Test 3 and 4 Study Guides
Test 3 and 4 Study Guides Geo 101
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Gee on Sunday January 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geo 101 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Gosheh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/03/16
Study Guide: Test 4 WORLD GEOGRAPHY Ghosheh Asia: Introduction: Size and Boundaries Largest continent 1/3 of the land and 61% of people in the world Compared to other continents Has the world’s largest population clusters Has the largest amount of people in the world Dominant continent: Population, Religion, Language and Economy 61% of all the world’s population Top 10 in each category and Asian dominance 1. China 1.4 B (Asian) 2. India 1.3 B (Asian) 3. USA 324 M 4. Indonesia 250 M (Asian) 5. Pakistan 195 M 6. Brazil 200 M 7. Nigeria 8. Bangladesh 158 M (Asian) 9. Russia 10. Japan 127 M (Asian) Mostly rural, agricultural and poor—exceptions Languages Mandarin Chinese (most highly spoken) English Hindi Spanish Arabic Bengali Portuguese MalayIndonesian Russian Japanese Agricultural/ Rural 64% employed in agriculture Mostly poor o Except for NICs o Some OPEC countries Mostly rural o Massive ruralurban migration Staple of Asian diet Rice Asia and rice production Most of the world’s rice is produced in Asia (90%) 4 major Varieties of rice Japonica (sticky rice) Indica (long, skinny grains) Aromatic Glutinous (sweet rice, for dessert) Areas, regions of productions 1. China 36% 2. India 21% 3. Indonesia 8% 4. Bangladesh 5% 5. Thailand 4% 6. Vietnam 3.3% 7. Myanmar 3.1% 8. Japan 3.1% 9. USA, Brazil, Africa 2% Asia’s 4 subregions East (57 countries, main country being China) South (7 countries, India and neighbors) SE Asia (11 countries) Western Asia (largest area, smallest population) East vs South Asia: distinct differences and trends Population growth rates o East 0.7% Slow growth Mongoloids More urbanized More industrialized Modern/productive agriculture Japonica rice o South1.6% Largest national population growth rate More rural Caucasian Less productive agriculture Indica rice Asia Rising HDI Maps of Asia and discussion based on results Asia’s diversity: racial, cultural, economic…etc. Major religions o Christianity o Judaism o Hinduism o Buddhism o Taoism o Confucianism o Shintoism Economy o Projected 2020, 7 out of 19 largest economies in Asia Population o Mongoloids (Asians) o Caucasians (Whites) o Malay (SE Asians) o Small #s of blacks Less Developed Countries/ Poor: o Pakistan o Yemen o Afghanistan o Iraq?? o North Korea?? o Many Others Developed/ Rich Countries China: Location, Area and Boundaries The People’s Republic of China o Mainland China Largest Asian country o 3 largest in world Climate o Extremely diverse, tropical in south to subarctic in north Terrain o Mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west, plains, deltas, and hill in east Natural resources o COAL o Iron ore o Petroleum o Natural gas o Mercury o Tin o Tungsten o Antimony o Manganese o Etc. Compared to the US China is slightly larger than the US History of isolation and modern colonialism of China Geography provided protection o Topography/geography allowed for isolation/insulated country o East: Ocean and seas o S, N, W: Mountains o N and W: Deserts o Supplemented by the Great Wall of China 4000 miles long Invasion from East British in Hong Kong established a trading center Portuguese in Macao/Macau Japanese in Manchuria Shanghai controlled by foreigners Post WWII liberation/civil war o Establishment of PRC (Communist China) 1949 Macao under Portuguese rule until 2000 One country two systems…unity of all China? PRC and Taiwan one country? Population trends and policies World’s largest population (about 1.4 Billion) 194979 and 79present o 4979 Fast growing population Collective farms established Decline in food production Millions were dying of famine o 79present Population control policy 1 Child Policy Some exceptions o Minorities or farmers were allowed more than 1 If you want more than 1 child, you have to pay a fine China’s diversity Han majority vs minority groups Han Majority (90% of pop, mainly in East) o Use about 50% of land 55 minority groups recognized (10% of pop, primarily in West) o Use about 50% of land, which is a problem Racial, national, ethnic, linguistic, religious diversity Race o Han majority (90%) eastern China o National minorities (10%) western China 55 distinct groups Languages o Mandarin o Yue o Wu o Minna o Minbei Chinese flag Four stars that surround large star represent minority groups and the large star in the center represents the Han Chinese Uneven population distribution Minorities (10% of pop) live on 50% of China’s land East vs West East o 90% of population West o 10% of population Provinces vs Autonomous regions Major differences between North & South The New China 1979present 194979 o Rapid population growth o Communist government o Communist economy o Command economy o Soviet model o Slow economic growth o Selfsufficiency o Little