Arab/ Israeli Conflict
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Goals: Wiki definition of the history and origins of the arab Israeli conflict up until 1949 Date name or place so much as the ideas What is the impact of the event or its significance- why did it happen Need to know the names for the significant ideas, events, themes Generalities will get you a C Put info into perspective and context Can start wherever, weave information into coherent essay Integrates readings, documents, sources, and lecture notes= A paper Palestine in the 19 century: 3 concepts that important to understand the region: geology, geography, and political culture geology: what people need access to, hydrocarbons determine future of central middle east influences why the western world cares domestic interests are based on oil, control over oil legitimizes you as the ruler in power geography: natural wealth, defines certain cultural aspects attitudes to outlook on life, middle east is lots of sand and very little water when you control the output and yield of land it becomes a precious commodity very few natural water sources the resources aren’t there has to rely on minimum amount land to be cultivated lower classes working harder to make more and will be dependent on upper classes indebtedness political elites are the ones who own the little available land creation of Suez canal was important because there was no natural water course through the area transit point from Europe to southeast Asia critical to Great Britain opened in 1869 British care most about Cairo if the British hadn’t come to Egypt (imperial power) would never have considered going to Palestine Age of power and imperialism mindset at that time was that this wasn’t wrong Natives had not established national identity yet Local leaders saw opportunity to become legitimized by presence of outside forces Treatment of outside people has tremendous impact 6321917: end of the Ottoman Empire Culture: System of shared beliefs, values, customs, ideas that members of a group use to define as their own and use to cope with the world How does have to make accommodations to survive effect outlook? Have to evolve What about being the majority and not having to make a change What does it mean to be a minority means that they have to make accommodations and maybe experience certain restrictions Minority stats may make you selfreliant In some ways you have to develop your own arts and culture separate and not really equal, resourceful, defend self rigorously or assimilate identity develop those connections to maintain sense of difference when you are the majority able to establish own borders and rights political culture: shared beliefs about national identity about indemnification with fellow citizens, about government outputs, and about decision making process factors that shape political culture Arab political culture was effected by: Notion of protecting your own tribe/ clan family Water and arable land, land scarcity power in the hands of few Region allows sects to stay away from central government Rulers legitimacy in question, seeks physical power Islam meant to unite tribes, could not break familiar bonds Wasta (way to open door unfairly, often pervasive in almost all elements of society) connections, help shape a person’s life on a day to day basis Arab politics is sometimes about who you know not what you know Comes from the historical importance of tribe/ family Easier to deal with one individual than everyone social hierarchy Puts the power in the hands of one person How early Zionists gained foothold in Arab society This region of the world did not have real borders before WWI British wanted a land bridge to India Ottoman Empire loses power and all of modern states emerge Individuals in power at time of state emergence did not care about selfdetermination, rulers wanted to dominate Easy to blame outsides in hindsight Interwar period: not real countries with power or influence Local military leaders emerge Arab nationalists Military becomes the voice of Arab nationalists No emergence of Arab elite, thrown on head in 1947 Palestinian element they are the last to emerge as a national identity no cement collaboration The middle east has no national borders Topography: Palestine in 26,000 km, only 7000 was cultivatable center of Palestine where Arabs has lived the longest Strong power to the north and south but state of Israel acted as a geographic buffer of imperial ambitions trying to go north or south to the area that they did not control Palestine was not an independent entity or state It was an area created by British and French Did not ask natives or help them be self determined 18811954 British in Cairo to project the Suez canal British wanted land barrier as well Palestine/ Iraq Arab nationalism focus is on getting rid of British did not care about other states because they don’t have a unified identity yet Palestinian issue did not exist then had not developed a national identity yet no one cared Palestine important geopolitically and important to the 3 monotheistic religions of the world Eretz Israel only after 1918 Christianity believes the holy land is essential to its identity Willing to go to war for 4 centuries over it Many important sites all right next to each other Land ownership/ musha: method that is most debilitating factor in economy up until 1948 If four of us own land collectively agree that collectively own even if some parts are better than others no incentive to invest in own land since it will be someone else next you want to get as much out of it as possible while you can Eventually all the pieces of land will be ruined and cannot support them collectively Urban merchant becomes in charge of all land These collective ownerships had because the workers needed loans Middle 18001940: this is how the political elite gained power/land Peasant increasing in debt, work land they always have but now they don’t own the land All they originally wanted was to protect ownership of their land and that’s exactly what they lost This is underpinning that the areas if immigrants and their way to land here Originally only passing land between Arab population but eventually into the hands of Jewish immigrants 70% of land is the musha system what does it take to make a national movement? Common enemy Language Perseverance