Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Psy 2012
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsay Everest on Monday December 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 2012 at University of South Florida taught by Jennifer Bosson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Florida.
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PSY 2012 Bosson Introduction to Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide For her Intro to Psych class Dr Bosson has students watch videos about how to study best and includes questions from these videos on her exam Some of this information is also covered in her lecture material Below are notes on these videos and the accompanying lecture material Video 1 Beliefs that make you fail or succeed 0 Always plan enough time for review careful reading and review for full comprehension will take more time than you think 0 Don t simply try to memorize information Knowledge is not composed of merely isolated facts even if these facts are important 0 Time Hard work success You don t have to be innately good at a subject to succeed 0 You are not as good at multitasking as you think 0 Metacognition a student s awareness of their level of understanding of a topic Don t underprepare Don t be overconfident High school study habits at College study habits f What strategies work best for me on essay exams How much time will It take me to study Memtzatton omitting Mnemonbcs Diagtammhg Selltesting Estimate time needed Set pnomtes Schedule time Video 2 What students should know about how people learn 0 DEEPER PROCESSING leads to BETTER RECALL Deep Processing Shallow Processing Focus on subjective meaning Focus on meaningless aspects of Making connections between new information knowledge and past knowledge Basic memorization reiteration 0 Most important factor for success when studying what you think about Minimize distractions and maximize focus Develop accurate metacognition Execute deep processing of critical concepts Practice retrieval and application Video 3 Cognitive principles for optimizing learning 0 Elaboration how does this concept relate to other concepts Distinctiveness how is this concept different from other concepts Personal how can I relate this concept to my personal experience Appropriate to Retrieval and Application how am I expected to apply this concept Practice study skills until they become automatic Overlearning prevents forgetting information Video 4 Putting principles for optimizing learning into practice 0 Question Generation complex questions preferable 0 Make Concept Maps 0 Practice Retrieving Information in way teacher expects Practice without referring to notes Practice using information Video 5 I Blew the Exam Now What The Don ts The Do s 0 Don t panic 0 Do examine how you prepared 0 Don t go into denial be honest 0 Do review the exam compare errors with notes taken 0 Do talk with your professor 0 Do examine your study habits 0 Do develop a plan 0 Helpful strategies to Raise Your Grade Commit time and effort Minimize distractions Attend class Set realistic class Set realistic goals Don t begins to slide Don t give away points CHAPTER ONE Section One Evolution of Science I II III IV PSYCHOLOGY is the scientific study of the IND and BEHAVIOR MIND private inner experience of BEHAVIOR observable actions of perceptions thoughts memories human beings and nonhuman and feelings animals What are the bases of perceptions thoughts memories and feeling or our subjective sense of self Psychologists know that all of our subjective experiences arise from the electrical and chemical activities of our brains How does the mind usually allow us to function effectively in the world Psychological processes are said to be adaptive which means that they promote the welfare and reproduction of organisms that engage in those processes eg language enables us to form social groups and cooperate memory allows us to avoid solving the same problems repeatedly Why does the mind occasionally function so ineffectively in the world When we are not actively focused on what we are saying or doing we may rely on well learned habits that we execute automatically or without really thinking Section Two Historical Roots of Psychology 1 11 What fundamental question has puzzled philosophers for millennia A NATIVISM the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate B PHILOSOPHICAL EMPIRICISM the view that all knowledge is acquired through experience Connecting the Brain to the Mind A DUALISM the problem of how mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behavior that arose when Descartes argued that the body and the mind are fundamentally different things B Franz Joseph Gall suggested the mind in uenced the body via the pineal gland C Gall also developed the theory of PHRENOLOGY a now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics are localized in specific regions of III IV VI VII VIII the brain and that the size of bumps or indentations on the skull re ected the size of the brain regions beneath them STRUCTURALISM the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind A Helmholtz measured the speed of responses to stimulus of various parts of the body and found that they were different This was significant because scientists at the time assumed all neurological processes must be instantaneous Helmholtz demonstrated that reaction time could be a useful way to study the mind and brain B Analyzing CONSCIOUSNESS a person s subjective