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KIN 411 Final Review Guide

by: Alina Levy

KIN 411 Final Review Guide KIN 411

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Kinesiology > KIN 411 > KIN 411 Final Review Guide
Alina Levy
GPA 3.0

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Final Emphasis over 411 course
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alina Levy on Monday January 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 411 at Michigan State University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see in Kinesiology at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 01/04/16
KIN 411 Final Exam Study Emphasis* Information Conversion Factors: 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 L O = 5 kcal 2 1 mph = 26.8 m/min 1 MET= 1 kcal/kg/hr 1 mile= 1609 m 1 MET= 3.5 ml/kg/min 1 kg = 1 kp 1 rev = 6 m (on Monark) 1 kg = 2.2 lbs Validity: Degree to which a test or instrument measures what it is supposed to measure Reliability: Consistency of a measure Can a test be both reliable and objective, but not valid? YES Can a test be unreliable and lack objectivity, but still be valid? NO Know the basics of how to check the calibration of the treadmill and cycle ergometer. Treadmill: Grade: 1. Make marks with tape 10 cm apart on the running board 2. Measure the height from the floor to mark 1 and from the floor to mark 2 & record 3. Repeat step 3with the treadmill is set at 5% grade, 10%, and 15% Speed: 1. Measure and record the length of the belt in cm 2. Place a piece of tape on the running board near the back end of the TRM and place another piece next to it on the TM belt 3. Have one tester turn on the TM and set the speed to 2 mph with elevation at 0% 4. Measure how long it takes for the TM belt to revolve 10 times 5. Do this at different speeds and with participant running Cycle: Resistance: 1. Hang a standard 1kg weight from the belt. Re-check the resistance reading, make adjustments if necessary 2. Remove weight 3. Have subject pedal for 3 mins at 50 rpm and 1 kp of resistance (50W) 4. Check resistance Speed: 1. Have subject pedal at 50 rpm with metronome, check rpm display on bike 2. Increase speed and re-check Calculate power output on the cycle ergometer Power in kpm/min 1. Convert speed to m/min: 50 rev/min * 6 meters/rev = 300m/min 2. Multiply resistance and speed: 2 kp * 300m/min = 600 kpm/min Power in Watts: 1. Determine power in kpm/min first 2. Convert watts: 600 kpm/min * 1 Watt/ 6 kpm/min = 100 watts Know the ACSM metabolic equations for walking and running. Total Energy (VO )2= R + H + V Resting energy component (R) ALWAYS = 3.5 ml/kg/min (1 MET) Horizontal Energy Component (H) WALKING = 0.1 ml/kg/meter * speed in meters/minute (m/min) = ____ ml/kg/min RUNNING = 0.2 ml/kg/meter * speed in meters/minute (m/min) = ____ ml/kg/min CYCLE = 0 (because stationary) Vertical Energy Component (V) WALKING = 1.8 ml/kg/meter * speed in m/min * % grade = ____ ml/kg/min RUNNING = 0.9 ml/kg/meter * speed in m/min * % grade = ____ ml/kg/min CYCLE = 2.0 ml/kpm * power in kpm/min = _____ ml/min ** kpm/min= resistance (kp) * pedal speed (m/min) X rev/min * 6m/rev = ____ m/min Know how to calculate energy cost of walking and running in terms of time and distance. < 3.0 MET LIGHT Activity 3.0 – 6.0 MET MODERATE Activity > 6.0 MET HARD Activity Know the general conversion equations for body density to % fat. Density = BodyMass BodyVolume 495 % Fat = ( ) – 450 bodydensity Know the effect of height, weight, resistance, and reactance on the prediction of FFM using BIA. Resistance is a measure of pure opposition to flow (Fat mass) while reactance is the opposition to current flow caused by the capacitance produced by the cell membrane (fat free mass) 2 FFM= [.475 * (Ht / Resist)] + (0.295* Wt) + 5.49 Fat Mass = Weight – Fat Free Mass Fat Mass % Fat = Weight Know the 7 skinfold sites as used in class, and the 3 that are used for both men and women. Mid-axillary – Chest/Pectoral – Subscapular – Super Iliac – Thigh – Abdomen – Tricep Know the cardiac output equation using ohms law (including CVP and SVR). Know what reasonable values are. Pressure driving fluid - Flow of Fluid = -------------------------------- Resistance to fluid - Cardiac Output (Q) = SV * HR Q= MAP/ TPR -- TPR= Radius of Vessel Efficiency vs Economy Efficiency= ∆work output (kpm/min)/ ∆energy expended (VO2)  Cycling – high efficiency is good**  ml/min  Higher % = more energy contributed to the task and less energy lost as heat*  humans are usually ~20-25% efficient Economy= energy expenditure required to do a task  Running/walking—low economy is better*  ml/kg/min Know how to calculate mean arterial pressure, total peripheral resistance and rate pressure product. - PP= SBP-DBP PP - MAP= DBP+ ~ light 3 - MAP = DBP+ PP ~ Vigorous 2 What are other terms for myocardial work? - Rate Pressure Product =  - Myocardial VO2 SBP X HR - Double Product 100 BMI Classification Underweight-- <18.5 Normal – 18.5 – 24.9 kg Overweight—25-29.9 ¿ Obese- 30-34.9 BMI=    Weight¿ Obese (2) – 35-39.9 ¿ Know and describe the Korotkof sounds. K1 sounds like a faint tapping and is the first sound you hear while measuring blood pressure, which indicates that the cuff pressure is equal to the systolic blood pressure. (Cuff=SBP) K2: Murmur or swishing sound (Cuff<SBP) K3: Distinct clear thumps K4: Abrupt muffling sound (Cuff=DBP) K5: Disappearance of sounds (Cuff<DBP) (may not happen during exercise) Be able to label the various waves on an EKG strip, and calculate the heart rate, R-R interval, QRS width, and interpret basic rhythms. Normal Sinus Rhythm – 60-100 bpm Sinus Tachycardia - >100 Sinus Bradycardia - < 60 bpm Premature Atrial Contraction—Atria fires early Atrial Fibrulation Premature Ventricular Contraction Myocardial Infraction (firemans hat ST-Segment) Asysole – Flat line Method one (big box method) Find an R wave that coincident with a heavy black line. Count the number of heavy black lines that occur before the next R wave 1 line = 300 bpm 2 lines= 150 bpm 3 lines=100 bpm 4 lines= 75 bpm 5 lines = 60 bpm 6 lines= 50 bpm Method Two (Tiny Bot Method) At a normal speed, there are 1500 small squares in a minute. Count the number of tiny squares that occur between 2 consecutive R waves. HR (bpm) = 1500 / # of squares Method Three (6-second method) (best for arrhythmias) Mark of a 6-second interval on the ECG strip (30 Big boxes makes 6 seconds) Count the number of COMPLETE cardiac cycles (R-R) and approximate what percent of a cardiac cycle was completed for an incomplete cycle HR (bpm) = (complete cycles * 10) + (% completed /10) Understand the factors behind the leads being positive or negative. When the electrical activity of the heart flows toward a positive electrode, you will see an UPWARD deflection on the ECG, when electrical activity flows toward a negative electrode you will see a DOWNWARD deflection in that lead • The more the current flows TOWARD the POSITIVE electrode, the more UPRIGHT will be the EKG deflection. • The more the current flows AWAY FROM the POSITIVE electrode, the more INVERTED will be the EKG deflection. 1. Considering leads I, II, and III, which lead should have the most positive QRS deflection? -LEAD 2 – it directly follows the flow of the heart 2. Considering leads AVR, AVL, and AVF, which lead should have the most NEGATIVE QRS deflection? – AVR because its going in the opposite direction Know what was measured in the Pulmonary Function lab, and what normal values should look like, and how these values may relate to respiratory mechanics during exercise. VEmax- The amount of air that can be expired in one minute during maximal aerobic exercise – Spirometer MVV- pulmonary function test that estimates total amount of air that can be moved in one minute, only 12 seconds long. ~ Spirometer V Emax- is the amount of air that can be expired in one minute at maximal exercise VEmax/MVV – termed ventilatory reserve and is the percentage of the MVV achieved during max exercise. In healthy individuals, this ratio should be less than .80, values higher than that indicate reduced ventilarory reserve & possible pulmonary limitations FVC – Forced Vital Capacity – amount of air you can move in/out after full inspiration (L) FEV 1.0 amount of air expired in 1 second FEV /FVC – a healthy ratio should be greater than 70%, this means that individual 1 can breathe out 70% of inhaled air in one second ~ indicative of obstructive lung disease