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KU / Biology / BIOL 100 / How do we know if animals who we only have fossils of could interbreed

How do we know if animals who we only have fossils of could interbreed

How do we know if animals who we only have fossils of could interbreed

Description

School: Kansas
Department: Biology
Course: Principles of Biology
Professor: Richard laurel haavik
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide Test 3 Bio 100
Description: Chapters 13-36
Uploaded: 04/08/2016
22 Pages 195 Views 5 Unlocks
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Answer Key Test 3


How do we know if animals who we only have fossils of could interbreed?



Bio 100

Chapter 13:

1. The theory of evolution and natural selection

2. Layers of sedimentary; layers determine how old a fossil is 3. The fossils and dates of when the organisms lived

4. Homology= likeness between different species

5. Human humerus bone cats humerus bone

6. Same bones that are possibly shaped and sized differently and they  function differently in the two organisms being compared

7. Vestigial structures: parts in an organism that don’t have a function  how but used to have a job in their ancestors  

8. Picking and choosing which genes are present in domesticated  plants/animals offspring

9. True

10. Traits being passes from parent to offspring


Define strate.



11. Natural selection: Species create too many offspring for the  resources available which causes competition for survival. Those who  win that competition have babies and pass their traits on while those  who lost die before creating offspring with their traits.  

12. False: Populations evolve not individuals

13. Prokaryotes

14. Crossing over, independent assortment, and random fertilization 15. Organisms in the same species that all live in the same habitat  that mate with each other

16. All the genes within a population; has all alleles in the current  population

17. A change in the gene pool

18. The amount of each variation of a trait in a population  19. p2+ 2pq+ q2= 1  If you want to learn more check out A band issued on 12/1/1996 will mature on 12/1/2096. today is 12/1/2003, what is the band's time to maturity?
If you want to learn more check out Who is the director of the fsa?

p= how often the homozygous dominants show up


What is a fossil record?



pq= how often the heterozygous dominant shows up

q= how often the homologous  

20. the change in the amount of each allele is present in a small  population  

21. Bottleneck: sudden extreme declines in populations Founder: when a small group from a large population moves to a new  habitat (the small population that leaves will not have the same  amount of alleles present in their gene pool compared to the one in the large population they left)

22. The change in the gene pool when fertile organisms join or leave  a population (causes less diversity between genes in other populations 23. False; natural selection is NOT random

24. The genes from an individual in a gene pool compared to other  genes given to the same gene pool by another individual

25. Stabilizing selection, directional selection, and disruptive  selection

Stabilizing selection: gets rid of the extremes; reduces variation in a  population (mouse example: got rid of super light and dark mice)  Directional selection: gets rid of one extreme; happens a lot in  specific habitats that animals need camouflage; happens when the  environment is changing (Example: the light mice are gone while the  dark and medium colored mice are still present)

Disruptive Selection: get rid of the “normal” phenotype; 2 extremes  are favored (ex: the medium colored mouse is taken away while the  light and dark colored mice are favored) If you want to learn more check out Why not paying for stories?

26. It is like natural selection for mating… some organisms have  more desirable traits so they are more likely to gain a mate 27. The differences between a male and a female’s appearance in a  species (ex: often times males are larger than females) Example: a  male peacock has colorful feathers while the female does not 28. Competition with the same sex to “win” a mate (this can be  physical fighting, dancing, ect) If you want to learn more check out What are the four options for increasing line production?

29. When an organism (usually a female) chooses a mate due to  appearance or behavior (example: peacock with the most colorful  feathers usually finds a mate)

30. Often times these showy feathers or other assets attract not only mates but predators. The species don’t evolve because the colorful  feathers also attract mates which obviously results in more animals  with the colorful feathers or whatever quality it may be

31. Having diploid cells helps adaption organisms continue to have  variation. Any heterozygous alleles have a recessive trait that is hidden by the dominant phenotype. Often times the recessive allele isn’t the  best for a specific environment but if the environment changes the  recessive gene could be more advantageous. Hence why it is good to  keep this recessive allele in the gene pool.

32. When natural selection keeps more than one phenotype allele  present equally in a population.

33. When organisms with heterozygous alleles produce more than  those with homozygous alleles within a population  

34. Keeps 2 phenotypes in a population as equal as possible… the  organisms with the lesser phenotype have the advantage though 35. False; evolution doesn’t create or destroy body parts, it uses  what is already present. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the conversion of an alkene to alkane?