experience of the world and the mind 1 The method of study is INTROSPECTION the subjective observation of one s own experience without interpretation which was used to study Structuralism requires people to focus on a stimulus and list basic elements of the stimulus that are noticed eg apple is crisp cold red 2 Structuralism faded in popularity due to its introspective method as science requires replicable observations William james believed that trying to isolate and analyze a particular moment of consciousness as Structuralism does distorted its essential nature He applied Darwin s theory of natural selection to the study of the mind and developed FUNCTIONALISM the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment james coined the term quotstream of consciousness as a result of this PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY an approach that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings thoughts and behaviors A Developed by Freud who theorized that many of a patient s problems could be traced to the effects of painful childhood experiences that the person could not remember B Suggested that the powerful in uence of these seemingly lost memories revealed the presence of an UNCONSCIOUS the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but in uences conscious thoughts feelings and actions BEHAVIORISM advocated that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior A Watson thought that a focus on behavior would encourage psychologists to develop practical applications in such areas as business medicine law and education B Pavlov s and Skinner s experiments became the building blocks of the theories of Watson and other behaviorists which is why behaviorism is sometimes called StimulusResponse Psychology Maslow and Rogers pioneered HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings grew in in uence during 1940s1980s due to expansion of sociallegal Civil Rights women s rights sexual rights etc The Cognitive Revolution 1960s 9 present A COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY the study of mental processes such as perception thought memory and reasoning B Computer provided the model for theorizing about unobservable mental activities like remembering evaluating assessing thinking believing language etc IX The Rise of Cognitive Neuroscience A BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE an approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes Methods oftesting include 1 Recording electrical chemical responses in the brains of animals performing certain tasks 2 Observing the effects of brain damage in humans 3 Noninvasive brain scanning techniques developed in the 1980s B Experiments like those that used brain scanning techniques to identify the brain hemispheres involvement in learning language inspired the development of COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE field of study that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity Section Three Subareas of Psychology and their Approaches I CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY study and or treat psychological disorders and mental illnesses Developed from observations of HYSTERIA a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences II COUNSELING study and or treat problems of lifequot eg stress grief shyness III BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY brain and nervous system activity in uence behavior and mental processes includes all fields of neuroscience like Behavioral Neuroscience and Cognitive Neuroscience IV SOCIALPERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY the study of the causes and consequences of sociality and personality traits Clinical neuropsychology V INDUSTRIALORGANIZATIONAL 7 3 Counseling W behavior and functioning 7 Health in business industry settings I 1 VI GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY a psycholog1cal gihoo39mucat39ona39 approach that emphasizes that we often Eggcal 5 quot Other applied subfields perceive the whole rather than the sum of r 2 5 H the parts f sigsmtlve A Basically the mind imposes organization on what it perceives evelopmental 5 B Developed from Werthe1mer s study Eiffer39mema39 and interpretation of W IndustrialOrganizational errors Of perception memory 01 Other research subfields sofia39namplt 4quot judgment in which subjective 7 D so a39y NeurosciencePhysiological 40 Biologica exper1ence d1ffers from obect1ve 3 reality VII EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection inspired by Darwin s theory of natural selection A Evolutionary psychologists think of the mind as a collection of specialized molecules that are designed to solve the specific human problems our ancestor faced eg jealousy led ancestors to guard their mates and aggress rivals subsequently increasing the likelihood that they reproduce and pass on these quotjealous genesquot B Complication All hypotheses cannot be tested VIII CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY study of how much cultures re ect and shape the psychological processes of their members Section Four The Profession of Psychology 1 The American Psychological Association now includes over 150000 members a significant growth since its founding in 1892 11 Through the efforts of pioneers such as Mary Calkins women have come to play an increasingly important role in the field and are not better represented than men Minority involvement in psychology took longer but the pioneering efforts of Francis Cecil