New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Tatum Messer


Tatum Messer
GPA 3.53

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide will cover everything on the test in detail including short answer points of knowledge. This study guide will help guide you through the material while giving you the knowledge to...
Racial Minorities, Criminality, and Social Justice
Ebony Johnson
Study Guide
Criminal Justice
50 ?




Popular in Racial Minorities, Criminality, and Social Justice

Popular in Criminal Justice

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tatum Messer on Monday January 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 303 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Ebony Johnson in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Racial Minorities, Criminality, and Social Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

Similar to CJ 303 at UA

Popular in Criminal Justice


Reviews for CJ 303 STUDY GUIDE (MIDTERM)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/04/16
Midterm Study Guide CJ 303­320 Chapters 1­4  Thursday, October 22, 2015 Race (as a sociological and biological construct)  Biologically: someone’s skin color, texture of hair and shape of eyes.  NOT POSSIBLE  TO DEFINE HUMAN RACES BIOLOGICALLY.  Sociologically constructed: define a group as a race based on physical characteristics, but  also on historical, cultural, and economic factors  Ethnicity   cultural heritage and background Minority group: Culturally, ethnically, or racially distinct group that coexists with but is  subordinate to a more dominant group. (Black or Latino)­­­­­ 5 characteristics below.  Experience disadvantage or inequality  Visible trait or difference separating them from other groups  Group is a self­conscious social unity  Membership usually determined at birth  Members tend to marry within the group Stereotypes  COGNITION: generalized beliefs about these groups.  Under prejudice, above  discrimination. Prejudice  Attitude.  How you feel about members of a group. Discrimination  Actions.  Behavioral actions towards someone because they are of another group.    Not being hired because of age, race, or gender.  Ethnocentrism­ judging other groups based off your own standard  Cultural racism­ the individual and institutional expression of the superiority of one groups cultural heritage over another Merton’s Typology of prejudice and discrimination  (fair weather liberal = not prejudice but discriminates)   (all weather liberal = neither prejudice nor discriminatory)  (consistent bigot = prejudice and discriminates)  (Timid bigot = prejudice but not discriminatory) Institutionalized Racism/Discrimination  Decisions made as to unfairly subordinate persons of color while allowing other groups to  profit from such actions.  In schools, governments, businesses, unions, churches and courts. Disparity (reasons disparities exist)­ differences not always based on race  Prior record­­­ minorities more likely to have been involved in more crimes   Severity of Offense­­­ minorities most likely to have more severe crimes  Court appointees­­­ minorities more likely to have a public defender over private attorney Discrimination­Disparity Continuum  Systematic discrimination ­­­Discrimination within entire CJ system  Institutionalized discrimination ­­­Disparities based on established policies  Contextual discrimination ­­­Discrimination in certain situations  Individual discrimination ­­­Discrimination by specific justice officials  Pure justice ­­­No discrimination Racism  One racial category is innately superior or inferior to another (conscious or unconscious) Internalized Racism  Any attitude or action whether intentional or unintentional, conscious or unconscious,  which subordinates a person or group because of their color Traditional Racism vs Modern Racism  Traditional­­­ open act and obvious discrimination against a group­­­ conscious  Modern­­­   subtle, indirect, and unconscious  operates outside of conscious awareness  decisions based off stereotyping process  Internalized privileges (which indirectly impacts others) Mann vs Wilbanks and/or McDonald (Does racism exist in CJS?)  Racism in the CJ system as a whole is a myth but individual acts of discrimination and  racism exist. Conflict Perspective  Racial disparities in CJ are directly connected with all societal inequalities  Explains overrepresentation of minorities in the CJ system Official statistics used to measure crime/limitations  National Crime Victimization Survey(NCVS)  Who has been victims of crime  Limitation­­­ honesty  Uniform Crime Report (UCR)  Most widely used source to measure crime  Limitation­­­ voluntary   Self­Report Data  Who personally has engaged in criminal behavior  Limitation­­­ honesty Victimization statistics  White victims are more specialized cases according to stereotypical events  AA households more vulnerable than white  African Americans more likely than other groups to be personal crime victims o Two times more vulnerable to being victims of rape, robbery, and aggravated  assault  Hispanics have the highest victimization rate for robbery  Highest victimization rate is reported for persons self­identified as “two or more races”  AA women more likely to call police­­­­Asian women least likely  HOMOCIDE victims­­­ AA males highest