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Exam 3 Study Guide

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by: Angella Notetaker

Exam 3 Study Guide Biol 2312

Angella Notetaker

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Review of respiratory, circulatory and urinary systems
Introduction to Modern Biology II
Michelle Wilson
Study Guide
50 ?




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"Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this..."
Dr. Rudolph Hudson

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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angella Notetaker on Friday April 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2312 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Michelle Wilson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Biology II in Natural Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this...

-Dr. Rudolph Hudson


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Date Created: 04/08/16
Respiratory System  How fish work o Gills (lamellae): better system than mammals o Blood and oxygenated water run countercurrent   Creates gradient  How mammals work o Lungs (aveoli)  ΔpA/d = diffusion o Air entering: 105 mmHg O , 42 mmHg CO 2 o Blood entering: 40 mmHg O , 462mmHg CO 2 o Blood leaving: 100 mmHg O , 402mmHg CO 2 Lung Structure  Visceral pleural membrane  o Attached to parietal pleural membrane o Pulls on lungs during inhalation so they expand  Negative pressure breathing (up volume inside, drop pressure inside) o Rate and depth controlled by medulla oblongata  Can be somatic (hyper and hypoventilation)  External intercostal muscles for inhaling and exhaling  Internal intercostal muscles for coughing  Tidal volume and vital capacity Respiration occurs in response to CO2 evels in the blood  Signaled by changes in pH o Too low=inhale; too high=exhale o pH measured at the carotid, aorta and cerebrospinal fluid COPD  Asthma  Emphysema  Lung cancer Hemoglobin  Keeps most of oxygen as a reserve  Affinity to oxygen affected by pH and temperature CO 2transport  Most diffuses into red blood cells (carbonic anhydrase) o Helps create blood buffer Blood  Erthrocytes, leukocytes, platelets o Platelets release prothombin which is activated into thrombin which turns the  inactive fibrogen into fibrin for clotting Circulatory Systems  Open and closed circulatory systems o Closed has directionality and creates metabolism  Vertabrates o Fish: sinus venosus, atrium, conus arteriosus, ventricle  Blood slows down at gills for gas exchange then speeds up again  Helped along by muscle contractions o Amphibians: double circuit (lungs) o Mammals, birds, crocodilians: 4 chambered heart (full septum)  SA and AV nodes are the electrical system  Coronary arteries are only supply of blood  Cardiac Cycle  Ventricles relaxed (diastole) ventricles contract (systole)  Systole can be affected with the somatic nervous system Lymphatic system moves water back to vessels Osmolality  Freshwater: hypertonic to environment  Marine: hypotonic to environment  Cartilaginous: osmoconformers; reabsorb urea  Terrestrial: have to not dry out o Nitrogenous waste: ammonia (toxic), urea, uric acid  Insects o Malpighian tubules: create gradient  Kidneys o Blood turned into filtrate at glomerulus  Push everything out and pick back up what is necessary o Loop of Henle  Creates salt gradient to maximize water reabsorption  Cortical and juxtamedullary  Juxtamedullary has longer loops and blood runs countercurrent  along it to maintain salt gradient o DCT and CT  Talk to the rest of the body through hormones  Fine tuning  Things that go wrong o Glucose in urine: too much in blood; amount of glucose is too much for transport  proteins to uptake o Blood in urine: high BP or kidney stones (calcitonin problem) o Low urine pH: low blood pH Hormones  ADH o Increase in osmolarity of blood o Creates aquaporins in CT o Increase water reabsorption  Aldosterone + o Low levels of Na o Reabsorb more salt ions o Sensor is located near glomerulus  ANH o Antagonistic to aldosterone o High BP (volume too high) o Gets rid of Na  and water


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