Summer Kenneth B Clark and others have led to increased participation of minorities in psychology III Psychologists prepare for research careers through graduate and postdoctoral training and work in a variety of applied settings including schools clinics and industry CHAPTER TWO Aria w i quotLid 2 L y w I 11 HJWUNTHJ Lquotfc lgr bw l 1 1 777E Section One Empiricism I II III IV EMPIRICISM belief that knowledge can be acquired through observation SCIENTIFIC METHOD a procedure for finding truth by using empirical evidence A Empiricism is at the heart of the scientific method which suggests that our theories about the world give rise to falsifiable hypotheses and that we can thus make observations that test those hypotheses The results of these tests can disprove our theories but cannot prove them B After observing a phenomenon develop a HYPOTHESIS specific prediction about what we should observe stated so it can be refuted or supported C The hypothesis should be in tune with certain THEORIES organized sets of principles that describe predict and explain a natural phenomenon The Rule of Parsimony states that one should begin with the simplest theory possible only adding complexity when necessary EMPIRICAL METHOD set of rules and techniques for observation in the hopes of discovering relationships particularly causal relationships between variables What makes humans so difficult to study A Complexity 500 million interconnected neurons constitute the brain and give rise to thoughts feeling and actions B Variability no two individuals ever do say think or feel exactly the same thing under exactly the same circumstances which means that when you ve seen one you ve most definitely not seen them all C Reactivity people often think feel and act one way when they are being observed and a different way when they are not To meet these challenges of studying human behavior psychologists have developed two kinds of methods methods of observation which allow them to determine what people do and methods of explanation which allow them to determine why people do what they do Section Two Methods of Observation Measurement and Description I Measurement requires we define the property generate an operational definition that has validity we wish to measure and then find a way to detect the property design an instrument that has reliability and power A OPERATIONAL DEFINITION a description of a property in concrete measureable terms as opposed to a CONSTRUCT LEVEL DEFINITION which merely describes the variable B INSTRUMENT anything that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers C What are the properties of a good operational definition and instrument 1 Validity the goodness with which a concrete event defines a property eg howl well the frequency of smiling defines happiness 2 Reliability the tendency for an instrument to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing 3 Power an instrument s ability to detect small magnitudes of the property D Common Types of Measures 1 SelfResponse people describe their own thoughts and behaviors 2 Behavioral people emit behaviors which one observed and recorded 3 Physiological record biological processes E DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think someone else wants or expects F In order to avoid demand characteristics psychologists use NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION a technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments This is in contrast to other methods like laboratory research in controlled environment with knowledge of observation survey study via selfreport and case studies intensive examination of a single person group G Observer bias occurs because expectations can in uence observations easy to make errors and expectations can in uence reality may unknowingly do things to in uence outcomes One way to avoid this is the DOUBLEBLIND observation an observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed II Description A Graphic Representations of Measurements 1 FREOUENCY DISTRIBUTION a graphic representation of measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made 2 NORMAL DISTRIBUTION common shape of a frequency distribution in which the frequency of measurements is highest in the middle and decreases symmetrically in both directions B Summary Statements 1 Descriptions of central tendency are statements about the value of the measurements that tend to lie near the center or midpoint of the frequency distribution eg mode mean median 2 Descriptors of variability are statements about the extent to which the measurements differ from each other Descriptors include range and STANDARD DEVIATION a statistic that describes the average difference between the measurements in a frequency distribution and the mean of that distribution Section Three Methods of Explanation I Although the goal is to find causal relationships sometimes you have to do correlational studies because you cannot manipulate all variables eg political II III orientation in voting behavior If you have a strong correlation however you can make a prediction CORRELATION occurs when variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with variations in the value of the other A Direction is easy to measure because the direction of a correlation is either positive or negative A positive correlation exists when two variables have a moreismorequot or quotlessislessquot relationship A negative correlation exists when two variables have a moreislessquot