36. Changes in traits between generations

37. When 1 species splits and creates 2 or more new species (still  has many of the same characteristics)

38. Multiple populations that have the ability to mate with one  another and produce fertile offspring  

39. Attempts to prevent gene flow and keeps species from  interacting

40. When two 2 species breed with on another their offspring is  called a hybrid

41. 2 problems:

a. How do we know if animals who we only have fossils of could  interbreed?

b. Cannot describe any species who asexually reproduce  42. Doesn’t have to do with reproduction; uses shape, size, and  other phenotypic features to determine species; used for sexual,  asexual, fossils, ect.

43. All subjective (due to phenotypic features) so one’s opinion may  not align with someone else’s

44. Sorted by ecological niches/roles within a specific habitat  45. A group that shares a common ancestor, they make their own  branch on the tree of life

46. Prevention of mating between different species 47. Occurs after fertilization of a hybrid has already happened 48. Habitat: living in different habitats doesn’t allow for breeding We also discuss several other topics like Compare pluralist & elitist explanations of agenda-setting.

Temporal: mating happens at different seasons of the year Behavioral: different mating rituals; cannot attract another species due to that

Mechanical: the reproductive parts do not work together Gametes: the eggs and sperm do not work together

49. Reduced Hybrid viability: do not have the proper genes to survive long enough to reproduce

Reduced hybrid fertility: they are able to survive perfectly but are  unable to reproduce

Hybrid breakdown: the original hybrids are viable and can reproduce  but their offspring aren’t able to survive and reproduce

50. Allopatric speciation: also known as geographic speciation…  occurs when a species is split due to a geographic barrier and a new  species is formed

51. Ex: mountain ranges or islands

52. Depends on the animal’s ability to move (ex: a rodent may see a  mountain range as a barrier whereas a mountain lion would not) 53. If one species is split into 2 habitats their food sources will differ,  eventually they will begin to digest those foods easier as a population.  If the 2 groups are brought back together they are more likely to mate  with ones with the same food source and digestive abilities.  54. Sympatric speciation: when a new species is created in the same place as its “parent” species (usually happens when gene flow  between the populations are decreased)

55. They have unique climates and environments so the organisms  living on the island have to adapt to these environments often time  creating new species.

56. Evolution of species from 1 common ancestor

57. Places, where different species meet and mate, producing a  hybrid offspring  

58. 3 steps:

a. A few populations have similar gene pools

b. The populations are separated and adapt and change over time c. Later the species meet up again in a hybrid zone

59. 3 outcomes:

a. reinforcement: when the hybrid off springs aren’t equipped to  survive the reproductive barriers may be reinforced in order to  prevent more inadequate hybrids to be created

b. Fusion: when the 2 species gene pools pretty much go back to  being one (reverse speciation) (could be positive or negative) c. Stability: hybrids are produced… allows for some gene pool  sharing but still have 2 species  

60. A time in which a fossil doesn’t show evolution that are  interrupted by periods of change.

61. Life:

a. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules (Ex: nucleotides) b. Molecules attached creating polymers (ex: proteins)

c. When they joined the makeup of these droplets containing a  membrane was different than anything else on Earth

d. This created an organism that could self-replicate lead to  inheritance of genes

62. True

63. RNA replication

a. RNA monomers attach to clay

b. Randomly monomers join to create a gene

c. Then a complementary RNA strand is created

64. Patterns of changes on Earth

65. 4 eons:

a. Hadean (4.6  4 billion years ago)

b. Archean (4 2.5 billion years ago)

c. Proterozoic (2.5.5 billion years ago)

d. Phanerozoic (.5 billion years ago present)

66. On earth by themselves for 3.52 billion years ago a. Photosynthetic prokaryotes

i. Created an abundance of oxygen

ii. Most prokaryotes cannot live with oxygen (oxygen=poison) so many kinds went extinct

iii. Eventually, cellular respiration was evolutionized allowing  some prokaryotes to live in oxygen

67. 1.8 billion years ago, single-celled eukaryotes were created when prokaryotes began to live with oxygen (aerobic) and became larger in  size

68. Method to date rocks, looks at the decay of radioactive isotopes  (all living organisms have isotopes and some are radioactive so when  they die those radioactive isotopes begin to breakdown)

69. The amoun of time it takes for half of the radioactive isotope to  decay (ex: carbon 14= 5,730 years)

70. The order fossils are found within the layers of rock 71. When things happened, when organisms were created, dates,  ect.

