CJ 303 STUDY GUIDE (MIDTERM)
CJ 303 STUDY GUIDE (MIDTERM) CJ 303
Popular in Racial Minorities, Criminality, and Social Justice
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tatum Messer on Monday January 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 303 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Ebony Johnson in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Racial Minorities, Criminality, and Social Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/04/16
Midterm Study Guide CJ 303320 Chapters 14 Thursday, October 22, 2015 Race (as a sociological and biological construct) Biologically: someone’s skin color, texture of hair and shape of eyes. NOT POSSIBLE TO DEFINE HUMAN RACES BIOLOGICALLY. Sociologically constructed: define a group as a race based on physical characteristics, but also on historical, cultural, and economic factors Ethnicity cultural heritage and background Minority group: Culturally, ethnically, or racially distinct group that coexists with but is subordinate to a more dominant group. (Black or Latino) 5 characteristics below. Experience disadvantage or inequality Visible trait or difference separating them from other groups Group is a selfconscious social unity Membership usually determined at birth Members tend to marry within the group Stereotypes COGNITION: generalized beliefs about these groups. Under prejudice, above discrimination. Prejudice Attitude. How you feel about members of a group. Discrimination Actions. Behavioral actions towards someone because they are of another group. Not being hired because of age, race, or gender. Ethnocentrism judging other groups based off your own standard Cultural racism the individual and institutional expression of the superiority of one groups cultural heritage over another Merton’s Typology of prejudice and discrimination (fair weather liberal = not prejudice but discriminates) (all weather liberal = neither prejudice nor discriminatory) (consistent bigot = prejudice and discriminates) (Timid bigot = prejudice but not discriminatory) Institutionalized Racism/Discrimination Decisions made as to unfairly subordinate persons of color while allowing other groups to profit from such actions. In schools, governments, businesses, unions, churches and courts. Disparity (reasons disparities exist) differences not always based on race Prior record minorities more likely to have been involved in more crimes Severity of Offense minorities most likely to have more severe crimes Court appointees minorities more likely to have a public defender over private attorney DiscriminationDisparity Continuum Systematic discrimination Discrimination within entire CJ system Institutionalized discrimination Disparities based on established policies Contextual discrimination Discrimination in certain situations Individual discrimination Discrimination by specific justice officials Pure justice No discrimination Racism One racial category is innately superior or inferior to another (conscious or unconscious) Internalized Racism Any attitude or action whether intentional or unintentional, conscious or unconscious, which subordinates a person or group because of their color Traditional Racism vs Modern Racism Traditional open act and obvious discrimination against a group conscious Modern subtle, indirect, and unconscious operates outside of conscious awareness decisions based off stereotyping process Internalized privileges (which indirectly impacts others) Mann vs Wilbanks and/or McDonald (Does racism exist in CJS?) Racism in the CJ system as a whole is a myth but individual acts of discrimination and racism exist. Conflict Perspective Racial disparities in CJ are directly connected with all societal inequalities Explains overrepresentation of minorities in the CJ system Official statistics used to measure crime/limitations National Crime Victimization Survey(NCVS) Who has been victims of crime Limitation honesty Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Most widely used source to measure crime Limitation voluntary SelfReport Data Who personally has engaged in criminal behavior Limitation honesty Victimization statistics White victims are more specialized cases according to stereotypical events AA households more vulnerable than white African Americans more likely than other groups to be personal crime victims o Two times more vulnerable to being victims of rape, robbery, and aggravated assault Hispanics have the highest victimization rate for robbery Highest victimization rate is reported for persons selfidentified as “two or more races” AA women more likely to call policeAsian women least likely HOMOCIDE victims AA males highest rate, whites and Hispanics not as high PERCEPTIONS ON VICTIMS AND OFFENDERS ARE PROBLEMATIC DUE TO INVALID DATA. Incarceration statistics The incarceration rate for African American males was 6.7 times the rate for whites The incarceration rate for Hispanic American males was 2.6 times greater than the rate for whites Racial hoax Intentionally directing law enforcement & media towards “stereotypical” criminal groups Impacts every group Wastes law enforcement resources Perpetuates stereotypes (harming society) The majority of racial hoax cases are by a white person charging an African American (70% of crimes between 19871996) Hate crimes Interracial crimes Among other groups. Not one’s own grouping. Research on intraracial versus interracial crimes (MOST OFFENDERS WHITE ARRESTED NOT WHITE) Intraracial within one’s own racial group(most crimes are intraracial crimes) Interracial hate crimes. Among other groupings. Under half of interracial crime is reported. Not all hate crimes. 