Shared values Pride Origins Traditions Landmarks Formative experience Home/place to call home Nationalism needs leaders who can articulate needs Press of external force makes more committed to doing what you want to do Jews had not gained civic equality in many places where they lived Zionism was the minority movement of Jews accommodation Dramatic shift of people from not democratic places to democratic places Main goal lets be freer than we are now and take our lives into our own hands Arab world: Ottoman Empire weak declining political empire Young Turk revolution: common experience/ understanding develops arab nationalism We have a common background Area of middle east belief system keeps them together Islam never succeeds in completely breaking down tribal identity not connected by religion connected by family Corrosive element in Arab national identity Separate sociological identity Have not formed into crucible/ identity Does not happen unduly British make them into Palestine British Religious identity, strategic need, national identity, great powers care about what they want Israeli/ Jewish political culture internal cement becomes external glue How did Zionists make a state and Arabs lost the state? 1898 1947 Zionist growth, British presence increases, animosity increases could have gotten along if there were leaders who were willing to compromise Jewish: landless, minority, semiunified, literate leaders, common good Arab: landed, majority, severely fragmented, less literate leaders, self interest Zionists had motivation fear of oppression, decided to take destiny into own hands, willing to help one another developed a sense of community living in various parts of the world Brought background of community taxation, selfhelp, education, representation of own interests, lobbied majorities Zionism buy time don’t have other assist reach understanding with leaders deals to have rights Minority status incurred repeatedly Minority sharpens survival instincts Assimilation to surroundings is rare Oppression catalyzes sense of community Communal politics evolve selfserving institutions Jews survived against manmade impositions Used to dealing with others to negotiate future Arabs survived against nature anxiety held for political borders People who took advantage of them Battling oppression requires adaptation Dreaded events feel sorry move on Arabs restricted by agriculture. Family ties not communal Jews “run” state before having one Founded institutions to serve collective need Autonomous authority before sovereignty Disaster zone (economically) after WWI Faith in self government over parliament The interest of the majority was overlooked British interested in own goals Borders drawn no account of language or ethnicity Populations everywhere artificial borders Why modern states are falling apart Absence of development of nation state is why there are all the problems in the middle east now No one cared about the local population Absence of cohesion Movement of Jews to move and create their own nation similar to US? Displace native Americans displace Arabs Jewish population of Europe had begun to feel a measure of civic equality some felt finally accepted Idea that Hertzl would jeopardize status of Jews who were finally becoming equal in home countries Suez canal very important to get to India Secure trade there Middle east gains strategic value after war Suez canal still extremely important to modern nations need canal0 doesn’t matter if we have to compromise to get some of value Show how geography and geology matter since we want these things that are there we have to compromise with the people who are in charge of them League of nations WWI Palestine economically impoverished Jewish possibility of home, Jewish growth in Palestine nurtured Local population forgotten Most of Jews not embracing Zionism How have the beginnings of Jews migrating to Palestine Become the nucleus of a Jewish state Important period of time in fixing boundaries for conflict Separate but equal The Palestine Mandate: Arabs refused to participate even though if you learn the system you can work it/ manipulate to have your ideas accepted When you abstain from participating in a political process that is your choice If there is a committee that says something you doesn’t want to do, do you leave and not participate or do you argue and fight from within? Many Palestinians want a do over nowadays Can someone be accountable for a decision they did not make? British strategic presence Port of Jaffa Pipeline is opened Iraq oil British now need to consult with the native people to ensure that they are still retaining the majority because they need and want access to the oil Money is spent by the British in the area to build up a military presence instead of education By 1930, the Jews contribute a lot to the revenue even though they are a minority Zionists understood that their presence there helped the British Autonomy vs. self governance Independence vs. right to autonomy Palestine mandate 1922 Article 2,4, 6 Now Jews are allowed to immigrate Article 23 Pointing fingers at landowners Arabs could be helped with increased education and health care But if you help them it might change their attitude towards you We could neutralize opposition this way and we could help the Arab population Article 25 Says they should work together Has a conscious Does not want to stop Zionism though Acknowledging that Zionism has some holes and not to oppress people like they had been oppressed If the Arabs had been involved in the mandate, Jews would have been on the defense bot the sole decision makers anymore Article 26: Agreement by leading Arab/ Zionists Agreed to stay out of each other’s way 1919 only example of this type of cooperation until 1993 British don’t encourage it, Arabs don’t want it, and Zionists are pleased by it Article 30 Man in Jewish banking socioeconomic intercourse between Arab peasantry and notables and Zionists How Israel switched into Jewish hands Geographic nucleus for Jewish state (1930’s) 19391945 (WWII) secondary to what was going on in Palestine state did not come into being because of WWII might have helped push people but building blocks were already in place British did not spend any money on Arab or Jewish population But the Jewish used to having to provide for themselves and Arabs were not