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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allyanna Bradshaw on Monday January 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2433 at a university taught by Glenda Revelle in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 01/04/16
HESC 2433 Child Development Study Guide Test 4 Final Exam (Chapters 1113 in textbook, Slides on Blackboard) 1. Piaget’s concept of concrete operations: conservation of number and volume... a. Concrete operations: coordinated mental actions that allow children to mentally combine, separate, order, and transform concrete objects that children experience directly. i. Increased objectivity. ii. Increased decentration. b. Conservation: the understanding that some properties of an object/substance must remain the same even when its appearance is altered. c. Conservation of number: recognition of the onetoone correspondence bet. sets of objects of equal number. d. Conservation of volume: the understanding that the amount of a liquid remains unchanged when poured from one container into another that has diff. dimensions. 2. Mental operations: identity, compensation, reversibility a. Mental operations: allow for children engage in activities such as sorting, collecting, and trading. b. Identity: children realize that if nothing has been added or subtracted, the amount of something must remain the same. i. "They were equal to start w/ and nothing was added, so they're the same." c. Compensation: children can mentally compare changes in two aspects of a problem and see how one compensates for the other. i. "The liquid is higher, but the glass is thinner." d. Reversibility: children realize that certain operations can negate or reverse the effects of others. i. "If you pour it back, you'll see that it's the same." 3. Classification: Superordinate/subordinate class inclusion, multiple criteria... a. The ability to understand the hierarchical structure of categories, the logical relations of inclusion that holds between a subordinate class and its subclass. b. Subordinate = class of mammals. c. Subclass = cats. 4. Relationship of mental representation to planning... a. Planning: the abilities of decentering, considering multiple variables, and thinking flexibly in new situations are cog. prereqs. to efficient and effective planning. b. For example, the type of planning that is required in choosing a route to a destination. c. Important in reasoning tasks = games that require children to solve logical problems. 5. Metacognition and comprehension monitoring... a. Metacognition: the ability to think about one's thought processes, particularly to monitor one's thinking for comprehension and understanding. 6. Information processing approach... a. Reasons for cognitive changes: 1) increased attentional capability, 2) increased working memory speed and capacity, 3) rapid and efficient mental operations, and 4) acquisition of new mental strategies. (< super important) 7. Attention development in middle childhood... a. Regulation of attention. b. Increased ability to: 1) stay focused and 2) ignore distractions. c. Executive function: higherlevel cog. processes, such as aspects of cog. associated w/ supervising and controlling lowerlevel cog. processes. (for example, forces children to consider whether problem solving strategies they've used in the past can be used in this instant) 8. Memory changes in middle childhood... a. Increased speed and capacity of working memory. (source of improved intellectual functioning, considered the "active" memory system, manipulates info. needed to reason about complex tasks) b. Expanded knowledge base. (increases knowledge that a child will have about any given topic) c. Acquisition of more effective memory strategies. (specific actions used deliberately to enhance remembering) 9. Development of memory strategies (rehearsal, organization, elaboration)... a. Rehearsal: the process of repeating to oneself the material that one is trying to remember. b. Organizational strategies: memory strategies in which materials to be remembered are mentally grouped into meaningful categories. i. Can use free recall: children are shown a large number of objects, or read a list of words one at a time, and then asked to remember them. c. Elaboration: the process in which children identify or make connections bet. two or more things they have to remember. 10. Metamemory... a. Metamemory: the ability to think about one's memory processes. b. A form of metacognition. c. Examples = 1) awareness of memory limitations and 2) connection w/ use of memory strategies. 11. Intelligence – traditional concepts of IQ vs. more recent multiple intelligences approaches... a. Intelligence: 1) anchored to cultural contexts and 2) no clear universal meaning. b. Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon: cog. competence and mental age (average performance of children that age) c. Intelligence Quotient (IQ): mental age/chronological age x 100 d. Culturally biased. e. Intelligence not a unitary construct. f. Multiple intelligences: each of which coincides w/ a diff. cognitive module and follows its own dev. path. i. Linguistic: special sensitivity to language. ii. Musical: sensitivity to pitch and tone, which allows one to detect and produce musical structure. iii. Logicalmathematical: ability to engage in abstract reasoning and manipulates symbols. iv. Spacial: ability to perceive relations among objects, to transform mentally what one sees, and to recreate visual images from memory. v. Bodilykinesthetic: ability to represent ideas in movement, characteristic of great dancers and mimes. vi. Personal: ability to gain access to one's own feelings and to understand the motivation of others. vii. Social: ability to understand the motives, feelings, and behaviors of other people. 