General Genetics Exam 1 Study Guide
General Genetics Exam 1 Study Guide PCB3063
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by clb13m on Monday January 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PCB3063 at Florida State University taught by Dr. George Bates in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 356 views. For similar materials see General Genetics in Biology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/04/16
Objectives for Exam 1 PCB 3063 Spring 2016 Mitosis and Meiosis Lectures 1 Chapter 2 Of basic importance in this material is to know the essential differences between mitosis and meiosis what homologous chromosomes are and how they behave in mitosis and meiosis 0 Mitosis produces two genetically identical daughter cells each daughter cell gets one chromatid from each chromosome 0 10 chromosomes in diploid organism 10 DNA molecules in G1 phase 20 in G2 0 10 chromosomes in diploid organism 5 homologous pairs 0 Meiosis forms gametes seX cells one diploid cell divides twice and forms four haploid cells 0 Each daughter cell gets one chromatid from each pair of homologous chromosomes 0 Meiosis 1 homologous chromosomes are separated into different daughter cells 0 Meiosis 2 sister chromatids are separated into different daughter cells 0 Homologous chromosomes carry the same genes but may have different alleles diploid 0 Exceptions seX chromosomes are homologous but don t have same genes Understand the concept of the cell cycle and know what happens during Sphase 0 Chromosome duplication occurs during the S phase of interphase one unreplicated chromosome in the G1 phase goes through S phase now has 2 sister chromatids in G2 Be able to name the stages of mitosis and know what events take place in each 0 Prophase chromosomes condense spindle fibers form nucleolus disappears 0 Prometaphase chromosomes are condensedvisible nuclear envelop breaks down microtubules begin to attach to chromosomes at the kinetochore 0 Metaphase chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate of the cell 0 Anaphase chromosomes pulled apart toward opposite end of cell 0 Telophase chromosomes decondense nuclear membrane reforms spindle fibers break down Know what sister chromatids are 0 Exact duplicates of chromosomes Understand the term diploid and haploid and know what homologous chromosomes are how they are similar to each other and how they differ from nonhomologous chromosomes 0 Diploid contain two complete sets of chromosomes from each parents 0 Haploid contains half the number of chromosomes in a gamete 0 Homologous chromosomes two chromosomes that have the same genes but can have different alleles blue eyes vs brown eyes diploid 0 Nonhomologous chromosomes chromosomes that are not the same pair contain alleles for different types of genes ie one deals with eye color one deals with height diploid Know the important events that occur in meiosis and understand how meiosis differs from mitosis 0 Prophase I condense chromosomes nuclear envelope disappears spindle fibers formed cell still diploid tetrads form crossing overrecombination occurs at chiasma spindle fibers are connected to tetrads 0 Metaphase I tetradshomologous chromosome pair line up at midline 0 Anaphase I microtubules pull tetrads apart homologous pairs are pulled to opposite side 0 Telophase I nuclear envelope reforms the two daughter cells are haploid one copy of each chromosome 0 Prophase II nuclear envelope disappears chromosomes condense centrioles move to opposite ends and spindles form 0 Metaphase II chromosomes line up at the midline spindle fibers attach onto chromatids 0 Anaphase II sister chromatids are separated by spindle fibers 0 Telophase II four separate genetically different cells are formed with n unreplicated chromossomes chromosomes unravel nuclear envelope reforms Be able state how many chromosomes and pairs of homologous chromosomes are present in cells of a given diploid number that are undergoing meiosis Understand the terms tetrad chiasmata crossing over and recombination 0 Tetrad pair of homologous chromosomes joined together 0 Chiasmata location where crossover occurs 0 Crossing over pieces of chromosomes switch in prophase I of meiosis I 0 Recombination same as crossing over Skill be able to solve genetics problems similar to those in the first homework assignment related to chapter 2 Review of Mendel39s Principles and Probability in Genetics Lectures 23 Chapter 3 Be able to state Mendel39s postulates Random Segregation and Independent Assortment and understand their significance Each trait is controlled by a pair of factors Genes When two different factors for a trait are present in an individual one is dominant and one is recessive 0 Alleles alternate forms of a gene During gamete formation the paired factors segregate randomly next generation will have different combination law of segregation Genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other independent assortment 0 Assort independently into gametes 0 On nonhomologous chromosomes while law of segregation deals with homologous chromosomes Know and be able to use the terms phenotype genotype homozygous heterozygous dominant recessive allele true breeding or pure breeding parental generation F1 generation F2 generation F1 hybrid monohybrid cross dihybrid cross Phenotype physical eXpression of a trait Genotype genetic makeup of an individual Homozygous both alleles for a trait are the same Heterozygous two different alleles for a trait are present Dominant allele whose phenotypic effect trumps the recessive if heterozygous eXpressed no matter what typically Recessive not dominant needs to be homozygous recessive to be eXpressed Allele type of gene Truepure breeding homozygous dominant or recessive Parental generation has true bred genotypes DD or dd F1 generation offspring of P1 all heterozygotes F2 generation offspring of F1 31 phenotypically 2 hetero 1 homo dom 1 homo recessive F1 hybrid first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types ex red parent and white parent make a pink child 0 Monohybrid cross crosses one trait ex just color 0 Dihybrid cross crosses two different traits ex color and shape 9331 ratio Be able to solve simple genetic inheritance problems similar to those in homework assignment 1 related to chapter 3 Be able to read a genetic family tree for humans pedigree and be able to determine from the tree whether a particular trait is inherited as a dominant or a recessive trait Be able to solve genetic inheritance probability problems using the product law and the sum law for crosses resulting in up to three progeny Understand how Chi Square is used to determine whether genetic data fits predicted theoretical ratios and be able to solve probability problems using Chi Square Extension of Mendelian Genetics Lectures 45 Chapter 4 Know the terms codominant and partially dominant be able to eXplain how they differ from each other and from dominant and recessive traits Be able to solve genetics problems involving codominant and partially dominant traits similar to those in homework 2 0 Codominant both alleles are expressed phenotype of heterozygote is a combination of the two homozygotes 0 EX MN blood group genotype Lan phenotype MN 0 Partially dominant neither allele is dominant phenotype of heterozygote is intermediate 0 Red white ower pink owers ower colors are partially dominant 0 Biochemical level amount of product depends on the amount of the enzyme made I EX 100 of the enzyme for the red ower X 0 of the enzyme produced for white 50 enzyme made for pink ower I IF complete dominance same parents but 50 enzyme made for heterozygote shows 100 of product 0 Recessive alleles aren t coded for functional proteins but if the normal allele by itself icant make enough protein product then incomplete dominance occurs Understand the concept of multiple alleles and be able to solve genetics problems involving the ABO blood groups Know what the A and B alleles code for and be able to eXplain why they are codominant 0 Multiple alleles more than two alleles for a given trait 0 A and B are codominant both dominant over 0 0 A allele A antigen codes for anti B antibody Ia nacetylgalactosyltransferase 0 B allele B antigen codes for anti A antibody Ib galactosyltransferase 0 Both A and B are glycolipids on RBCs that code for galactosyltransferase which conerts H substance into the A or the B antigen Know what lethal alleles are and what ratios of progeny are expected in a cross between two individuals who are heterozygous for a dominant lethal allele 0 Lethal alleles presence of the allele resuls in death IF HOMOZYGOUS 0 Ratio 23 heterozygous 13 normal out of 4 1 dead
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