Fragmentation/ social inequality why mufti could remain successful Relevance of holocaust catalyst that kept Zionists moving forward it is part of the story but not the sole reason for the creation of a Jewish state Arab story starts there to blame Europe for creation of Jewish state not their own part in the story Jews want to reach for the heart strings as justification British paper: white papers: policy statements Churchill paper: explanation of how the British will run Palestine, how many Jews can immigrate to Palestine EAC limited Jewish immigration Very ambiguous and not easy to measure Jews help economy grow but Arabs say it is not growing any faster White Paper 1930 Jewish growth/ immigration/ land purchase should slow down Never implemented Implemented in the 1939 white paper All these restrictions were on the Zionists Decade of largest growth of Jewish immigration and land acquisition since 1880 If the paper had gone into effect in 1930 that all would have been different 19361939 Arab population majority rebel and revolt against British presence and Arab land lords economic well being deteriorated went to streets with the use of violence British reacted by clamping down on violence by sending more people from England Essence is Palestine the mandate will not work Separate into 2 separate states with economic union Clamp down on Jewish immigration to calm down Arab leaders Partition reform in 1947 UN voted to create 2 separate states with economic union Arabs rejected because they could not accept any middle ground No information on what the general population wanted at the time When Jews originally came to Palestine there as small effort to assimilate to culture Binationalism: 2 peoples living in one state Compromise can come about in periods of tranquility A scenario more interested in creating insulated own home not assimilating as a goal self interest Things are going well for the Jews at the price of Arabs they know it is wrong but they are getting what they want HopeSimpson report on how Jewish land/ immigration lead to Arab distress Lead to passfield paper Chancellor had passion for Arab people why does a Jew from Poland have more rights than an Arab from Jaffa Jews in London lobbied to prevent chancellor from making white paper That is what a minority must do in order to get what they want 9 year period lead to nucleus for a state would have been very different if passfield paper passed central reasons why the Zionists succeeded and Arabs did not? 1) setting: took place in environment/ atmosphere with no previous nation state in existence local administration in hands of very few very rich conducive to state building since nothing was in place local administration in hands of very few and very rich the area was very manipulatable Ottoman setting 2) Majority population: impoverished and getting worse majority of Arab pop had no time/ finances/ literacy to manage another group building a state next to them 3) Arab leadership was fragmented. Selfinterest and become/ was hijacked by political leaders uninterested in compromise with British and Zionists 4) Zionists who wanted own area worked to turn idea into reality through organization and infrastructure stay insulated from Arab community except when economics made them 5) Palestine administered by British strategic interest British did not want there to be any local administration/ decision making do nothing to minimize their presence strategic needs not local investments keep Zionists dependent on them sustain presence 6) Zionist motivation grew out of inability of Jews to be free/ citizens where they lived in Europe antiSemitism grew out of Jewish inability to be accepted majority of immigrants couldn’t come to US in same quantities ingredient for nationalism: how different would it have been if the Arabs had accepted Zionism then? Tried to cooperate? Would have been so different Diplomatic history of the European powers struggling for control and influence over the area Political, socioeconomic, and cultural ideological development among the local populations 15161918: Ottoman rule over Palestine Palestine never formed a political administrative unit of its own Palestine districts became more strategically and politically important to Constantinople once they gained virtual autonomy Local governors became corrupt and neglected their duties This lead to considerable disorder and insecurity Majority of population impoverished and oppressed Ottomans regained central control and the area’s economy and living conditions greatly improved In reorganizing the Ottoman Empire and attempting to strength central control by using European engineers and investors, the sultans encouraged the very European penetration of Palestine that they were seeking to prevent The Arab population of Palestine was heterogeneous and divided City dwellers and peasants had almost no contract or connections which lead to a social divide Social relations of villages was based on kinship Religious divisions between the Arabs There was little sense of Arab nationalism during this period Seeds of Arab nationalism sprouted from soil of Turkish nationalism during the Young Turk rebellion in 1908 Attempting to achieve Arab independence from the Ottoman Empire There was not a large population of Jews in Palestine during the 19 century They lived mostly in the cities and were given considerable autonomy and self government by the millet organization of the Muslim Ottoman state Jews were regarded as second class and infidels and had to pay a special tax (jizyah) Subject to discriminatory regulations: only represented in court by Muslim lawyers, forbidden to carry arms or serve in the army Jews were often subject to oppression, extortion, or violence Condition of Jews began to change with the increased involvement of colonial powers The British government showed a great interest in the Jews of Palestine humanitarian and political By the late 1850’s, the Jewish population in Jerusalem doubled in 10 years faction of the Arab elite of the Ottoman Empire. Arabism won its first success, and a complete success, when the failure of the Ottoman Empire in World War I left the dominant faction of the Arab elite with no alternative to Arabism. Revitalization of Palestine 1917: greater physical security, economic growth and prosperity, improvement of communal