3% violent crimes= hate crimes. OFFENDERS MALE AND WHITE AND STRANGER OF VICTIM. Social structure theory o Conflict Theory Explains overrepresentation of minorities in CJ system Example is the segregation era (limited access of needs and wants of minorities and racial groups) LAW IS USED TO MAINTAIN THE POWER OF A SOCIETYS DOMINANT GROUP AND CONTROL THE PEOPLE WHO THREATEN THAT POWER. Social capital and Cultural capital Social Capital FRIENDS, RELATIONSHIPS AND CONTACTS Cultural Capital EDUCATION, KNOWLEDGE, AND SKILLS/TRADE Predatory Lending Imposes unfair or abusive loan terms on a borrower Redlining Banks, savings and loan companies refusing to offer mortgage in poor and minority neighborhoods Inequality and crime Extent of racial and ethnic inequality, Wealth, Income, Unemployment, Poverty status, Education Poverty Status BELOW MINIMUM NEEDED FOR ADEQUATE LIVING (22,050$$) for family of four Directly connected to resource access and disenfranchisement areas residing more in poverty stricken areas are more impacted with criminal activity it is hard to protect the youth from such behavior Pushes people out of the neighborhoods through direct impact with crime and physical injuries. Just because people live in poverty doesn’t mean they will partake in criminal behavior, it just has an encouragement factor for participating in crime Residents suffer high predatory crime rates breakins and burglaries. Residential Segregation Segregation by race, ethnicity, and income has always been prevalent Efforts of redlining, steering, poll tax, and restrictions have been made to preserve it Limited government efforts have been made to intervene De facto vs de jure segregation De facto as a matter of fact De jure outlaw by law Impact of civil rights movement on CJS Opened many doors Significantly limited segregation Expanded guarantees of equal rights Had profound impact of American social structure African Americans increased officials in the CJ system drastically (33 to 8830) Hispanic number of officials increased (3174 to 5129) Challenges of policing immigrant communities Hispanics Language barriers, often places underserved by police Fear of immigration enforcement = fewer calls to police Native Americans complex jurisdictional issues training issues interrelated issues (political power, land, economic development and individual despair) Issues in PolicingImmigration, Discretion, Racial Profiling, Police Brutality, Corruption, Deadly Force discretion(under polices point of view only) immigration(language barriers) racial profiling(targeting specific races without suspicion just based off of color) Police brutality (AA’s are three times more likely to experience threat or actual force.) (Hispanics more likely than whites less than blacks to experience either) Officer behavior in response to situation – perceived criminal involvement – demeanor of citizen – social status Tennessee v. Garner (1985) FLEEING FELON RULE After a child was caught leaving a breakin at the house, the officer had told him to stop and halt the young man didn’t listen and decided to flea over the fence, the officer then shot the young man in the head killing him. The law said that a fleeing felon was to be apprehended at all costs and this case changed the law once seen what the boy had on him and the circumstances. The officer was not reasonably sure he was unarmed and his age (15) rather than 18 and his build (skinny) all this goes back into police discretion. What are stop and frisk policies? Nonintrusive stops that are legal and lawful if and only if police have knowledge or reasonable suspicion of a crime being committed or about to be or has been. Police have the right only then to stop a suspect. (1.7 guns found on whites vs 1.1 guns found on African Americans) What is racial profiling? Targeting individuals based not on behavior but their personal characteristics Public attitudes toward police Older women favor police the most Young minority males less favorable of police Most of society has confidence in them *Highlighted information pertains to short answer questions. Concepts in red pertains to information not covered in the text.
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