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Final Study Guide

by: Kathleen Wynne

Final Study Guide ETHN 5

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Kathleen Wynne

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This is cumulative notes from the entire quarter. It is all the material that will be on the final exam
Intro Study of Race/Ethnic US
Dr. Jesica Fernandez
Study Guide
Ethnic Studies
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathleen Wynne on Monday December 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ETHN 5 at Santa Clara University taught by Dr. Jesica Fernandez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro Study of Race/Ethnic US in Culture at Santa Clara University.


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Date Created: 12/28/15
Final Study Guide Week 1 Ethnicity: identification or affiliation with a particular social group with whom a person might  share similar heritage, culture practices and values Race: what you look like. Central to the structural formation of American society  A socially constructed label used to define and categorize a group of people based on  physical characteristics  Racism: system of racial institutional policies and sociocultural practices that create power  hierarchies and circuits of privilege and oppression  Social group: “A collective of people differentiated from others by cultural forms, practices,  needs or capacities, and structures of power and privilege.”  Not all ethnic groups are homogeneous  Collective groups are often bound by a common history  Shared goals, dreams, and aspirations Social structures: (race, class, gender): A pattern of relationships, actions, and/or interactions.  Social organization of the group and how gender, social class, ethnicity, and religion shape an  individual’s opportunities  Patterns of social life that are not reducible to individuals and are durable enough to  withstand whims of individuals who would change them  Simultaneously constraining and enabling  Master Narrative: A whitewashed US history and an Eurocentric view of history. Histories of  PoC often ignored   Ex. A happy Thanksgiving Ethnic Studies: The interdisciplinary study of difference; chiefly race, ethnicity, and nation Racial Formation Theory: Sociological framework that is socially constructed to create racial  order or hierarchy  Micro­level: individual  Macro­level: institutional Relation between agency and structure   Agency: the individual action or choice. The capacity, condition, or state of acting or  exerting power. Refers to an individual’s choice to take action or act in a self­directed  free will.  o Ex. Civil Rights Movement  Structure: Patterns of relationships, actions, and/or interactions. Social organization of the group and how particular factors (gender, social class, gender etc.) shape an individual’s  opportunities o The social organization of institutions that together shape relationships, actions,  and opportunities for individuals and/or groups o Ex. Prison Industrial Complex and American Legal System  American Dream: An unifying nation; experience will make you stronger and more successful;  individual, community, and structural levels Week 2 Colonization: the use of power or control to establish new settlements of people, along with their practices and values, which are then imposed on others  Ex. Spanish Missionaries indoctrination of indigenous people in Americas  Colonization of the Americas was made possible through two interconnected ideological  processes o Syncretism: the amalgamation or attempted amalgamation of different religions,  culture, or schools of thought o Hegemony: leadership of dominance, especially by one country or social group  over others Settler colonialism: the settling and eradicating of indigenous people (ethnic cleansing)  Global and transnational process of colonial formation  Includes the use of physical force and violence Chatell Slavery: legal and economic of involuntary servitude. Person is considered property of  another person (owned and controlled by another and subjected to labor and/or other forms of  embodied subjection). Forced migration for the purpose of slavery.  Historically directed towards African Americans   Different from indentured servants  Indentured servants: people who labor for a period of time in exchange for passage to a new land or in return of payment   Compulsory involuntary labor   Migrants of European descent  Contracted to labor/paid to work  Passage to America under a temporary contract  The Tempest: highlights the relationship between the colonizer and the colonized. Race is a  central theme. Dehumanization and colonization of new land founded on the premise of  “civilizing the savage”. First time an Indian character appears on theatrical performances.   Two central themes: Racism and colonization Internalized Oppression: when oppressed people believe and act up the stereotypes that have  been created by the dominant groups about their oppressed group Week 3 Indentured servants: people who labor for a period of time in exchange for passage to a new land or in return of payment   Compulsory involuntary labor   Migrants of European descent  Contracted to labor/paid to work  Passage to America under a temporary contract  Slavery: the legal and economic system of involuntary servitude. A person is considered the  property of another person by whom they are controlled and they are not granted freedom after a  certain number of years Racial segregation: separation of race De facto segregation: racial segregation especially in public school that happens by fact rather  than legal requirement  Ex. Concentration of African Americans in certain neighborhoods produces  neighborhood school that are predominately black 13  Amendment: abolished slavery and involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime Globalization: process whereby nations economic and political systems regulate government and communities interact with one another   International and transnational interactions driven in part by international trade and  investments   Impacts political and economic systems, which in turn shapes cultures, communities, and  society  Circulation of labor characterized by two interrelated processes: 1. High demand of production  a. Farming, gold rush, and natural resources 2. Low cost in labor a. Importing people to work low wage jobs Manifest Destiny (1811): God’s Will (gain control and power over a territory). United by one  language, one religion, and one gov’t. New World is greater than the Old World. Justification for the annexation of territorial expansion of Southern regions (ex. Mexico).   US is destined to be a white Protestant nation with one system of political gov’t and  common cultural practices  Considered the US as the leader and the protector of Western Hemisphere  “I didn’t cross the border, the border crossed me.” Week 4 Immigration: Entering one area from another. The history of the American Dream stems from  immigration and the pursuit and achievement of a better life Migration: the movement from one area to another Emigration: leaving one are for another Undocumented: not having legal permission to reside in an area  Naturalization Act (1790): restricted citizenship to just white men and women. Women could not vote or own property 14  Amendment: the ability for black men and women, slaves and their children right to vote.  