72. 3 eras:

a. Paleozoic: ancient animal (mostly water animals)

b. Mesozoic: middle animal (reptiles)

c. Cenozoic: recent animal (mammals, birds, insects)

73. Layers of the Earth:

a. Crust: continents and sea floor

b. Mantle: under the crust; hot, thick material

c. Outer Core: liquid

d. Inner Core: Solid

74. The Earth’s crust is broken up into large plates that are just  resting on the mantle

75. When the mantle moves so does the tectonic plates; sometimes  they move apart, other times they move together. When plates slide  past one another it causes earthquakes and if plates hit each other  mountain ranges can form.

76. Consequences:

a. 250 million years ago the super continent (aka Pangea): i. caused all shallow water habitats to diminish

ii. the middle of the super continent was cold and dry  

iii. caused major evolution and extinction due to so many  habitat changes

b. When Pangea split:

i. The habitats began to change again

ii. Isolation of species also occurred

c. 65 million years ago our continents today were beginning to take shape:

i. Indian plate and Eurasian plates collided creating the  Himalayas

1. Still getting taller each year

77. The study of where (location) animals were and are now 78. Reasons for extinction:

a. Habitat change

b. Climate change

c. Changes in predator or new predators arise

79. When there is a change and a majority of species goes extinct 80. Permian and Cretaceous

81. 2 major mass extinctions

a. Permian

i. Volcanic eruptions (Siberia)

ii. The CO2 released by all these eruptions warmed the Earth  (6 degrees Celsius)

iii. The lava covered large amounts of land

iv. The warming depleted the O2 levels in the oceans killing  most marine animals

1. Lack of oxygen made anaerobic bacteria thrive and  

their by-product is a poisonous substance, hydrogen  

sulfide, which left the ocean and killed many plants  

and animals

2. Also hydrogen sulfide harmed the ozone layer

82. Cretaceous

a. Many think an asteroid hit Earth

b. Caused a cloud of hot vapor and debris that killed most  everything on Earth

83. Consequences:

a. Biodiversity is ruined

b. Change in evolution

c. Kill off complex ecosystems  

d. 5-10 million years to return to the biodiversity and complex  ecosystems after a mass extinction

84. Occurs after a mass extinction when the few species left have to  evolve to survive

a. Mammals thrived following the extinction of the dinosaurs b. Insects are the most diverse animal on Earth

85. To look at small changes in genes that are causing large  structural changes

86. The changing of how an animal grows from a child to an adult a. With evolution some of the “child” aspects may be present on an adult animal

b. The rate at which the body parts grow changes with evolution as  well  

87. Homeotic gene=controls where everything on your body goes  (ex: decides where the wings on a bird goes)

a. Changes in this gene have a large effect on a species  88. When a gene is mutated it causes changes to a species a. If a gene is duplicated it could create a whole new species i. When a gene was duplicated in an invertebrate it created  the vertebrate

89. Often the change in gene regulation of a species creates a new  species

a. Mutations often cause problems with regular gene development 90. False; evolution isn’t goal oriented; it occurs when an  environment changes

91. Evolutionary history

92. Convergent evolution:

a. When animals from different ancestors have a lot of the same  structures due to living in the same environment and natural  selection causing them to have the same adaptations

93. A section of biology that classifies species and their evolutionary  patterns

94. Binomial

95. 1st word in a specie’s scientific name; genus= group of related  species

96. 2nd word in a specie’s scientific name; specific epithet= this tells  each species apart within a group (genus)

97. Hierarchy of Categories

a. Family

b. Order

c. Class

d. Phyla

e. Kingdom

f. Domain

98. Used to predict or show current animals and link them back to  their common ancestors

99. The most common way to sort species  

a. Uses common ancestors to group

b. Each group of organisms= clade

100. A trait shared with more than one group and the trait cannot  determine one group from another (ex: both mammals and vertebrates have backbones so you cannot use that trait to determine between the two)