health and education The ottoman empire levied great taxes on all of its subjects but especially bad ones on the nonMuslims Palestine was never thought about until western domestic interests were tied up with Palestine and it became the most Imperial interests lead western leaders to Egypt and Palestine There were economic and religious interests for Palestine The three major monotheistic religions all valued places in Palestine and wanted possession Jews were minority and felt oppressed by the Ottoman empire Egypt in control of Syria and Palestine for a hot second Many of the other European countries were able to establish a connection with Palestine through religion whereas the British were protestant and had no such claim. Therefore they attached themselves to the Jewish ideology In the early 19 century there were issues of equality, simply reversed to give Muslims more rights Local industries were hurt by the increased importation of cheap exotic goods from the west Askenazim vs Sephardim The seeds of Jewish self sufficiency were planted in the early 19 century before The history of Jews in Europe: the birth of modern Zionism Jewish nationalism was a religious and cultural phenomena Political ideology The history of oppression and persecution of Jews in Europe, culminating in the Holocaust, lead to the believe that the only way Jews could escape persecution was to have their own state Jews were an ethnic minority that fulfilled a distinct socioeconomic role in societies Jews were forced to live in ghettos Initially welcomed in many areas because of their commercial skills but then resented for their success and oppressed The Russian government sponsored massacres, restrictions, and persecutions of Jews Theodor Hertzl identified with the emergence of modern Zionism Wrote Der Judenstaat which dealt with the Jewish question and turned in=t into a national question that he believed could only be resolved in one way, the Jewish people being granted sovereignty over an area of land It would be gradual because the state would simply be open to Jews, not forcing them to go The movement is to establish a national home These ideas were not held by all Jews many who had assimilated into their countries felt that they would be persecuted because of this idea of being Jewish being a nationality In the 1840’s racial antiSemitism arose in Germany and France as the idea of the superiority of the Aryan race began to grow Eretz Yisrael the Jewish national homeland Modern Zionism was both political ideology as well as an organizational tool due to the religious and secular aspirations for the national homeland By 1904, early Jewish settlements were simply Jewish by name, the majority of the inhabitants and workers were Arab Kibbutz collective settlement The 19 century saw an emergence of modern secular liberal thought and state in Europe which lead to By WWI, the Yishuv, numbered about 60,000 or les than 10% of the Palestinian population IN the late 19 century and early 20 century there was little Arab opposition to Jewish immigration and land purchases Palestine was getting drawn into the cortex of world powers during WWI Zionism was a concept they were not welcomed with open arms and had to learn how to make them most of the situation they were in learn to accommodate to succeed Wolff Crimean war of 18531856: related to the power struggle between Turkey and Russia for power and control in the Middle East Russia was the greatest nonMuslim property holder in Palestine for a short time after the war All of the western nations were coming in and building their own churches, and schools, and infrastructure Templars In the 1850s the economy of Palestine began to improve particularly because of its connection to the economies of western Europe European involvement lead to improved sanitation, more hospitals, and the availability of medicine As Jewish immigration increased in the 1880s and 1890s, the Arab peasants attempted to keep hold of their land to prevent Jewish land purchases Rise of new urban elite Overwhelmingly illiterate and unsophisticated peasantry that had no interest in political involvement and was not aware of their rights The first Aliyah was marked by a dependence on Arab workers to take care of the land and the second one focused on selfsustainability and the need of the Jews to be able to work their own land Jews would enter Palestine on pilgrim visas and then once they expired just fade away The Jews accomplishments worried the Arabs: the Jews were able to raise money to purchase land, work the land, communal selfsufficiency, establishment of schools, hospitals, and banks, willingness to defend and arm themselves All of the countries who were invested in the world World War I: 1914 Between WWI and WWII, Palestine was ruled as a mandate state by Great Britain Primary concern of the British was retaining and extending their economic influence to the middle east and India Both sides felt oppressed by the British and the mandate system and rebelled against it. This benefitted the Jews but greatly injured the Arab cause The Ottoman Empire sided with Germany against the allied powers so Great Britain had to secure support in the area She did this by promising selfdetermination to both Jews and Arabs in exchange for their support in the war These agreements directly contradict each other and promise two distinct groups the same things HusseinMcMahon Correspondence (19151916): Hussein was the spokesperson for the Arabs British expressed sympathy for Arab claims Many areas were left out in this agreement which is due to the lack of boundaries for Palestine until after WWI The full text was in Arabic Therefore, there was a single word which both sides had a different definition/ translation for that lead to a discrepancy over the inclusion of certain areas The Arab interpretation to most observers appears more credible The agreement was that there would be an Arab revolt and it was fueled by British gold Promised Arab independence if they rebelled against the Turks Promised this without defining it Arabs help now British later they did not stick to their promise Sykes Picot Agreement (1916) Secret discussions regarding the partition of the Ottoman Empire The two powers (France and Great Britain) divided up control over the Levant and Iraq The towns that Arabs were promised in the Hussein