12. Poverty/education cycle 13. Explicit instruction as a schoolbased cultural tool... a. Children acquire the tools of culture through 3 processes: i. Social enhancement: making use of resources present in the immediate environment. ii. Imitation: observation and copying the behavior of others. iii. Explicit instruction: to ensure that they acquire specialized knowledge and skills of the culture. 1. 1) public education came around the time of the Industrial Revo, and 2) much of what is learned in preK was learned in everyday activities in huntergatherer societies. 14. Differences between school problems and everyday problems, relationships to learning...(school vs. everyday) a. Tend to draw an analytic intelligence <> tend to draw on practical intelligence. b. Abstract in nature and goals <> concrete in nature and goals. c. Formulated for the learner by other people <> must be recognized or formulated by learners themselves. d. Generally have little or no intrinsic interest to the learner <> are intrinsically important to the learner. e. Are clearly defined <> generally are poorly defined. f. Usually have a singular correct answer <> usually have several acceptable solutions. g. Includes all the information <> require people to seek new info. h. Are detached from ordinary experience <> are embedded in ordinary experience. 15. School readiness – importance of emergent literacy and emergent numeracy... a. Emergent literacy: learning about letters leading to reading and writing. b. Emergent numeracy: learning about numbers leading to mathematics. c. Selfregulation: learning to monitor and control one's own behaviors to adapt to the group situation and needs of others. 16. Foundational skills for reading letter sounds, phonemic awareness, decoding text, vocabulary... a. Basic skills: 1) learning letter sounds is primary, 2) phonemic awareness, and 3) then moving to decoding text. (translating graphemes to phonemes) b. Graphemes: units of print. c. Phonemes: units of sound. 17. Conceptual base for learning mathematics understanding of quantity, then learn to map words (e.g., seven) and symbols (e.g., 7) onto quantities; importance of order of numbers on number line... a. Conceptuallybased teaching: 1) understanding of quantity is primary, 2) mapping to symbolic systems secondary: translating understanding specific quantities into words (four) and numeric symbols, and 3) order of numbers is meaningful and important; vs. order of letters in the alphabet which is arbitrary. 18. Classroom instructional approaches: bottomup vs. topdown... a. Bottomup approach: starts w/ basic skills, moving on to more complex problems once those have been mastered. b. Topdown approach: argues that focusing on basic skills loses sight of larger goals, and it also focuses on learning skills in the context of accomplishing meaningful tasks. 19. Classroom arrangement (lecture style vs. collaborative work group style) and effects on learning... a. Common arrangement: "sage on the stage". 1) teacher in front, students facing in parallel rows, this reinforces teacher's role as the authority figure. b. More constructivist arrangement: "guide on the side". 1) students seated in collaborative working groups while the teacher walks around, this reinforce's student's role as active learner, and teacher as mentor guide. 20. Effects on learning of alternative forms of instruction: Reciprocal teaching... a. Reciprocal teaching: teacher and small group of children take turns raising and answering questions. b. Realistic mathematics: grounding mathematics learning in everyday real life activities. c. Playworld Practices: Euro. model integrating play and art into classroom activities. 21. Barriers to school success: learning disabilities (dyslexia), motivation (effects of mastery orientation vs. performance orientation)... a. Dyslexia: 1) specific difficulty in learning to read, 2) differences in neural processing, and 3) can be improved w/ training. b. Specific learning disabilities: refers to the academic difficulties of children who fare poorly in school despite having normal intelligence. c. Academic motivation: the ability to try hard and persist at school tasks in the face of difficulties. d. Mastery orientation: a way that children approach school tasks in which they are motivated to learn, to try hard, and to improve their performance. e. Performance orientation: a way of approaching school tasks in which students are motivated by their level of performance, ability, and incentives for trying. f. Entity model of intelligence: the belief that intelligence is a quality of which each person has a fixed amount. g. Incremental model of intelligence:he belief that intelligence is something that can grow over time as one learns. h. School engagement: the thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that children have about school and learning. 22. The documentaries "Age 7 in America:" (middle childhood in America) and “21 Up America” (follow up when the “Age 7” children are 21) 23. Sir Ken Robinson's views on school and creativity 24. Moral development: heteronomous vs. autonomous morality... a. Heteronomous morality: right and wrong are defined. b. Autonomous morality: right and wrong are defined according to the person's internal motives and intentions. c. Autonomous morality: the second and final stage of Piaget's theory of moral dev. in which right and wrong are defined according to internal motives and intentions. 25. Moral development: Piaget’s proposed relationship between rulebased game play and moral development... a. In Piaget's view, through game playing (giveandtake of negotiating plans, settling disagreements, making and enforcing rules, and keeping and breaking promises) children can come to understand that social rules make cooperation with others possible. b. Young children (68): "mystical respect" for rules handed down by authority. c. Older children (1012): rules agreed upon by players and can be changed if everyone agrees. 26. Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning... a. Preconventional Moral Reasoning: Early Childhood i. Stage 1: Heteronomous Morality: based on avoidance of punishment. ii. Conventional Moral Reasoning: Middle Childhood 1. Stage 2: Instrumental morality: children can recognize that diff. people have diff. perspectives and interests, and that these two characteristics may conflict with their own. 2. Stage 3: GoodChild Morality: Concern about others and their expectations and needs. iii. Postconventional/Principled Moral Reasoning: Early Adolescent 1. Stage 4: Law and Order Morality: based on upholding laws and obligations as defined by society. 2. Stage 5: Social Contract Reasoning: based on a sense of one's "social contract" for welfare of all and protection of rights. 3. Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles: based on a belief in a universal set of moral principles and personal commitment to them. 27. Peer relationships: Dominance hierarchies and bullying... a. Social structures: complex orgs. of relationships bet. individuals. i. Focuses on...dominance (who doesn't hold the power over group members) and popularity. (who is liked and disliked) b. Middle childhood is based upon social structures based on "dominance hierarchies". c. Dominant children: children who control "resources" such as toys, play spades, and decisions about group activities. d. Popular children: those who receive the highest number of positive nominations, or the highest rankings from their peers. e. Rejected children: those who receive few positive nominations, or receive low rankings. i. Secretly disliked. ii. Often aware of their social failure. iii. Distressed about social relationships. f. Neglected children: those who receive few nominations of any kind. i. Ignored by peers. ii. Not all that concerned about their social status. g. Controversial children: those who receive both positive and negative nominations. i. Compensate for aggression by joking around to keep anyone from becoming angry enough to break off the relationship. h. Role of bullying: physical aggression and/or relational aggression. i. Research links bullying to family violence. 28. Developmental effects of friendship in middle childhood (selfesteem, social skills, stress levels)... a. Selfesteem: one's evaluation of one's own worth. i. In a study, statistical analysis revealed that children lumped cognitive and physical attributes into a single category of acceptance. b. Dominant effects: higher selfesteem, more positive feelings of selfworth, more advanced social skills, lower stress. 29. Gender segregation and gendertyped play styles... a. Throughout middle childhood: there is an increase in gender segregation. b. 68% of 6 year olds report having samesex "best friends"; by age 12 it's 90%. c. Increase in gendertyped play styles... i. Boys play is more aggressive. ii. Girls play is more prosocial and nurturing. 30. Parent/child relationship: changing expectations in middle childhood... a. Coregulation: a form of indirect social control in which parents and children cooperate to reinforce the children's understanding of right and wrong, what is safe, and what is unsafe, when they are not under direct adult control. b. Changing expectations... i. Parents: expect proper behavior and are more critical of mistakes. ii. Children: are embarrassed at public affection and are less likely to cry or argue. 31. Parents' influence on child's peer group... a. Ecological niches: parents have considerable power in determining the contexts in which their children spend their time. b. Coercive family interaction patterns: a possible source of low social status in middle childhood. c. Direct influence: choosing neighborhoods, schools, and activities. d. Indirect influence: providing wording model for interactions. 32. Social comparison and sense of self; what developmental factors lead to more social comparison... a. Social comparison: the process of defining oneself in relation to one's peers. i. Am I a good friend? ii. Am I good at math? b. Child begins to spend much more time with peers. c. Child has a greater ability to understand other people's perspectives leads to seeing oneself from other's point of view. 33. Erikson's stage of Industry vs. Inferiority... a. Selfesteem: one's evaluation of one's own worth. b. Selfesteem and mental health: high selfesteem and in middle childhood linked to later satisfaction and happiness, as compared to low selfesteem is linked to depression, anxiety, and poor adjustment. 34. Relationship of selfesteem levels in middle childhood to later mental health... a. Child selfesteem linked to parents' childrearing style. i. Authoritative parenting style linked to higher selfesteem in children: parental acceptance/approval, as well as parental respect for individuality/selfexpression, within clearly defined limits. 35. Relationship of parenting styles to children's selfesteem... a. Authoritative parents: mixture of firm control, promotion of high standards of behavior, encouragement of independence, and willingness to reason with children. b. Three parental characteristics combine to produce high selfesteem... i. Parental acceptance of their children: the mother approved of her child child appreciates this approval and viewed this as the mother's support. ii. Parents' setting of clearly defined limits: enforcement of strict limits on their child's activities. iiiParents' respect for individuality: parents sowed respect for their children by reasoning with them and considering their points of view.
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