or lessismorequot relationship CORRELATION COEFFICIENT mathematical of both the direction and strength if a correlation symbolized by r 1 Perfect positive correlation r1 perfect negative correlation r1 no correlation r0 2 Strong correlation r09 moderate correlation r07 weak correlation r03 r090 ro5o r000 Y Y Y quot X x X r050 r090 r1oo I Y Y I Y x X x Causation A THIRDVARIABLE PROBLEM a causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the naturally occurring correlation between them because of the everpresent possibility of thirdvariable correlation Experiments solve this thirdvariable problem through the use of control variables random assignment of participants to the experimental and control groups and the measurement of the dependent variable 1 MATCHED SAMPLES TECHNIOUE a technique whereby the participants in two groups are identical in terms of a third variable 2 MATCHED PAIRS TECHNIOUE a technique whereby each participant is identical to one other participant in terms of a third variable 3 These two techniques can be useful but neither eliminates the possibility of THIRDVARIABLE CORRELATION two variables are correlated only because each is causally related to a third variable entirely 4 The best way to understand how experiments eliminate all the differences between groups is by examining their two key features manipulation and random assignment MANIPULATION changing an independent variable in order to determine its causal power on a dependent variable 1 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP the group ofpeople who are exposed to a particular manipulation IV 2 3 CONTROL GROUP the group of people who are not exposed to that particular manipulation This helps to reduce CONFOUND VARIABLES variables other than the independent variable that differ across conditions ie are present in some conditions but not in others D RANDOM ASSIGNMENT a procedure that lets chance assign people to the experimental or the control group increases the likelihood that groups start out equivalent similar because everyone has a roughly equal chance of ending up in any condition E Random assignment solves the problem of SELFSELECTION which occurs when anything about a person determines whether he or she will be included in the experimental or control group If participants decided what group they participated in we would end up with experimental and control groups that differed in countless ways and could possibly produce thirdvariables that are responsible in difference discrepancies in data INTERNAL VALIDITY is an attribute of an experiment that allows it to establish causal relationships in our conclusion A Representative variables 1 EXTERNAL VALIDITY is an attribute of an experiment in which variables have been defined in a normal typical or realistic way that lends real world context and or application to the experiment Most psychologists don t care if an experiment is externally invalid because they re rarely trying to learn about the world by creating tiny replicas of it in their laboratories but are trying to learn about the world by using experiments to test hypotheses derived from theories B Representative people 1 2 Psychologists rarely observe an entire POPULATION but rather a SAMPLE Sometimes individuals are so remarkable that they deserve close study using the CASE METHOD a procedure for gathering scientific information by studying a single individual RANDOM SAMPLING allows us to generalize from the sample to the population Section Four Ethics Institutional Review Board approves certain experiments Informed Consent must be given to participants before they begin any experiment so that they are educated as to any risks benefits of the experiment Riskbenefit analysis participants may be asked to accept small risks eg minor shock small embarrassment etc but may not be asked to accept large risks eg severe pain psychological trauma etc or any risk than they would ordinarily take in their daily lives Deception can only be used when justified by the study s scientific educational or applied value and when alternative procedures are not feasible Debriefing must occur after experiment if deception is used I II III IV CHAPTER THREE Section One Neurons NEURONS cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform informationprocessing tasks I II III IV E t Lbs11qu Enid 39 Filpte p g g I 7v New A J 39 GEM yr F f lfi r quot a l i l a u r ili 7 l r aquot t a E a it l M i Hu eus heath Components of a Neuron A 900 P19 F CELL BODY SOMA coordinates the informationprocessing tasks and keeps the cell alive protein synthesis energy production metabolism etc occurs here NUCLEUS houses chromosomes that contain DNA DENDRITES receive information from other neurons and relay it to the cell body AXON carries information to other neurons muscles or glands MYELIN SHEATH an insulating layer of fatty material composed of GLIAL CELLS support cells found in the nervous system that serve a variety of functions digest parts of dead neurons provide physical and nutritional support for neurons form myelin to help the axon carry information more efficiently SYNAPSE junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another Types of Neurons A C SENSORY NEURONS receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord have specialized endings on dendrites that receive signals for light sound taste touch smell etc INTERNEURONS connect sensory neurons motor neurons or other interneurons in which case interneurons work together in