101. A trait the descendants of a common ancestor all have but the  common ancestor didn’t  

102. Have to compare the out group to the in group: a. Out group: the species in the tree that came prior to the species  we are looking at  

b. In group: the species we are looking at

103. Simplest expression of the life processes or characteristics a. Used to create trees with small amounts of evolutionary change 104. No matter how much evidence we have about species  phylogenetic trees can always change

105. Uses a molecular makeup within a species (such as DNA) to  compare it to the other species with the same common ancestor 106. An estimation of how long it will take for evolution to happen 107. Three Domain System:

i. Archaea (Prokaryotes)

ii. Bacteria (prokaryotes)

iii. Eukarya (eukaryotes)

108. Horizontal gene transfers; viral infection or fusion of organisms 109. Study of how organisms associate and function with their  environment

110. Biotic: the living parts of an environment and Abiotic: the  nonliving parts of an environment

111. Organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere 112. Looks at a single organism to see how it is adapting to  challenges it is faced with in its environment

113. A group of organisms that is studied to see how the group can be affected (positively/negatively)

114. All of the populations which interact with each other in an  environment (all the biotic factors within the habitat)

115. Both biotic and abiotic factors with in an environment (ex:  looking to see how the energy flows through an ecosystem)  116. Multiple ecosystems studied to see where an ecosystem starts  and ends

117. Everything on Earth and how we interact

118. The sun

119. Temperature effects metabolism of organisms greatly; if it is 0  degrees Celsius and below organisms cannot function. If it is 45  degrees Celsius and above enzymes with in organism’s body are  destroyed

120. Not enough oxygen within the water

121. Near the equator, doesn’t have different seasons; usually warm  all year round

122. Light wind at the Equator

123. Rainforests are located near the equator because the temp. and  energy received often makes it rain

124. Cool winds created by dry air from the deserts go back toward  the equator where they are warmed back up and moisture is picked up  by this air

125. It is located between the equator and the poles. They have all 4  seasons (spring, summer, fall, winter)

126. Rise and falling of air masses create patterns along with the  Earth’s tilt/movement

127. Winds that blow west east

128. Created through the prevailing wind patterns (westerlies, trade  winds, and doldrums), the heating of water, and where the continents  are and their shape

129. False

130. The effect of abiotic factors

131. Pelagic realm: open water where zooplankton, fish, and marine  mammals live

Benthic realm: seafloor where sponges, burrow worms, clams, and  crabs live (no sunlight reaches here)

Photic Zone: 200m of light penetration includes the pelagic realm Continental shelves: very shallow waters

Aphotic zone: below the photic zone; not enough sunlight for  photosynthesis (little amount of light though

Below 1000 m the ocean is completely dark (zero light)

132. Intertidal zone: where ocean meets land

133. River merges with ocean; this is the most productive biome on  Earth due to the varying amounts of saltiness

134. The place where a marine or freshwater source meets land  (aquatic ecosystem and terrestrial ecosystem

135. 1% of Earth; .01% of water on Earth; need them for drinking  water, many organisms live here; 2 categories= Lakes and ponds and  River and streams

136. organism and plants are in certain places due to water depth and distance from shore

a. photic zone: phytoplankton and plants often grow close to shore b. some lakes and ponds aren’t deep enough or murky enough to  have an aphotic zone (where photosynthesis cannot occur) c. benthic realm: microorganisms help to decompose any dead  organisms on the bottom of the lake or pond

137. there are layers of warm and cold water

i. the top layer of water is warm in the summer due to the  sun but if you swim deeper you will feel the change  

between the warm layer to the cold layer where sun  

doesn’t reach

138. major changes between where the river/stream begins to where  it meets a lake/ponds

i. near the beginning of a river/stream the water is cold,  clear, and have little to no nutrients  

ii. narrow

iii. fast current

iv. phytoplankton grow here

v. anything that lives here uses photosynthetic algae as  support for life

vi. trout live here; feed on insect larvae

b. down streams

i. widens

ii. slows

iii. warmer, murkier water

iv. catfish, frogs, fish, insects that burrow in mud are  

abundant here

139. Tropical forests: close to the equator, warm temperatures, long  days all year long

a. Two types:

i. Little rain: Tropical Dry forest

ii. Lots of rains: Tropical Rainforest

140. Tropical dry forest

i. Thorny shrubs

ii. Deciduous trees

iii. Succulents

141. Tropical Rainforest

i. Very humid

ii. 79-159 inches of rain each year

iii. 300 species of tree in 2.5

iv. has many layers with different habitats

1. contains a closed canopy

2. a little sun reaches the forest floor

3. many animals live in the trees

a. more food

b. safety

c. shelter

142. contains grasslands with scattered trees

i. warm temp. all year

ii. only 12-20 inches of rain per year

1. usually all at once or over a small period of time

iii. not good soil

1. also fires and animals inhibit the ability for trees to  

grow

143. The point where grasses actually grow from are below ground;  are able to live through a drought

144. Driest biome; little rainfall and it is random timing when rain  does fall;  

i. usually less than 12 inches of rain per year

ii. can occur on the far side of mountains where rain never  reaches

iii. the temp. in a desert can reach 140 degrees Fahrenheit  during the day

iv. other deserts reach -22 degrees Fahrenheit at night

v. plant life is dependent on rainfall

1. zero rainfall= little to no vegetation

2. little rainfall= cactus, succulents, and other plants  

that store water

145. desertification: when a semiarid region changes into a desert due to humans

146. a place with evergreen shrubs (dense, spiny leaves) i. climate= cool ocean currents

1. mild/rainy winters

2. hot/dry summers

ii. coastal areaslargest one= Mediterranean

iii. animals: deer, fruit-eating birds, lizard, snakes

147. has to adapt due to fires; so plants keep food stored underground in their roots to be able to rebuild quickly

148. closely related to savannas but without trees (trees are only  present around rivers and streams)

i. 10-30 inches of rain a year (droughts are common)

ii. fires and grazing animals effect the ability to grow trees

iii. animals:

1. bison, wild horses, sheep, birds, small mammals (live underground)

iv. very good soil

1. lots of microorganisms and insects

v. amount of rain determines how tall the grass in a specific  prairie is

149. places with plenty of water to grow large trees  i. contains trees which have leaves that fall off in the  

fall/winter seasons

ii. depending on climate, soil, ect the trees are different iii. Climate:

1. Cold winters

2. Hot summers

3. 30-60 inches of rain per year

a. continues regularly throughout the year

150. coniferous forests are dominated by a few species of trees i. evergreens, pine, fir, and hemlock

151. Taiga= largest land biome

i. Cool, high elevations (mountains)

ii. Long cold winters and short wet summers

iii. Precipitation= snow

152. Between the Taiga and polar ice (no trees present) i. Climate:

1. Extremely cold

2. Little sunlight in fall and winter

ii. Contains permafrost

iii. Animals:

1. Musk, oxen, caribou, rodents, fox, snowy owl

153. Permafrost= frozen subsoil

i. Little precipitation (as much as desert) but it never drains  due to the frozen soil  

ii. Plants cannot root very far down

154. North of tundra (lots of the Atlantic is frozen), Antarctica i. Climate:

1. Cold; little precipitation

ii. Some mosses and other plants are able to grow here iii. Animals

1. Seals, penguins, marine birds, and polar bears

155. The water cycle

156. A group of organisms in the same species that live in the same  habitat

157. Increasing: immigration and birth

158. Decreasing: emigration and death

159. Used to create an estimate of how many organisms are in an  environment

i. It is the # of individuals of a species per unit area

160. 3 dispersion patterns:

a. Clumped dispersion pattern: (most common dispersion in nature) the organism is clumped in groups throughout the habitat;  usually due to resources

b. Uniform dispersion pattern: basically the same distance between  individuals

c. Random dispersion pattern: randomly in the environment (ex:  weeds)

161. Survivorship Curves:

a. Type 1: parental care, only have a few offspring (ex: people) b. Type 2: they have a random chance of dying at anytime c. Type 3: no parental care; have lots of babies; short life spans 162. Exponential  

163. J-shape

164. G=rN

165. G= growth rate of population

N= population size

r= per capita rate of increase (# of offspring a female has)  166. G= rN ((K-N)/K)

167. S-curved graph

168. K=carrying capacity the max amount of organisms within a  species an environment can support

169. Density-dependent processes

i. As the # of individuals increase some process has a higher  impact if there are more individuals in an environment

170. Competing for limited resources between the same species i. Density-dependent factor

171. Density-independent factors= usually weather or natural  disasters (droughts, fires, seasonal changes, ect)

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