McMahon agreement were referenced as places where there would be French supervision Balfour Declaration (1917) The British government viewed with favor the establishment of Palestine as the national home for the Jewish people Entirely vague and without defined borders The wartime situation and personal goals of the British forced them to support the Zionist goals in order to acquire their aid and assistance Palestine was a vital link to India and Great Britain saw how assisting Zionist goals and holding some control could benefit their economic goals Promised the same thing to various people Indigenous population cannot be prejudiced in civil/ religious rights says nothing about political rights Mandate territories In 1922, the League of Nations ratified the mandate arrangements and the preamble of Palestine mandated included the Balfour declaration elevating it to the status of international law Issue of immigration and land purchases very important during this time period Perspectives during this time period are: the Jewish, the British, and the Arab The Jews and the mandate: Thought it served their best interest to work with the British The Yishuv elected its own assembly Haganah in 1921 There was a high degree of organization and cooperation within the Jewish community which was creating the institutions of national life Labor Zionists: socialists who desired good relations with the Arabs and thought that Zionism was good for the Arabs as well as the Jews The Yishuv did have internal differences but were united in creating the institutions of statehood while building up the national home The Arabs and the mandates: Arab population remained opposed to Zionism and the British mandate They saw the Balfour Declaration as the ok for Zionists to establish a sovereign nation in Palestine which they greatly resisted There was no Arab agency like the Jewish one and even when the British suggested one the Arabs refused because they felt that it was cooperating with the British and accepting the Balfour declaration and they did not form a representative body British retained the Ottoman Millet system Selfgoverning autonomous units tended to reinforce economic, religious, cultural differences The Arabs were internally politically divided by the powerful families During the mandate there were many advances economically such as in construction, agriculture and citriculture However there was never enough capital to support the Arab population which doubled during the mandate period Feared a Jewish majority The British during the mandate: Wished to retain their influence and keep the peace while simultaneously trying to implement the Balfour Declaration, safeguard the civil and religious rights of all inhabitants and develop self governing institutions Land purchases soared in the 1920s and Jewish immigration was on the rise The white paper of 1922: Churchill white paper Jewish immigration could not exceed the economic absorptive capacity of the country There was no definition provide for the EAC Aliyahs The british established a framework through administrative institutions and infrastructure In 1922 it was suggested to establish a legislative council which would have reflected the Arab majority However, the Arabs saw this as accepting and legitimizing the situation and Jewish presence and refused even though this would have provided them with more control and say so The white paper of 1930: In 1929 Jewish immigration rose again due to antiSemitic feelings in Europe and economic worldwide depression There were Arab riots and even though the British said that it was their fault, they said that they understood where they were coming from and would look into the Jewish immigration growth and land sales The Passfield White Paper called to a halt Jewish immigration Recommended that government land be sold only to landless Arabs Claimed that the EAC would be based on levels of Arab and Jewish unemployment Zionists were very unhappy with this paper and thought that it went directly against the promises of the Balfour Declaration In the early 30’s, the rise of government sponsored antiSemitism lead to the encouragement of Jews to flee and immigrate to Palestine A series of waves of immigration started due to these events in Europe which lead to a drastic increase in the Palestinian Jewish population The Arab rebellion of 19361939 Arab political parties put aside their differences and formed the Arab Higher Committee The rebellion caused a temporary alliance between the Jews and the British as they attempted to suppress the rebellion Peel Commission report: Issued in 1937 Suggested that the area be partitioned into separate Arab and Jewish states The Arabs were absolutely opposed to the partitioning of Palestine and refused to cede over any sovereignty to the Zionists 1939 White Paper: declared Palestine would become an independent state allied to the British Empire within 10 years repudiated the Balfour Declaration Yishuv were shocked and enraged by this paper Both Jews and Arabs rejected this paper The Holocaust: the attempt to annihilate all Jews in Europe The Arabs felt that they too were victims of the holocaust because they were made to pay the price for the actions of Europeans The first step in the Holocaust to exterminate Jews was to define them in terms of race The importance of Zionism in the United States: America’s restrictive immigration laws were based on a quota system which discriminated against people of eastern European origin thereby limiting the number of Jews accepted Palestine after WWII The British wanted to keep the strategic oil port at Haifa The US wanted to increase is share of the oil resources in the Middle East The success of the Yishuv in creating a situation that forced the British to take the issue to the United Nation was an important factor in the formation of Israel The second was the activities related to the Europe Displaced persons After the Holocaust, survivors could not return to their homes because they were either occupied or destroyed There was no legal mechanism for recovery or compensation from the governments of these countries The antiSemitic feelings in some of these countries was so strong that returning home was risking their live In figuring out how to deal with the Palestine and Jewish issue the US and Great Britain went head to head The US