PSYC 2120 Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYC 2120 Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 2120-001
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camille Munoz on Friday January 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2120-001 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Dr. Laura Armstrong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 01/01/16
PSYC 2120-001 Exam 1 Study Guide (Chapters 1-3) Chapter 1 – Issues in Development Introduction to developmental science o When do children develop? – Developmental periods Prenatal Infancy Early and middle childhood Adolescence o What do children develop? – Developmental Domains Physical Cognitive Social and emotional o Where do children develop? – Developmental contexts Physical environments Cultural contexts SES Families and neighborhoods Nature through Nurture o Nature o Nurture o Stability o Plasticity Critical periods Sensitive periods o Gene x Environment relationships Passive Active, niche-picking Evocative Continuous or Discontinuous Development? o Quantitative change o Qualitative change (stage theorists) Individual Differences – One Course or Many Courses? o Equifinality o Multifinality Role of the child o Active o Passive Chapter 2 – Theories of Development PSYC 2120-001 Theory o Definition o Purpose Psychoanalytic Perspective o Freud’s Psychosexual Theory 3 parts of personality – id, ego, superego 5 psychosexual stages of development Physical focus Psychological theme Adult character type if fixated in stage o Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory 8 psychosocial stages of development Lifespan focus Behaviorism o Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Theory Unconditioned and conditioned stimulus Unconditioned and conditioned response o Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Positive and negative reinforcement Positive and negative punishment o Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Bobo doll study Observational learning Cognitive-Developmental Theory – Piaget o Active construction of knowledge o Stage theory o Adaptation is key Sociocultural Theory – Vygotsky o Learning is social o Zone of proximal development o Scaffolding Ecological Systems Theory – Bronfenbrenner o Microsystem o Mesosystem o Exosystem o Macrosystem o Chronosystem Across Theorists o Strengths and limitations of each o How each addresses the fundamental issues in development Nature/nurture Continuous/discontinuous change Individual differences – one course/many courses Role of child – active/passive Chapter 3 – How We Study Development PSYC 2120-001 Types of Research o Basic o Applied o Action Essential Research Components o Operationalize concepts o Objectivity v. interpretation o Reliability Inter-rater Test-retest o Validity Internal External o Population – representative sample o Ethics Informed consent Right to withdraw Confidentiality Minimum risks Scientific Method o Research question o Hypothesis o Design Study o Correct and analyze data o Interpret results Statistical and practical significance Replication Generalizability of findings o Disseminate findings Research Designs o Experiments Experimental and control groups Random assignment Matching Confounds Independent and dependent variables o Natural/Quasi-Experimental o Correlational Direction of correlation Strength of correlation o Developmental Designs Longitudinal Cross-sectional Cross-sequential Microgenetic o Across Designs Strengths of each PSYC 2120-001 Weaknesses of each What types of research questions does each answer? Methods o Observational Naturalistic Structured Event sampling Time sampling o Self-report Interviews Clinical Structured Questionnaires and surveys Standardized tests o Physiological o Case Study o Ethnography o Across Methods Strengths of each Weaknesses of each When would be the best time to use each method?
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