rate, whites and Hispanics not as high  PERCEPTIONS ON VICTIMS AND OFFENDERS ARE PROBLEMATIC DUE TO  INVALID DATA. Incarceration statistics  The incarceration rate for African American males was 6.7 times the rate for whites   The incarceration rate for Hispanic American males was 2.6 times greater than the rate for  whites  Racial hoax  Intentionally directing law enforcement & media towards “stereotypical” criminal groups  Impacts every group  Wastes law enforcement resources  Perpetuates stereotypes (harming society)  The majority of racial hoax cases are by a white person charging an African American  (70% of crimes between 1987­1996) Hate crimes  Interracial crimes  Among other groups. Not one’s own grouping. Research on intraracial versus interracial crimes (MOST OFFENDERS WHITE­­­ ARRESTED  NOT WHITE)  Intraracial­­­ within one’s own racial group(most crimes are intraracial crimes)  Interracial­­­ hate crimes. Among other groupings. Under half of interracial crime is  reported.  Not all hate crimes.  3% violent crimes= hate crimes.  OFFENDERS MALE  AND WHITE AND STRANGER OF VICTIM.  Social structure theory o Conflict Theory  Explains overrepresentation of minorities in CJ system  Example is the segregation era (limited access of needs and wants of minorities and racial  groups)  LAW IS USED TO MAINTAIN THE POWER OF A SOCIETYS DOMINANT  GROUP AND CONTROL THE PEOPLE WHO THREATEN THAT POWER. Social capital and Cultural capital  Social Capital  FRIENDS, RELATIONSHIPS AND CONTACTS  Cultural Capital  EDUCATION, KNOWLEDGE, AND SKILLS/TRADE Predatory Lending  Imposes unfair or abusive loan terms on a borrower Redlining  Banks, savings and loan companies refusing to offer mortgage in poor and minority  neighborhoods Inequality and crime Extent of racial and ethnic inequality, Wealth, Income, Unemployment, Poverty status, Education  Poverty Status  BELOW MINIMUM NEEDED FOR ADEQUATE LIVING (22,050$$) for family of four  Directly connected to resource access and disenfranchisement   areas residing more in poverty stricken areas are more impacted with criminal activity   it is hard to protect the youth from such behavior    Pushes people out of the neighborhoods through direct impact with crime and physical injuries.    Just because people live in poverty doesn’t mean they will partake in criminal behavior, it just has  an encouragement factor for participating in crime   Residents suffer high predatory crime rates­­­ break­ins and burglaries.   Residential Segregation  Segregation by race, ethnicity, and income has always been prevalent  Efforts of redlining, steering, poll tax, and restrictions have been made to preserve it  Limited government efforts have been made to intervene De facto vs de jure segregation  De facto­­­ as a matter of fact  De jure­­­ outlaw by law Impact of civil rights movement on CJS  Opened many doors  Significantly limited segregation  Expanded guarantees of equal rights  Had profound impact of American social structure  African Americans increased officials in the CJ system drastically (33 to 8830)  Hispanic number of officials increased (3174 to 5129) Challenges of policing immigrant communities  Hispanics  Language barriers, often places underserved by police  Fear of immigration enforcement = fewer calls to police  Native Americans­­­   complex jurisdictional issues  training issues  interrelated issues ­­­­ (political power, land, economic development and individual despair) Issues in Policing­Immigration, Discretion, Racial Profiling, Police Brutality, Corruption, Deadly Force  discretion(under polices point of view only)  immigration(language barriers)  racial profiling(targeting specific races without suspicion just based off of color)  Police brutality (AA’s are three times more likely to experience threat or actual force.) (Hispanics  more likely than whites less than blacks to experience either)  Officer behavior in response to situation – perceived criminal involvement –  demeanor of citizen – social status Tennessee v. Garner (1985)  FLEEING FELON RULE  After a child was caught leaving a break­in at the house, the officer had told him to stop  and halt the young man didn’t listen and decided to flea over the fence, the officer then  shot the young man in the head killing him.  The law said that a fleeing felon was to be  apprehended at all costs and this case changed the law once seen what the boy had on him  and the circumstances.  The officer was not reasonably sure he was unarmed and his age  (15) rather than 18 and his build (skinny) all this goes back into police discretion. What are stop and frisk policies?  Non­intrusive stops that are legal and lawful if and only if police have knowledge or  reasonable suspicion of a crime being committed or about to be or has been.  Police have  the right only then to stop a suspect.  (1.7 guns found on whites vs 1.1 guns found on  African Americans) What is racial profiling?  Targeting individuals based not on behavior but their personal characteristics Public attitudes toward police  Older women favor police the most  Young minority males less favorable of police  Most of society has confidence in them *Highlighted information pertains to short answer questions. Concepts in red pertains to information not covered in  the text. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.