were barely admitting Jewish refugees into their countries while the British had thousands of troops in Palestine By January 1947, the British government decided that if no agreement had been reached then they would turn it over to the United Nations UNSCOP’s plan of partition with an economic union Partition is the most realistic and acceptable solution The Arab territory was to be the less fertile hill country The Jewish territory was to be the more fertile plain The Arabs rejected both the majority and minority proposals The reports legitimized the Belfour declaration and mandate and in essence the claims of the Jews The British were determined to get out of Palestine as soon as possible Truman showed that he favored the partition plan The domestic Jewish vote was important for his reelection In the final analysis, the partition was successful because the Jews were perceived as western as opposed to the eastern Arabs Passage of the partition virtually assured a Jewish state in Palestine Hussein’s: notable traditional leadership of Palestinian Arabs Arab Liberation Army (1948) Arab refugees Palestinians had no functioning national level institutions no central parastate mechanisms, no centralized military force mid1918 all of Palestine was under British army imperial goals and objectives Britain sided with Zionism for their own objectives not for ideological ends Young Turks When asked about their issues with the Jews, the Arabs said that their issue was with the new immigrants who were arriving and not the Jews who had been living there for centuries In the 1920s Arab leaders were united only in their wish to be rid of Zionists Herbert Samuel Samuel lifted the suspicion on Jewish immigration and renewed permission for Jewish land purchases Authorized Hebrew to appear as an official language Worked to bring reconciliation among the Jews and the Arabs Churchill White paper 1922 Immigrants would learn modern Hebrew and had no interest in learning Arabic Ben Gurion Despite the Arabs disapproval of land purchases, it was very rare to see Arabs refuse to sell their lands to Jews The purchase agreements were written with provisos that the Arab landowner had to first remove the peasants from the land before the sale to the Jewish land owner In some cases, whole villages were displaced due to land transfers Palestinians slowly lost control of their land and destiny with the large land sales There was a huge gap between Palestinian and Jewish literacy Riots Shaw commission HopeSimpson inquiry in 1930 John Chancellor Marked increase in Jewish immigration in 1930s Unbridgeable cultural and social differences Country’s health and welfare increased due to British and Jewish forces Peel commission found that the British could no longer carry out its dual obligation to support the creation of the Jewish national home and to protect the rights of Palestine’s Arabs Higher Arab Commission Palestinian Arab and Jewish Leadership during the Mandate Period: Nashif Jewish leadership began around the 1920s whereas the Palestinian Arab did not accomplish that until 1936 There was a highly divided socioeconomic society in Palestine with made it difficult for the Arabs to group together The landless and illiterate peasants constituted the majority of the population Power was largely concentrated with the elite which is why their was a long time before nationalist feelings started Priorities of the Zionist leadership were much more difinde and clear The Arab leadership was broken up by the divied interest of the leadship The Mufti of Jerusalem and Politics of Palestine Mattar Husaynis Worked with the British to reach their goals because ot benefited them perfectly Served their personal interests over the that of the Arab people Mufti was willing to negotiate and accept moderation Arab revolt: from 19211936 the Mufti served two masters The mufti’s negotiations with the British injured his people Arab rebellion 19361939 Hitler and the Mufti Arabs refused to agree to anything, even deals that seemed equal, because in their mind anything less than everything was a concession on their part Arab oil was a growing motivator for western countries to get involved with Palestine MorrisonGrady Commission 1946 Recommended provincial autonomy and offered the Arabs the bulk of Palestine’s territory April 1947 UNSCOP order Britain to remove the mandate Suggested Partition Beginning of ArabIsraeli War Zionists planned, planted, and built Arab Palestinian nationalism did not rise until after 1922 Britain’s self centered policy was a moral failure 37-49: Arab rebellion 36-39 Pell commission report Suggested by british and suggested later by the UN They did not want to commit more military Pressures from other Arab leaders White paper- 1939- jewish immigration and land purchase will be curtailed Implemented until the end of the mandate 39-48- national home idea shut down and slowed down tremendously this coinsided in the same moment that man jews from Europe where fleeing how did the Zionists react to the white paper? Reacted with Anger contradict and go around the white papers restrictions the impact of the arab rebellion was profound- arab peasants were using violence and not tending to their fields economic well being plummeted attacted arab leaders known to work with Zionists internal civil war antifada- to shake off or thow off 1987 1936- attempted to throw off bristish and Zionists but failed the jewish community could not admit more immigratns consider creating military unificial late 30s/ ealy 40s caused the jews to turn inward, necessary orgs to protect themselves and contravene british policy not completely successful effort to convince rest of the world that national home was present was falling on deaf ears- fascism it was not the most important priority and no one could convince them otherwise Zionism was not big- no political strength to support the effort for national home What do you do with displaced persons? Them not knowing where to go had an emotional impact on the rest of the world Arab leaders wanted nothing to do with recognizing a jewish state Did not want to allow any jewish sovereignty Consistency of arabs never shifting from making no consessions Each believing that they could get a portion of territory- jordainians and Egyptians Helped the Zionists Arab unpinning Political division, military