to no trade 1979present o Population control o Communist government o Capitalist economy “Chinese capitalism” mix of capitalism (mostly) and socialism o Adapted Japanese model o Heavy dependence on international trade New Economic policies, New Population policy 2 children per family instead of 1 From Communist Economy to Chinese capitalism Chinese capitalism o Mixture of capitalism and socialism SEZs and International Trade and Investment SEZ o Special Economic Zones FDI and international trade free trade zones Incentives for productivity “privatization” TVEs (Town and village enterprises) One of the largest trade countries in the world Largest exporting country in the world o $50 pair of shoes here, >$1 goes to China Chinese accomplishments and future prospects No one shall go hungry Quality education Adequate shelter for everyone Life expectancy increased Number of Chinese going on to college Regional cooperation With NE Asia and SE Asia ASEAN: Association of South East Asian Nations o Free trade o Fastest growing regional economy o Free Trade with ASEAN and Asian countries Regional relations Chinese minorities in SE Asia Assertive China? Partner or threat? TransPacific Partnership o Created by the US, excludes China Challenges Facing China Employment for 1000s of millions…Chinese Dream Environmental ProblemsPollution o 700,000 Chinese die every year from pollution related illness/disease o 16 of the world’s 20 most polluted cities in China o Red Riverindustrial waste routinely dumped in rivers o Bottled water does not meet standards o 1000s of dead pigs floating in Shanghai Bay o Pollution due to high use of coal (high sulfur coal) Privatization o Regional disparities o Abandonment of IronRice Bowl Policy o Inequalities o Floating population (100 million) Mass migration from interior to coastal cities Moving without approval within China Video Handouts and Questions on both China videos India: South Asia’s 7 countries India (core) o 1/3 size of US o 4X population o 7 largest country in the world Pakistan Bangladesh Nepal Bhutan Sri Lanca Maldives Population trends. compare to East Asia Smallest sub region in Asia Largest population 1/3 of E. Asia land area…larger population India has 1/3 of China’s land…almost same population Poorer, more rural, LDC Less productive agriculture Indian Subcontinent ½ land of US 5X US population Compared to the USA Quality of life: South Asia vs East Asia India: The Core country British India>>>>Modern India Hindu India & Muslim Pakistan Division into India, West and East Pakistan MultiReligious India Hindus: 80.5% Muslims: 13.4% Christians: 2.3% Sikhs: 1.9% Population Exchange Kashmir conflict Division of China into states along language lines 700+ languages >15 languages> 1 national language National language Monsoon Climatic phenomenon Winter vs Summer Monsoon Summerrainy (SW Monsoon) Winterwindcarried rain, dry monsoon (NE Monsoon) rd India: Leader of the 3 World and NonAligned Movement India’s world’s largest democracy World’s largest English speaking country Leader of nonaligned movement Nuclear power Leader in appropriate technology o Indian company introduces world’s most affordable laptop o 200 rupees ($11) o Tata company world’s cheapest car (the Nano) Skilledlabor exporter (brain drain) o India accounts for 70% of skilled labor visas in US Entertainment exports (Bollywood) Computer software exports o Billion dollar industry Challenges facing India Population growth, high population density Roads Indian agriculture is still labor intensive Revolution of rising expectation Overpopulation Food, education, infrastructure Instability o External War over Kashmir o Internal Interreligious strife Caste system and income disparities o Society divided into classes based on birth (rice growers’ child is rice grower) o Rice grower should marry rice grower Affirmative Action Program RU Migration and rapid urbanization Environmental and health issues o AIDS Brain drain India’s population growth rates and trends India will have roughly 2 million more people than China in 2050 Policy and results North vs South Federal democracy Carrot and Draconian methods Many carrots for not having children Most effective o Kerala Educating women Food, health, education services Model for other LDC’s Multicultural India Until 2007, Muslim president Sikh in military Hindu majority Language and religious diversity Religions o Buddhism o Christianity o Hinduism Oldest of the world’s major religions 3 largest religion in world Belief in reincarnation and karma We have souls that are reborn and karma determines what you are in future lives. Rich are rich because they earned it, the poor are poor because they deserve it. Dharma Set of rules that must be followed by living things if they wish to work their way up the ladder of reincarnation The cow is holy, so Hindus don’t eat beef Cows are used to make milk, cheese, butter, yogurt, etc. Cows are used as work animals or transportation Cows fertilize soil Dried cow poop is used to make fuel Dried poop is