small circuits to perform simple tasks like identify the location of a sensory signal or recognize a familiar face MOTOR NEURONS carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement Within a neuron signals are sent electrically Between neurons signals are sent chemically Section Two Electrochemical Processes of Neurons CONDUCTION and TRANSMISSION I CONDUCTION is the movement of an electric signal within neurons from the dendrites to the cell body then throughout the axon A RESTING POTENTIAL the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron s cell membrane B 1 In the resting state there is a high concentration of K and A39 inside the neuron s cell membrane compared to outside it which has a high concentration of Na and Cl In the resting state the channels that allow K molecules to ow freely across the cell membrane are open while channels that allow the ow of Na are generally closed Because of the naturally higher concentration of K molecules inside the neuron some K molecules move out of the neuron through the open channels leaving the inside of the neuron with a charge of about 70 millivolts relative to the outside which is the potential energy that will be used to generate the action potential ACTION POTENTIAL an electric signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron s axon to a synapse 1 Electric stimulation of the neuron shuts down the K channels and opens the Na channels allowing Na to rush in and increase the charge inside the axon relative to the outside triggering the action potential The ow of Na into the axon pushes the action potential to its maximum value of 40 millivolts After the action potential reaches its maximum the membrane channels return to their original state and K ows out until the axon returns to its resting potential This leaves a lot of extra Na ions inside the axon and a lot of extra K ions outside the axon During this time when the neurons are imbalances the neuron cannot initiate another action potential so it is said to be in a REFRACTORY PERIOD The imbalance in ions is eventually reversed by an active chemical pump in the cell membrane that moves Na outside the axon and moves K inside the axon the pump does not operate during the action potential How does the electric charge move down the axon When an electric current passes down the length of a myelinated axon the charge seems to jump from node to node rather than having to traverse the entire axon This process is called salutatory conduction and it helps speed the ow of information down the axon II TRANSMISSION is the movement of electric signals from one neuron to another over the synapse A Synaptic transmission begins when the action potential travels down the axon and stimulates the release of neurotransmitters from vesicles These neurotransmitters oat across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on a nearby dendrite of the postsynaptic neuron A new action potential is initiated in that neuron and the process continues down the neuron s axon to the next synapse and the next neuron B C Neurotransmitters leave the synapse through three processes 1 Reuptake occurs when the terminal buttons of the presynaptic neuron s axon reabsorbs neurotransmitters 2 Neurotransmitters can be destroyed by enzymes in a process called enzyme deactivation in the synapse 3 Neurotransmitters can bind to the receptor sites called autoreceptors on the presynaptic neurons that signal the neuron to stop releasing the neurotransmitter when excess is present What tells the dendrites which of the neurotransmitters ooding into the synapse to receive 1 Neurons tend to form pathways in the brain that are characterized by specific types of neurotransmitters 2 Neurotransmitters and receptor sites act like a lockandkey system a particular neurotransmitter will only quotfitquot into a specific receptor site on a dendrite Section Three Neurotransmitters Types of Neurotransmitters I II A F G ACETYLCHOLINE Achl involved in voluntary motor control and contributes to the regulation of attention learning sleeping dreaming and memory Curare is an antagonist DOPAMINE regulates motor behavior motivation pleasure and emotional arousal nicotine and cocaine are agonists GLUTAMATE primary excitatory neurotransmitter enhances the transmission of information between neurons GABA primary inhibitory neurotransmitter tends to stop the firing of neurons NOREPINEPHRINE particularly involved in states of vigilance or a heightened awareness of dangers in the environment SEROTONIN involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness eating and aggressive behavior ENDORPHINS chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain How do drugs mimic neurotransmitters A AGONISTS drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter 1 Prozac Zoloft blocks the reuptake of serotonin 2 L dopa acts as an agonist for dopamine and is used in the alleviation of Parkinson s symptoms 3 Amphetamine stimulates the release of norepinephrine and dopamine B ANTAGONISTS drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter Section Four The Nervous System NERVOUS SYSTEM an interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CNS the part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord 1 II 111 Section Five The Brain 1 II III Regulates the PNS Connections between the sensory inputs and motor neurons in the spinal cord mediate SPINAL REFLEXES simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM PNS the part of the nervous system