ineptitude, Zionist The British after WWII suffered tremendously British decided to turn over future of Palestine to UN They were over it First major issue that the UN addressed UN special committee on Palestian Draws up plan for what the future of Palestine should be 1947 issues maj report and minority report general assembly meeting nov 29 1947- create arab and a jewish state- argues for two states with an economic union arabs vote against Palestinian refugees- many refugees Already at socioeconomic margins Majority of refugees who end there at end of arab independence war, nakba etc are 47-49 no treaties are signed that end this war- only temp halt in the fighting no borders are recognized legally, from 49 forward the war against Israel still goes on some leave of own volition some are asked to leave by arab leaders some are helped or driven out by new Israeli state who is responsible for the refugee emigration there was no great effort to solve Palestinian issue in 48 focus was elsewhere trus- june 48, aug 48, end of 48 more arabs left each time and the jewish entity replenished their supply how were the refugees created, why were they created, when did this problem begin find primary source data: important facts that it was inevitable: Education- literacy- there is an ability through school to polemicize an issue or give it greater support Leaders Economics Capital formation Tax contribution Was there a time in the mandate where reconciliation was possible? Violence is all about my community is being attacked and deserves to be preserved Violence is ongoing, spuratic, everywhere Part of visual tapestry of what the mandate is about Perspective sides what their aspects told because it affects how the info is reccieved Directly reference readings Integrate documents and sources Making a case for the origin of the conflicts Giving the cliffnotes and what your telling your grandpa Costal planes and valleys are where there are fewer arabs West bank is where there was the longest arab settlement They are not purchasing land around where arabs are currently living Capacity to understand the nuance PART II: TO 1947 The period before 1948 can be divided into four broad themes: (1) the end of the Ottoman Empire, the emergence of Zionism, and World War I diplomacy, which shaped the geopolitical origins of the ArabZionist conflict; (2) changing British policies toward the Arabs and Zionists, which saw the support of the Jewish National Home for two decades and then a reversal of that policy from 1939 onwards;(3) the emergence of independent Arab states around Palestine and the slow departure of French and British presence; and (4) the UN’s acceptance of the Palestine question, which included the 1947 decision to create separate Arab and Jewish States in Palestine. Throughout this period, Arab leadership in Palestine steadfastly refused to accept the idea of the Jewish National Home and, thus, for the most part boycotted official engagement with the British, as they ruled the area. Likewise, Arab kings and leaders in surrounding Arab states as well as the Arab League unalterably opposed Zionism, Jewish immigration to Palestine, and the establishment of a Jewish State in any part of Palestine. However, their anger was not expressed in the 1920s with the fervor it gained by the mid1930s. From the World War I period forward, the Zionists studiously lobbied for their cause and regularly sought support from Britain and then in the 1940s from the United States. By the 1930s, as demonstrated by the Palestinian Arab press and other Arab sources, Arabs in Palestine feared being overwhelmed by Jewish immigration and presence. Well before events in Europe turned international attention toward the defeat of Nazi Germany, Palestinian Arabs sensed that they were losing control over their immediate and long term future. Izzat Darwazzah, a noted Palestinian, told Syrian Arab leaders in 1938, “If until September 1937, the Jews spoke about building a National Home in Palestine; today they are already talking about the establishment of a Jewish State in part of Palestine. The total responsibility for our actions is now laid solely upon the Arabs. In the case that the Arab countries will continue to behave the way they have up until now towards the uprising in Palestine the Arabs of Palestine will be totally lost.” Darwazzah was correct in his estimate. Arab violence against the Zionists and British dotted the entire Mandate period. Attacks against Jewish immigration and presence occurred in 1921, 1928, 1929, 1933, 19361939, and almost annually in the 1940s. Britain reacted by demonstrating public concern for Arab fears, but did little to financially assist a slumping Arab economic condition while the majority Arab population continued to increase naturally. Britain was not in Palestine to provide self determination to either the Arabs or the Zionists; it was there to protect imperial interests. That meant funds were spent mostly in building roads, army installations, and ports. At the end of the 1930s, when violence between Arabs and Zionists became acute, Britain truncated the Jewish national home’s growth, effectively limiting Jewish land purchase and immigration after 1939. Yet, significant demographic, economic, and organizational outlines of a Jewish state were present, and Arabs in Palestine knew it. Britain had important strategic interests, such as access to Arabian Peninsula oil, maintaining influence in Jordan and Iraq, and protecting Egyptian access to and through the Suez Canal. In the 1940s, Britain increasingly cared more about surviving the War and maintaining positive relations with Arab and Muslim states, leaving a fragmented and disputatious Palestinian Arab leadership to fend for itself. After World War II, Arab states and Arab leaders in Palestine could not properly coordinate their opposition to the Jewish state in the making. Both the British and American officials in the 1940s wanted to assist the Arabs in stopping the creation of a Jewish State, but Arab State jealousies, and fragmentation of the Arab community in Palestine frustrated those efforts. The Zionists proved relentless in their desire to create a state where they could determine their own future. They achieved international legitimacy for their objective when the League of Nations in 192223 gave growth of the national