used to make houses 30lbs of grain feeds a cow enough to make 1lb of beef India videos: Handouts &Questions WORLD GEOGRAPHY Sample questions MULTIPLE CHOICE: CHOOSE THE MOST APPROPRIATE ANSWER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. World population is expected to increase from the current 7.2 Billion to about 9 Billion by 2050. The largest population concentration will be in: A. South Asia B. Latin America C. Western Africa D. SE Asia 2. Which of the following is the largest/smallest region: A. Anglo America B. Middle America C. Latin America 3. This world geography course dealt with all of the five themes of geography but is mainly concerned with the_____________theme: A Location B. Human interaction with nature C. Regions and Realms 4. Asia has the distinction of: a. having the largest land mass of any continent b. having the largest population of any continent c. having the two largest population clusters d. allof the above 5. Japan's main island and heartland is the island of: A. Hokkaido B. Honshu C. Mirconesia D. Okinawa 6. Brazil can be divided into_________two very different regions along population, climate and economic lines. A North vs South B. East vs West C. Northwest vs Southeast 7. The only country in Africa that we might consider rich, developed and truly democratic is: A. Egypt B. Nigeria C. Kenya D. South Africa 8. The European Union's ultimate goal is to: A. establish free trade in all of Europe B. establish the United States of Europe C. build better relations with the US and Russia 9. Most of the Chinese population is: A. Han B. Malay C. Cantonese D. all of the above 10. One unintended consequence of population policies in Asia's largest countries has been: A. to reduce rural population B. to alter the gender balance C. to increase the urban rural migration Study Guide: Test 3 WORLD GEOGRAPHY Ghosheh West Asia/North Africa: Why is the Middle East Important region? Control over crucial waterways Connects Asia with Africa and Europe Cradle of civilization o Home to some of the world’s earliest cultures Birthplace of major world religions o Christianity (33%) o Islam (22%) All countries except Israel have Muslim majorities o Hinduism o Nonreligious o Buddhism Large and growing population Energy Resources The Big Five Saudi Arabia (#1 in preserves, production, exports) o Production continues to go up because of new discoveries of oil o Clean oil o Cheaper to produce o Sweet crude oil Iraq United Arab Emirates Kuwait Iran Oil Reserves and exports 60% of world’s oil o US is one the #1 consumers of oil, yet one of the smallest producers Saudi Arabia can produce for 150 years o Middle East will be last region with oil to sell Persian Gulf USA oil reserve, imports and energy policy US uses 25% of world’s oil US is one of the smallest producers of oil We will run out of oil to produce in 8 years or less Rising demand requires increased production World Largest religions Christian Muslim Problems facing ME Shrinking agricultural land Shrinking water supply Growing population Hotbed of instability Need for oil and water causes wars Major Ethnic groups in WANA WANA=West Asia North Africa Race: o Caucasians (different shades of tan/olive skin) Dominant race o Black Africans (in N. Africa and Arabian Peninsula) o Mongoloids (in Turkestan and east parts of West Asia) o And mixed races EthnoLinguistic Diversity o Arabs: Arabic About 300+m, majority in 23+ countries o Turks Turkish 5 Stans N. Iran Turkey o Persians Farsi Largest group in Iran (1/2 population) o Kurds Kurdish Minorities in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, other countries o Slavs Russian Former soviet republics Mostly in Turkestan o Pashtuns Pashto (Taliban) Largest group in Afghanistan o Semitic Languages o Turkic Languages o IndoEuropean Languages Farsi, French, English, Russian, Italian o African Languages o Critical languages in the region Major religious groups in WANA Predominantly Muslim, but not exclusively (90%) o Sunni (90%) o Shia (10%) o Judaism o Islam Muslims believe in one God, Allah Muslims believe in Heaven and Hell Muslims believe in Jesus, but not as the son of God Practicing Muslims don’t eat pork or drink alcohol Christians (56%) o Russian Orthodox o Qupts (about 10% of Egyptians) o Maronites (Eastern Catholics) Only Maronite Christians can be president in Lebanon, Syria o Greek Orthodox o Armenians o Chaladians (Iraq) Jews (1%) o Most found in Israel o Small minorities in Morocco, Turkey, Yemen o Haaredim (Ultra Orthodox) Very conservative dress o Orthodox o Reform (American Jews) o Secular Others (12%) Sunni vs Shia Succession and Political Competitions Ali vs. Mauwaih Shia defeat in Karabala (Iraq) Shia corruption of Khilafah concept: o Alawais o Imam Concept A hidden leader would show themselves Receive divine inspiration and cannot be mistrusted Diversity of political systems in OIS o Secular Democracies: Turkey o Theocracy & Democracy: Iran o Mostly Dictatorships/Monarchies Arabs vs. Muslims Arabs o Language group o 80%+ of Arabs are