that connects the CNS to the body s organs and muscles A SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM set of nerves that conveys information between voluntary muscles and the CNS humans have conscious control over this system B AUTOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels body organs and glands C SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM set of nerves that prepares the body for action in challenging or threatening quot ightorfightquot situations dilates pupils relaxes bronchi accelerates heartbeat stimulates glucose release stimulates secretion of epinephrinenorepinephrine suppresses responses to pain D PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM helps the body return to normal resting state contracts pupils constricts bronchi slows heartbeat wgt Brain Facts A Adult brain weighs 34 pounds B Floats in cerebrospinal uid C Contains 100200 billion neurons D Structured into three sections Hindbrain Midbrain and Forebrain HINDBRAIN area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord controls basic functions of life respiration alertness and motor skills A MEDULLA extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate circulation and respiration B RETICULAR FORMATION cluster of neurons that regulate sleep wakefulness and levels of arousal C CEREBELLUM controls fine motor skills D PONS relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain MIDBRAIN central location of neurotransmitters involved in arousal mood and motivation and the brain structures that rely on them A TECTUM orients organism in the environment receives stimulus input from sensory organs and moves the organism in a coordinated way toward the stimulus eg you hear a sound and turn toward where it s coming from B TEGMENTUM involved in movement and arousal also helps to orient an rganism toward sensory stimuli 39 Hindbrain Forebrain Midbraim tormauon Cerebclum IV FOREBRAIN highest level of the brain controls complex cognitive emotional sensory and motor functions A SUBCORTICAL STRUCTURES areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the center of the brain 1 THALAMUS relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex HYPOTHALAMUS regulates body temperature hunger thirst and sexual behavior as well as blood sugar levels metabolism etc HIPPOCAMPUS critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex AMYGDALA located at the tip of each horn of the hippocampus plays a central role in many emotional processes particularly the formation of emotional memories attaches significance to previously neutral events that are associated with fear punishment and reward B CEREBRAL CORTEX outermost layer of the brain visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres contralateral control each hemisphere controls the functions of the opposite side of the body commissures bundles of axons that make communication between parallel areas of the cortex in each hemisphere possible the largest one is the CORPUS COLLOSUM 1 OCCIPITAL LOBE processes visual information contains the visual cortex 2 PARIETAL LOBE processes information about touch contains the somatosensory cortex 3 TEMPORAL LOBE responsible for hearing and language contains the auditory cortex and Wernicke s Area located only in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere responsible for speech comprehension 4 FRONTAL LOBE specialized areas for movement abstract thinking planning memory and judgment contains the motor cortex and Broca s Area located only in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere responsible for speech production C Organization within specific lobes 1 ASSOCIATION AREAS composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in primary sensory cortices visual somatosensory auditory Wernicke s Area motor Broca s Area MIRROR NEURONS active when an animal performs a behavior such as reaching for or manipulating an object also activated when another animal observes that animal performing the same behavior found in the parietal and frontal lobes D Sensory cortices are not fixed and can adapt to changes in sensory inputs a quality known as PLASTICITY 1 Ex If you lose a finger the neurons of the somatosensory cortex associated with that finger will become responsive to the stimulation of adjacent fingers 2 Ex Concert pianists have highly developed cortical areas for finger control the continued input from the fingers commands a larger area of representation in the somatosensory cortices The motor and sensory cortexes and the association areas for each Central sulcus Motor Cortex Somatic motor Sensory Cortex association area Somatic sensory association area Gustatory Cortex Olfactory Cortex Visual Cortex Primary visual cortex Visual association area Auditory Cortex Primary auditory cortex TEMPORAL LOBE Auditory association area 2011 Pearson Educahon Inc Section Six Ways of Learning about the Brain 1 Case Studies of Brains that have suffered damage in specific areas A Phineas Gage suffered a personality change after an accident while working on a railroad His case allowed researchers to investigate the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex is involved in selfregulation planning decision making etc B SplitBrain Patients 1 The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres although typically the two hemispheres act as one integrated unit Seizures that begin in one hemisphere cross the corpus callosum to the opposite hemisphere and start a feedback loop To alleviate