where it difficult to get air out of lungs. Know the relationships between ATPS, BTPS, and STPD. • Ambient Temperature and Pressure, Saturated (ATPS) o • Conditions in the lab; T ~ 20-23 C • Body Temperature and Pressure, Saturated (BTPS) • Conditions in the body; T ~ 37 C, S = 100% • Standard Temperature and Pressure, Dry (STPD) o • Standardized Conditions; T = 0 C, P = 760 mmHg - Air volume is measured at ATPS - Must change to BTPS when calculating lung volumes, capacities, and air movement (Ve) - Must change to STPD when calculating energy expenditure (VO ) 2 Know the components of fitness, and what tests are used to evaluate each component. Body Cardiovascular Muscular Muscle Flexibility Fitness Composition Strength Endurance BodPod VO 2ax Grip Strength Push-Ups max Sit & Skinfold Submaximal tests 1 RM – Bench Curl-Ups max Reach BIA 1 RM – Leg 60 second Sit ups press Know the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and how to classify someone into the various risk factor categories. Risk Factor Defining Criteria Age Men ≥45 years Women ≥ 55 years Family History Myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or sudden death before 55 yr in father or other male first-degree relative or before 65 yr in mother or other female first-degree relative Cigarette Smoking Current cigarette smoker or those who quit within the previous 6 mo or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke Sedentary Lifestyle Not participating in at least 30 min of moderate intensity, physical activity (40%–60% VO R)2on at least 3 d of the week for at least 3-2o Obesity Body mass index ≥ 30 kg ∙ m or waist girth ≥ 102 cm (40 in) for men and ≥ 88 cm (35 in) for women Hypertension Systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic ≥ 90 mm Hg, confirmed by measurements on at least two separate occasions, or on antihypertensive medication Dyslipidemia Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ≥ 130 mg ∙ dL (3.37 mmol ∙ L ) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ¿ 40 mg ∙ dL -1 (1.04 mmol ∙ L ) or on lipid-lowering medication. If total serum cholesterol is all that is available, use ≥ 200 mg ∙ dL (5.18 mmol ∙ L ) Prediabetes mpaired fasting glucose (IFG) = fasting plasma -1 -1 glucose ≥ 100 mg ∙ dL (5.55 mmol ∙ L ) and ≤ 125 mg ∙ dL (6.94 mmol ∙ L ) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) = 2 h values in oral g-1cose tolerance test-1OGTT) ≥ 140 mg ∙ dL (7.77 mmol ∙ L ) and ≤ 199 mg ∙ dL (11.04 mmol ∙ L ) confirmed by measurements on at least two separate occasions (5) Negative Risk Defining Criteria Factor High Serum HDL ≥ 60 mg ∙ dL (1.55 mmol ∙ L ) Cholesterol Be able to explain how to do any of the submax or field tests that we used for aerobic fitness estimates. Know what the important variables to measure are, and what the common sources of error are. Know test assumptions. Know the relationship between heart rate and the variables measured during a VO2max test on the treadmill. - Heart rate is linearly related to oxygen consumption - Heart rate is linearly related to intensity Be able to determine lactate threshold and ventilatory threshold, and how these values are used when evaluating an individual’s aerobic capabilities. Lactate Threshold • Point just prior to when the rate of lactate PRODUCTION exceeds the rate of lactate REMOVAL Ventilatory Threshold • Point at which pulmonary ventilation increases disproportionately with oxygen consumption LT ≠ VT • McArdle’s disease • Those with McArdle’s disease lack an enzyme to break down glucose (muscle phosphorylase) • Have a VT but no LT • Training • You can push your LT to the right with training, but VT doesn’t change appreciably • Glycogen Depletion • If you are glycogen depleted, you may have a quick LT, but VT will stay about the same Know ACSM recommendations for ALL health-related components of physical fitness. Aerobic Moderate Intensity F- 5 days / week I – 3-6 METs T – 30 Mins T- large muscle groups, rhythmic Vigorous F- 3 days / week I – >6 METs T – 20 Mins T- large muscle groups, rhythmic Resistance F- 2-3 days / week I – % of 1 RM T – Not specified T- All major muscle groups - 8-12 exercises - 15-20 reps - 2-4 sets


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