Muslim Muslims o Religious group o NonArabs Only 2 Shia Majority countries Only nonMuslim majority country The 5 subregions on WANA 5 Stans o Central Turkic countries Empire States o Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan (center of Empires: Roman, Ottoman, and Greek Empires) o Large national populations Arabian Peninsula o Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates o Large area, small population The fertile crescent o Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon North Africa o Egypt, Libya, Morocco (including Western Sahara), Algeria, Tunisia, Sudan (excluding S. Sudan) Largest subregion/Smallest subregion Population Distribution Large area, small population 2 times size of US, 2 times population (Same population density) Nomads on the decline Most live in cities/towns Historically Urban region o Cities dominated W Asia/N. Africa o World’s first and oldest cities o Region of large cities/primate cities o Primate cities, even smaller ones dominate country Kuwaitcity, Beirut, Amman Early Agricultural innovations Major crops: o Olives o Grains: Wheat, rice, barely o Fruits and vegetables o Coffee and tobacco o Grapes/Wine o Cotton (Egypt has best quality) o Nuts o Opium and Qat Mediterranean Diet Olive oil Olives Fresh vegetables Climatic Diversity Desert/Arid climate: o ½ of total area o Precipitation <4” a year o Evaporation exceeds precipitation o Sahara region of N. Africa/Arabian desert o Mostly unpopulated o Camels used to be a very important animal for rides, etc. but now they are an endangered species Semi Arid o 416” precipitation o Grazing land for cattle o Sparsely populated Mediterranean o Hot, dry summers o Long growing season o Warm, wet winters Rain is only in winter o Most important climatic region o Productive multicrop agriculture Grains, fruits, veggies o Densely populated Humid continental o Rain all year o Good for cash cropping Major tobacco producer Monsoon o Rain carried by wind o Rain in summer Microthermal o Cold, snowy region o “Small heat” Productive climatic regions vs. Arid and SemiArid climates The 5 Pillars of Islam Abrahamic Religions Judaism Christianity Islam Roots of conflict in WANA Kurds Minority Rule and lack of democracy Egypt: Why is Egypt Important? Has the largest population Heartland of the Arabs o ¼ of Arabs live in Egypt Ancient power center, Main power center of middle east Major center of learning, culture, and power Location and the Suez Canal Egypt has a central location in M.E. Connects Africa and Asia Mediterranean and Red Seas Control over the Suez canal o Control of travel, trade, etc. Area and Population Area: 1/10 of U.S. (about 8X size of Pennsylvania) Population: 34X more crowded than U.S. o Uneven distribution and rapid growing population o Young population 4 subregions of Egypt Western Desert Eastern Desert Sinai Desert Nile Valley and Delta Climate Arid and semiarid Irrigation essential for agriculture 100% of agricultural land is irrigated Population concentration in Nile Valley & Delta 4% of land area, 99% of population Free Officers Revolution and Subsequent changes “Revolution” 19522011 Food Imports and food subsidies Food deficit (Egypt imports 50% of food needs) Food subsidies (12% of GNP) Iron Rice Bowl Policy o Makes food affordable for the poor Food riots (bread prices) Population control Plan o Food security Grow all their food there Create a secondary Nile River to double food output Egypt main cash crop Cotton Why did the Egyptian Revolt in 2011? Ruled by foreign powers until 1952 (Monarchy) Drive to modernization o Mohamed Ali Rebuilt canals Improved seeds Cotton production up 20X in 50 years British saw Egypt as competitor and threat Prevented Ali from taking over Palestine Imposed restrictions on textile industry o British and French took control of Egypt’s budget and foreign affairs when they went into debt Hampered development Because of this, Egypt developed a food deficit 1952 “Revolution” o Free Officer Coup 3 officers ruled Egypt Took land from large farmers and gave it to needy Universal free education Food subsidies was started Industrialization program (stateowned factories) Industrial and food output up, but so was population Nationalization of Suez Canal Tripartite invasion (British, French, Israeli) occupation of Canal zone US intervention forced invaders out Egypt moves toward East (Communist allies) Similar conditions in WANA Major Problems facing Egypt and WANA countries Rapid growing population Food deficit High food prices Instability Brain drain 48 million skilled Egyptians abroad High Youth Unemployment o Revolution trigger Government corruption Economic dualism and disparities Rapid urbanization Desertification Main Sources of Revenue for Egypt Workers abroad $$$ Billions Tourism ups and downs Suez Canal tolls Foreign Aid o US (threat to cut 1.5 Billion) o Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and UAE provide $12B o Communist Allies Oil War and economic fourtunes Command Economy Govt. control over resources Land