Structural factors for Immigration 1. Military Intervention a. Military assistance b. Corruption 2. Foreign Economic Policies a. Neoliberal economic policies, free trade and international loans b. Structural factor at the root of poverty   Push means there are military interventions, which push people out of where they are  currently residing  Pull is immigration, which takes place for opportunity and benefits to succeed Context of Reception: Refers to experiences that center on how people are treated upon arrival to the US and how soon treatment shapes people’s experiences, opportunities, thinking, well being.  It is mediated by structural factors for immigration (economic vs. political)  Conditions upon arrival to the US include undocumented vs. worker/student status,  refugee vs. legal  Intersectional social categories and social capital Week 5 White supremacy: racism is systemic. Supremacy refers to power relationships. A system of  interlocking structures: political, economic, social, cultural, legal, and educational etc. Power: The concept refers to the exercising of force or influence over the will of another person,  thereby minimizing the person’s agency Oppression: the condition of one group under the control or power of another Privilege True Colors (film): 2 men of the same economic status (one African American and one white) in  St. Louis during 1991. The African American man experiences institutionalized discrimination  and implicit forms of racism, which are still present in some implicit way in today’s society  The documentary show power and white privilege  100% on the final  Week 6 Systemic violence: behavioral, social, and psychological violence embedded in and often  implicit in institutionalized structures Prison Industrial complex: The overlapping interest of gov’t and industry that use surveillance,  policing, and imprisonment as solutions to what are economic, social, and political problems  Social conditions that put individuals and groups at a social, political, and economic  disadvantage   Two contexts where the PIC are manifested o Schools   Police presence in school o Borders  Immigration detention center  Purpose of PIC: gain profit by creating prisons that operate as industry, maintain social  order or power/control over communities of color School­to prison pipeline: a system of institutions, policies, practices, and ideologies that funnel  youth into the legal system  Restorative justice practices: an alternative solution to the militarization and police presence in  schools. Encourages conflict resolutions and constructive/reflexive dialogue between youth and  adults. It avoids victim blaming and punitive punishments.   Youth to adult collaboration in finding a constructive solution to issues.   Emphasizes socio­economical support for the youth Immigration detention centers: the largest immigrant detention infrastructure. For profit market  where lives are treated as profit. An arbitrary quota from Congress (34,000 immigrants per day).  Private prison companies operate 62% of immigration detention facilities   GEO group and Corrections Corporation of America  The new Jim Crow: modern mass incarceration and institutionalization of the prison industrial  complex (PIC) functions as a system of racial control in similar way to the Jim Crow laws of the  1960s.   Ex. Enforces racial segregation and discrimination  Race and racism continue to play a central role in our legal structure and sociopolitical  institution o Prison perpetuate slavery  Prison laborers   Super low wages and backbending work  Week 7 Social identity: a person’s knowledge that they belong to a social category or group. Group is  defined as those individuals who hold common characteristics  Self ascribed  Can mean more than one social identity  Not stable o Fluid over time and experiences Social identity theory: Theory that individuals define themselves via experiences and emotions,  three psychological processes 1. Social categorization a. Social and physical characteristics that are meaningful and salient in social  contexts 2. Social comparison a. Perception of how a person is categorized and how the person’s group affiliations compare to other groups 3. Identification/psychological work a. Groups and social categories that are most emotionally pressing are likely  become more salient b. We were born into a society that already have predetermined categories  Intersectionality: describes how different types of discrimination interact to shape people’s  experiences of oppression (racism, sexism, classism)  Examines the ways that race, class, gender, and sexuality among other social categories  operate to structure and perpetuate inequalities o Ex. Prof. Fernandez—chicana and feminist  Intersectionality works through the interaction of characteristics that shape people’s  experiences of oppression  Interlocking Systems of Oppression: how different categories interlock to create systems of  oppression. It demonstrates power and privilege between individuals. Privilege circle activity Week 8 Discourse: institutionalized manner of speaking or writing—for instance the standard of which  teachers must follow when teaching a subject/course Invisible knapsack: Unearned resources or privileges that are carried in an “invisible knapsack”.  Another form of racism Colorblindness: Ignorance of race and its effects on structures. It ignores the idea that racism  exists. It reinforces racism by creating the perception that everyone has an equal level playing  field White privilege: Institutions benefit white people. PoC must work for these same benefits. White privilege negates racial inequalities  A Class Divided: Blue eye vs. brown eye children Week 9 Solidarity: understood as a form of “organic security” that stems from similarities in lived  experiences. A moral and ethical response to conditions of injustice or oppression with the goal  to abolish and unjust practice  Social solidarity: characterized by relationships and interactions that offer social support Political solidarity: moral and ethical response to conditions of injustice or oppression.  Characterized by the unity of individuals who have made a conscious commitment to  challenging a situation of injustice, oppression, or social inequality. Goal is to abolish an  injustice Rainbow Coalition: established in 1969 by Fred Hampton of the Black Panther Party. A  collective of multi­ethnic grassroots organizations   Black Panther Party (African Americans)  Young Lords (Puerto Ricans in Chicago)  Young Patriots (poor/working whites)  Red Guard (Chinese Americans in SF)  Brown Berets (Chicano) Black Power Movement: to achieve equal rights  Ten Point Program Black Panther Party: platform statement/demands that formed basis for the BPP. Goals for  equality written by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale  Young Lords: neighborhood gang in Lincoln Park in the 1960s/1970s. Gentrification, police  brutality, and institutional inequality were some of the conditions that lead to Division Street  Riots in 1966.  Organized around three key issues  1. Empowerment and self determination for the Puerto Rican communities  2. Humane living conditions 3. Puerto Rican political education and the sovereignty of Puerto Rico Brown Berets: Youth Chicanos for community action.   Educational justice  Organized for Chicano equality and rights in schools   Ending Vietnam War  Formed coalition with Black Panther Party in the 1970s


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