home legitimacy. In November 1947, the United Nations voted to establish a Jewish and Arab State in Palestine as a way of solving the struggle for land. Jerusalem was to be internationalized and the two states were to be linked by a union. Arab states around Palestine and the Palestinians themselves rejected a twostate solution, wanting instead a federal state where the Jews could be a minority. By May 1948, Britain withdrew from Palestine and Israel was established. The future of Palestine was the first major international crisis placed on the agenda of the newly formed United Nations. Theodor Herzl’s late 19th century Zionist plan to turn an idea into reality evolved for a number of reasons. The Palestinians, with a divided leadership, exceedingly limited finances, no centrally organized military forces, and no reliable allies, were not able to compete with the Zionists in the struggle for Palestine. The Zionist Jews in Palestine, though numerically smaller than the Arab population (660,000 Jews vs. 1.2 million Arabs), were politically unified, had centralized institutions, and were as exceedingly wellled and highly motivated. In addition, the horrors of the Holocaust had just been revealed, further motivating the Zionists. Palestine was not handed to the Zionists because of events in Europe; events in Europe catalyzed the Jewish State’s creation. The documents in this section help lay out the story of Arab commitment to oppose Zionism, but their inability to thwart the Jewish state’s establishment; they show a steadfast Zionist movement virtually uncompromising in its drive to Statehood. They show Britain and the U.S. disagreeing profusely about what to do with Palestine’s future. Documents List: Introduction to Part II........................................................................................38 14. WorkingClass Conditions in Greater Syria (1838 and 1873)......................................40 1838: The laboring classes have a easy and good condition Usually well covered and prepared clothing wise for the weather Have various items to eat Lodging is generally cheap Most of the labor is done by women 1873: bazaars are filled with imported goods, poor articles of clothing cheap manufactures meat is a luxury that he can rarely afford vegetables and fruit are relatively cheap streets are narrow and filthy has to pay rent for housing 15. Minister Andrew D. White on the Jewish Situation in Russia (6 July 1893).....................41 Jews in Poland The tendency is all in the direction of not only excluding Israelites more rigorously than ever from parts of empire where they were formerly allowed on sufferance, but to make life more and more difficult for them in those parts of the Empire where they have been allowed to live for many generations 5,000,000 Israelites in Russia Certain skilled artisans have been allowed to reside in towns outside Jewish pale but their privileges are uncertain and liable to be diminished or taken away Thousands of rules and regulations so that most of the time the Jews have no idea about their rights and what they are allowed to do Finding it more and more difficult to reenter Russia if they ever leave Poverty is abject Even in parts of empire where Jews enjoy the most freedoms they are not allowed to hold property in land, or to take a mortgage on land, farm land Jewish manufactures are forced by laws to employ Christian workmen There is a limit on how many jury men can be jewish Education of their children, there are limits to what percent of scholars can be jewish There is the fear that without these restrictions more jews would go out to be educated and want the jobs that require a higher education Various attempts to convert jews The progress of Russia has been a series of reactions 16. “ The Jewish Question,” The Jewish Question,” The Jewish State, Theodor Herzl (1896)...??49 wherever jews live they are persecuted they are never allowed to hold good jobs and are not granted equality before the law no matter where they go its “Juden Raus” out with the jews Jews have attained preeminence in finance Jewish prosperity is what creates AntiSemitism Emancipation of the Jews lead to antiSemitic feelings Hostility breaks out wherever they are One people, made so by the enemies around them Distress binds us together an thus united we suddenly discover strength The plan: grant the jews soverienty over a portion of the globe so that they can act as a nation and manage for themselves Gradual, continuous movement The labor expended on the land with enhance its value and there will be a sphere of enterprise there without the hatred Two territories under consideration: Argentina and Palestine It would benefit the area and the surrounding states because the land would go up in value once the land is used well 17. 18. 19. 20. *HusaynMcMahon Correspondence (24 October 1915)...........................................61 Between 1915 and 1916, British High ommissioner in airo Sir Henry McMahon (1862 1949) corresponded with the Sherif of Mecca, Husayn Ibn Ali, through a series of letters. In them, the British government agreed to support the Sherif’s bid for the restoration of the aliphate (and leadership in the Arab world) in exchange for Husayn’s support of the British war effort against the ttoman Empire. Palestine was not mentioned by name in this exchange. Husayn, however, subseuently claimed that the land of Palestine had been included in the area to be part of Arab administration assisted by the British. During WWI, Britain, France, Russia, and Italy, allies in the war against Germany and the Ottoman Empire, established understandings with each other and with various Arab and Zionist leaders about how the Middle East would look after the war. These included the Sykes Picot Agreement. However, these agreements — some secret, some public — were vague and seemingly conflicted with one another. A major controversy centered around whether the area of Palestine — not yet defined in specific geographic terms — was to be reserved for the Zionists to create a national home, or to be included in an area under Arab control. The controversy spilled into the public domain with the publication of the 1937 Peel Commission Report and George Antonius’s “Arab Awakening” (1938). Great Britain is prepared to re
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