redistribution Industrial output up Food output up Greening of the desert (drip irrigation) 771, 000 acres gained Electricity and schools grow Govt. and Economy 3 Officers ruled Egypt 3 eras since “revolution” o Nasserism (PanArabism) Socialist economy and alliance with East Helping poor Aswan High Dam Drive for Arab Unity (attempts at unity) Palestine and Yemen Wars o Sadat Privatization Peace with Israel Invest money in development o Mubbark Until revolution in 2011 Political Parties in Egypt Legal/recognized groups: o Wafd Party o Nasserism o United Front o Democratic Front Arab Spring and War on Terror Shattering conventional wisdom: o Ben Laden’s violence/terrorism is the only option o Arab spring clearly demonstrates that peaceful revolution is far more successful and appealing option o Bush’s assertion, they hate our way of life o Can US continue to choose stability of the statusquo over the unknown repercussions of democracy? Similar to Mexico? Sub Saharan Africa: Why divide Africa into North and SS Africa? There is a physical barrier (Sahara Desert) that divides North and Sub Saharan Africa. Differences between 2 African regions North Africa o More exchange with West Asia and Europe o “White” Africa o Arabic speakers o Muslim majority Sub Saharan Africa o “Black” Africa o English is dominant language o Christian majority What attracted Europeans to Africa initially? Natural and mineral resources Cheap or free labor o Slave trade Food source Afterwards? Why is SS Africa Poor/Less Developed? Low literacy Lowest life expectancy in the world World’s Poorest and Least Developed Region Afropessimists Afrooptimists The Brain Drain Many doctors go from LDCs to MDCs Debt Debt forgiveness AIDS in Africa? AIDS has hit this region harder than any other in the world o Higher infection rate (2/3 of all global cases) o Higher death rate due to AIDS Higher infection rate in SS Africa than North Africa Infection rates, trends and consequences How is SS Africa unique when it comes to AIDS compared to rest of world? They have the highest rate of infection and the least treatment for it due to the cost Only in SS Africa, the majority of infected are women ABC program of AIDS prevention Abstain from sex Be faithful (have one sexual partner) Condom Population growth in Africa MDCs o Declining population o Older Population LDCs o Rapidly growing population o Mostly young population o Highest growth rate found in SS Africa Natural population growth o Birth ratedeath rate o Immigration and emigration Trends and Projections Why do the poor have more children: o Infant mortality rate You want 2 kids, you have 4 because 2 will die. This isn’t very true anymore. o Religion o Culture o Access to birth control o Lack of education Population and Food resources in Africa Africa’s share of world population 13.9% of world’s population Can Africa feed all Africans? Food output increases 2.5 %/ year, but population increases at 3%/ year The ability to feed everyone is decreasing Green Revolution South Africa: How is South Africa different from the rest of SS Africa? Geostrategic location o Straddles two oceans o Midway point in EuroAsian trade Rich country o Natural resources o Mineral resources Diamonds Gold o Food Major food exporters of the world Varied climate/agriculture Welldeveloped infrastructure Only truly industrialized African country nd 2 largest economy in Africa Resources? Natural resources Mineral resources o Diamonds o Gold o Platinum History and competition for control of South Africa? From white minority rule to multi racial democracy Trading stations (Dutch were first to establish one) Domination of native population Apartheid Regime o Economic dualism Two distinct economies/countries White income 10X higher than black income Blacks could not vote until the 1991 at the end of the Apartheid Regime Dutch>>Boer>>Afrikaaner Major Native South African Groups: Zulu, Xhosa Population diversity of South Africa Large country, small population Growth rate lowest in Africa Native blacks 80% o Zulu o Xhosa White Europeans 10% o Dutch 60% of whites o British 30% of whites o Others Mixed race o Colored 89% (Mullato) Asians E. Indians +Malay 2% Racial, Tribal, Language and religious groups Almost everyone speaks English as a common language Apartheid regime Meant only whites could vote ANC African National Congress (established in 1912) Black Homelands (Bantustans) Ciskei Transkei Zululand Xhosaland Major Cities Johannesburg Pretoria Durban Cape town Townships Cities for the black population Part of enforcing segregation or apartheid S. Africa as a model for other countries Improve life of blacks while protecting rights of whites Nonviolence Democratic multiracial country Host of peace and antiracism summits Only country in Africa to host World Cup (2010) Challenges facing S. Africa Balance needs of majority with rights of minorities Land redistribution AIDS Middle East Map and questions on Map coloring results South Africa video questions?
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