the severity of the seizures surgeons can sever the corpus callosum 2 Without an intact corpus callosum there s no way for that information to reach the other hemisphere People cannot process stimuli in the left Visual field in their left hemisphere but not in their right hemisphere for example 11 Brain Imaging A a device used to record electrical activity in the brain researchers can determine the amount of brain activity during different states of consciousness B M form of structural brain imaging that 1 uses magnetic field to line up nuclei of specific molecules in the brain tissue 2 pulses of radio waves cause nuclei to rotate out of alignment 3 when a pulse ends the nuclei snap back in line with the magnetic field and give off energy 4 the signatures can be used to reveal brain structures with different molecular compositions C PET SCAN form of functional brain imaging in which 1 a radioactive isotope is injected into patient 2 patient performs an activity such as reading or speaking 3 areas of the brain activated during these activities are monitored for the amount of energy they use or the increase in blood ow for those areas Very High Activity High Activity Medium Activity Low Activity No Activity D M form of functional brain imaging that detects the difference between oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin when exposed to magnetic pulses areas that demand more energy and blood ow have more oxygenated hemoglobin CHAPTER FIVE Section One Consciousness I CONSCIOUSNESS a person s subjective experience of the world and the mind the defining feature of consciousness is experience which you have when you re awake or having a vivid dream A PHENOMENOLOGY how things seem to the conscious person B Properties of Consciousness 1 Intentionality the quality of being directed toward an object researchers have found that conscious attention is limited by three other properties of consciousness unity selectivity and transience 2 Unity the ability to integrate information from all of the body s senses into one coherent whole the mind resists division which is why multi tasking leads to errors INATTENTIONAL BLINDNESS failure to perceive objects that are not the focus of their attention 3 Selectivity the capacity to include some objects but not others the conscious system is most inclined to select information of special interest to the person COCKTAILPARTY PHENOMENON people tune in on the conversation they re having while they filter out other conversations nearby this is an example of DICHOTIC LISTENING 4 Transience tendency to change humans can only hold so much information in the mind so that when more information is selected some of what is currently there must disappear as a result our focus of attention keeps changing C Levels of Consciousness 1 MINIMAL CONSCIOUSNESS lowlevel kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior ex turning over if someone pokes you in your sleep 2 FULL CONSCIOUSNESS knowledge of own mental state and ability to report on it involves not only thinking about things but also noticing yourself in a particular mental state ex quothere I am reading this sentence 3 SELFCONSCIOUSNESS a distinct level of consciousness in which the person s attention is drawn to the self as an object 0 Can use the mirror test as a way to determine capability of self awareness Humans gt 1824 months chimpanzees orangutans dolphins elephants and magpies have demonstrated selfawareness 0 Experience sampling has been used to determine that about 8 of all thoughts in Western adults are selfconscious thoughts 0 Selfconsciousness brings with it a tendency to notice your shortcomings discrepancies between ideal and actual selves o Induced selfconsciousness brings people s behaviors into greater alignment with their values and selfviews should they follow the rules at what ages do morals matter more than impulses II Mysteries of Consciousness A PROBLEM OF OTHER MINDS the fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others 1 There is no clear way to distinguish a conscious person from someone who might do and say all the same things as a conscious person but who is not conscious Even the consciousness meter used by anesthesiologists falls short only predicting whether patients will say they re conscious 2 There is no way to tell if another person s experience is anything at all like yours 3 People perceive other minds in two dimensions experience such as the ability to feel pain pleasure hunger consciousness anger or fear and agency such as the ability for planning memory or thought 4 If other minds aren t observable as the scientific method requires how can consciousness be a topic of scientific study B MINDBODY PROBLEM the issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body 1 Most psychologists assume that mental events are intimately tied to brain events such that every thought perception or feeling is associated with a particular pattern of activation of neurons in the brain 2 Some studies monitoring electrical activity in brains however suggest that the brain s activities precede the activities of the conscious mind III Control of Consciousness A DAYDREAMING seemingly purposeless ow of thoughts activation of the default network a widespread pattern of activation in many brain areas B THOUGHT SUPPRESSION the conscious avoidance ofa thought 1 Form of MENTAL CONTROL the attempt to change conscious states of mind 2 REBOUND EFFECT OF THOUGHT SUPPRESSION the tendency ofa thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression Section Two The Unconscious Mind I Freud s DYNAMIC UNCONSCIOUS an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories the person s deepest instincts and desires and the person s inner struggle to control these forces means of coping A Held in check by REPRESSION a mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness and keeps them in the unconscious B Freudian Slips speech errors and lapses of consciousness are not random eg forgetting the name of someone you didn t like 11 The Modern View ofthe COGNITIVE UNCONSCIOUS all the mental processes that give rise to a person s thoughts choices emotions and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person means of processing information A SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION thought or behavior is in uenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving B Effects of Subliminal Perception are particularly utilized by advertisers Section Three Drug Use and Abuse I PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS chemicals that in uence consciousness or behavior by altering the brain s chemical message system people using drugs can have experiences unlike any they might find in normal waking consciousness or even dreams A DRUG TOLERANCE the tendency for larger drug doses to be required over time to achieve the same effect with increased tolerance comes the danger of drug overdose recreational users find they need to use more and more of a drug to produce the same high B Selfadministration of addictive drugs can also be prompted by withdrawal symptoms which result when drug use is discontinued 1 Some withdrawal symptoms signal physical dependence when pain convulsions hallucinations or other unpleasant symptoms accompany withdrawal 2 Other withdrawal symptoms result from psychological dependence a strong desire to return to the drug even when physical withdrawal symptoms are gone Drugs can create an emotional need over time that continues to prey on the mind particularly in circumstances that are reminders of the drug C Addiction 1 Drug addiction reveals a human frailty our inability to look past the immediate consequences of our behavior to see and appreciate the long term consequences 2 For many people drug addiction becomes a way of life and for some it is a cause of death The visibility of addiction can be misleading and many people overcome addictions especially in the absence of familiar pieces and faces associated with their old drug habit Although addiction is dangerous it is not necessarily incurable 3 People usually do not become addicted to psychoactive drugs the first time they use it They may experiment a few times then try again and II III IV VI eventually find that their tendency to use the drug increases over time due to several factors including drug tolerance and dependence D Types of Psychoactive Drugs depressants stimulants narcotics hallucinogens and marijuana DEPRESSANTS substances that reduce the activity of the CNS A Alcohol s initial effects euphoria and reduced anxiety feel pretty positive As it is consumed in greater quantities drunkenness results bringing slowed reactions slurred speech poor judgment and other reductions in the effectiveness of thought and action Alcohol increases activity of the neurotransmitter GABA and decreases the activity of glutamate B ALCOHOL MYOPIA alcohol hampers attention leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations fine judgment is impaired when you drink C EXPECTANCY THEORY alcohol effects can be produced by people s expectations of how alcohol will in uence them in particular situations eg you behave as your friends behave when you drink Experiments using a BALANCED PLACEBO DESIGN often show that the belief that one has had alcohol can in uence behavior as strongly as the ingestion of alcohol itself D Both the expectancy and myopia theories suggest that people using alcohol will often go to extremes In fact it seems that drinking is a major contributing factor to social problems that result from extreme behavior eg drinking while driving STIMULANTS substances that excite the CNS heightening arousal and activity levels increase levels of dopamine and norepinephrine increase alertness and energy in user producing a euphoric sense of confidence and agitated motivation to get things done NARCOTICS highly addictive drugs that relieve pain mimic the brain s own internal relaxation and wellbeing system by artificially ooding the brain s endorphin receptors HALLUCINOGENS drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations stationary objects may seem to move or change patterns or colors may appear may be accompanied by exaggerated emotions ranging from blissful transcendence to abject terror do not induce significant tolerance or dependence and overdose deaths are rare MARIIUANA a plant whose leaves and buds contain a psychoactive drug called THC produces an intoxication that is mildly hallucinogenic euphoric experiences with heightened senses of sight and sound and the perception of a rush of ideas affects judgment shortterm memory and impairs motorskills and coordination activates neurotransmitter anandamine involved in the regulation of mood memory appetite and pain perception tolerance does not seem to develop and physical withdrawal symptoms are minimal psychological dependence is possible however and some are concerned it may be a gateway drug
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