half Life  Time it takes for half of the population to decay  Cannot predict when single atom will decay  What characteristics does an object need in order to be dated with radio­isotopes? o Carbon dating  What can be dated with radioactive methods?  What other methods can you use to determine a numerical age?  o Igeneous rocks o Metamorphic   Sometimes, depends on temperature and mineral type   What did we date to determine the age of the earth? o 4.5 Billion Years old  Know the major events in each eon or era that we covered in class: names of supercontinents, big  geological events, types of life that first appeared. (Use the handouts – they will make studying so much  easier!!) Hadean Eon ­ 4.55 Ga formation of Earth ­ 4.5 Ga differentiation o Dense materials sink ­ 4.5 Ga formation of moon ­ Before 4.4 Ga o Molten tock surface o Non oxygen atmosphere o No water ­ After 4.4 Ga (Australian zircon) o Maybe solid rock o Non oxygen atmosphere o Some water ­ 4 Ga Meteor o Destroyed existing surface o Surface reformed  small volcanic islands ­ End of Hadean Eon o No life  o Very little land o Acidic ocean not made out of water  Archean ­ Paleogeography o 80% of continental area  ­ Seas and Atmosphere  o Liquid water to create seas o Not much oxygen in atmosphere  ­ First Life o Earliest fossil  3.5 Ga  Single cell  Carbon isotopes  Stromatolites  Algae mats  Photosynthesis (creates oxygen)  2.95 Ga  Helped increase oxygen Proterozoic Eon Start Paleography  ­ 90% of continental crust that we have today  ­ This is growing throughout the entire eon Supercontinents ­ Large land masses­ nearly all continents ­ Constant splitting and reassembling  ­ Profound affect on climate Rodinia – first supercontinent  Pannotia­ reverse of rodinia  Atmosphere  ­ Amount of oxygen increases so much  ­ Algae is causing the leap of oxygen  ­ How do we know this o BIF­ bandit iron formation   Cannot form unless a certain amount of oxygen is in the air  o This changes chemistry of ocean  Life  ­ Eukaryotic evidence = 2.7 Ga ­ First fossils from 2.1 Ga  ­ Symbiotic relationship Life Plants  ­ Ocean – algae ­ Land­ algae o Fungi fossil­ 650 to 544 Ma  o Molecular clock= 1.3 Ga  Ediacaran Fauna – soft bodied – very unlikely we have the fossils for them  ­ 565 Ma (million years) ­ Worms, jellyfish  ­ No shells  ­ Underwater Soft bodied fossils  Snowball Earth – glaciers everywhere ­ Glaciers on land ­ Possible frozen ocean ­ Mass extinction ends eon  End of the Proterozoic o Paleozoic Era  Early o Break Up of Pannotia o Epic Continental seas o Taconic Orogeny o New England o Ends in glaciation  Life o Cambrian Explosion  Massive diversification of life  Plants o Ocean  Algae  Seaweed o Land  Simple Fungi  Algae  Liverwort  Animal  o Diverse shelled animals  o Triobites o Sponges o Corals o Echinoderms o First Vertebrate  Jawless Fish  Middle   Paleogeography o Climate warmed and sea level rose  Reefs o Progenies  Plants o Vascular plants  Woody tissue, seeds, veins  Could grow larger o Large swampy forests (mosses and ferns)  Animals o Diverse shelled animals  o Fish: Jawed, lobe fin, ray fin o Spiders and insects o 1  amphibians   Tiktaalik o Cross between fish and tetrapod o Fish  Fins  Scales  Gills o Tetrapod­ anything that has these four appendages  Flat head  Ribs  Neck  Fins support weight   Late  Paleogeography o Global cooling  Sea level drop o Pangaea forms o Alleghanian Orogeny  Appalachians   Ancestral Rockies  Plants o Gymnosperms   Conifer  Cycads (palm like)  Ginkgo   Animals  o Amphibians Diversify st o 1  reptiles  eggs with shells   End   Giant extinction event at 248 million o 96% of marine species o 70% of terrestrial species o largest in history  Mesozoic Early Paleography   Break up of Pangaea  North Atlantic Ocean  Inland seas Plants  Gymnosperms diversify Animals   1  swimming and flying reptiles   1  turtles   Coral  Dinosaurs!  Warm­blooded   Huge sauropods  Feathered birds­ last dinosaurs  Mammals   Very small  Not like modern  Late  Paleography  Pangaea broken o India   Warming and sea level rise o Inland seas  Laramide orogeny  Plants  1  flowering plants   Flowering plants and hardwoods take over  Animals   Modern fish   Dinosaurs diversify  Mammals diversify  End of Mesozoic  K­T boundary extinction event o Meteor  o Dinosaurs (except birds) o 75% plant life  Cenozoic Paleogeography  Himalaya formation  Atlantic and Pacific separated  Climate  Cooler climate o Grasslands  Ice age: o Creates land bridge Plants  Flowering plants and gymnosperms diversify  st  1  grasses  Animals   Mammals diversify and flourished  o Giant mammals at first   What is the extremely general history of human evolution? (What did the graph on the slide look like?)  How do the various fossil fuels form? o Sun  Solar energy   Plant Matter  Fossil Fuel  Wind o Gravity  Tides  Falling Water o Chemical Reactions o Nuclear Fission o Geothermal – happens in the center of the Earth  o Oil and Natural Gas  Hydrocarbon compounds  Remains of marine algae and plankton   In what geological formations do different fossil fuels get trapped? o Anticline o Fault o Salt Dome o Stratigraphic   What methods do we use to extract fossil fuels? o Tar Sands  Viscious oil in sand   Cannot Pump   Mined then heated  Heated then pumped   Very expensive o Oil Shale  Has not reached oil window  Mined then heated  Very expensive o Fracking  Hydraulic Fracturing   Extracting natural gas  Increases well production  Drawbacks   Groundwater contamination  Land use issues o Extracting Oil and Natural Gas  Drilling   Puncture the seal rock  Pumping   Brings oil to the surface o Refining Oil  Crude oil is distilled   Process depends on grade  Sulfur content   Specific gravity   Are we running out of oil? What are the various answers to this question? o Other sources exist  Liquidfied coal  Oil shade   Tar Sands  Methane hydrate o Not economically viable at current prices and technology  o Will we run out   Geologists  Soon  Economists  Will stop using it first   What are the drawbacks of fossil fuel use? o Air Pollutions  Particles and gases  Acid Rain  o Carbon Dioxide   Greenhouse gas o Byproducts  Mine runoff o Spills   Groundwater  Ocean  o Fatalities in mines  A lot   What are the types of alternative energy we covered? What are their advantages and drawbacks? o Nuclear Power  Energy release when nucleus is split (fission)  Drawback   Controlling nuclear reactions o Lot of work and planning  o Potential meltdown   Nuclear waste  Damaging to living organisms   Long time decay (decades­ centuries) o Wind  Must have steady breeze  Clean  Drawback  Noisy  Ugly  Hazard to Wildlife  o Solar  Sunlight converted to electricity  Clean  Drawbacks  Not efficient  Not cost effective  o Hydroelectric  Two Kinds  River o No pollutants o Drawbacks   Damns  Tidal  o No pollutants o Drawbacks  Construction  o Geothermal   Use the earths eternal heat where it come near the surface  Used in two ways   Water   Steam to turn turbines  Drawbacks  Conditions limited  Extra office hours for exam prep: Monday, April 11 from 12:00­2:00pm (if these don’t work, email for an appointment)


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