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Psychology 101 Exam 1

by: Bailey Notetaker

Psychology 101 Exam 1 BCS 111

Bailey Notetaker
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This is a summary of the first section of psychology for the first exam.
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Notetaker on Wednesday January 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BCS 111 at University of Rochester taught by BIBYK S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE in Neuroscience at University of Rochester.


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Date Created: 01/06/16
Psychology Lecture 1 Exam Notes 09/30/2015  Psychology is: The study of the brain, mental disorders, behavior, motivation, relationships, neurosis/psychosis, and psychotherapy  In times of reflection, we introspect which is: returning internally  Psychologists focus on: the understanding of people’s motivations and applying it to society  It is the study of behavior: Any activity that can be observed, recorded or measured  It is also the study of the mind: Which is conscious, and unconscious mental states that are not observable, so they are inferred from behavior  Psychology is a science, that consists of empirical, theoretical, and applied psychologists  Theoretical: they develop notions of how things work based on data, and take results from empirical data to better the society  Applied: brings the theory of the empirical and the research of the theoretical and applies it to the real world  Socrates: 5 Senses  (Socrates= drop a crate on your foot and it causes pain, but some might get pleasure) wrote about perceptions of pleasure and pain  Wrote about other aspects of the mind (Socrates wore specs)  Plato and Aristotle: learning, memory, motivation (all of the things required for me to get an A)  Perception and Personality  Hippocrates: the brain is the interpreter of consciousness (hippos have brains)  Galen: theorized that each person has their own temperaments or personality (gay is a personality, but not everyone is)  Rene Descartes: Dualism-the body and mind can be studied scientifically, because they only interact through the soul  Thomas Hobbes: Both body can mind can be studied scientifically, all thoughts/feelings/personality are physical processes from the brain  Hermann Von Helmholtz: our psychological experience can be reduced to biology, then to chemistry, then physics. Studied neural impulses, space perception, color vision, and sensory receptors (the hol of our psych is based on bio, chem and physics)  Emil Kraepelin: developed the first comprehensive system to identifying mental illness, which he likened to physical illnesses (“Kraepelin” reminds you of Krupkin, like Dee Dee, who can identify mental illnesses from physical symptoms)  Jean Charcot: could cure nervous disorders with hypnosis  Wilhelm Wundt: studied the most basic mental processes (sensations, feelings); conscious processing took longer than perception of stimulus awareness (Will wun-drt how long it would take people to press the button, consciously processing it or unconsciously?)  G Stanley Hall: Founded American Psychology Association (GAP)  James McKeen: 1 to study differences in psych (he was keen to study psych differences)  Hugo Munsterberg: applied psych to law and industry (industry is hugely effected by psych)  Psych splits into two branches:  Structuralism: Edward Bradford Titchener= structural elements of the mind, introspection as a scientific method; studied attention span, reaction time, color vision, time perception (a tit is a structural element of the body, and it keeps boy’s attention span, and they can be different colors)  Structuralism fell out because introspection was unreliable  Functionalism: William James= studied process that underlie behavior, and evolving; thinking and feeling are adaptable and evolved; we evolved because of psychological experience (we evolve, like William James evolved into Will Jimmy)  Sigmund Freud: we have drives, fears, thoughts buried deep that have an impact on our daily thoughts and feelings (Sigmund is a basic psychologist: “How does that make you feel?”)  Discovered that causes are in the mind, not the body  Behaviorism: no longer only mental life, thoughts and feelings do not cause our behavior, it is only a function/stimuli that exists in the environment  Edward Thorndike: animal intelligence (the wild Thornberry’s study animals!)  Ivan Pavlov: neutral stimuli can illicit behavioral responses (Ian (who I thought’s name was Ivan for a bit) gets annoyed at nothing)  John B. Watson: emotions are conditioned by the environment (John Watson had PTSD from his environment)  B.F. Skinner: all behavior is conditioned by reward and punishment (BF= if you’re a bad farter, you’ll get skinned)  Behaviorism: psych should only study what’s observable  All behavior is controlled/enforced by the environment  Origins of humanistic psych: focuses on the present; don’t need to trace behavior to one’s best  The Cognitive Revolution: the stimulus response model does not explain psychological phenomenon  Humans actively interpret environment  Cognition: mental processes that intervene between a stimulus and a response  Fact: Known to be true  Theory: And organized set of principles the describes and predicts  Critical Thinking: generation of creative ideas, testing them, scrutinizing the results  Scientific Attitude:  Curiosity: the passion to explore and understand via scientific inquiry  Skepticism: the belief that theories and findings will not hold under scientific inquiry  Humility: we maintain the belief that we can make errors  Scientific Method:  Postulate a theory  Specify a hypothesis  Design a study  Collect data  Test the hypothesis  Publish or specify a new hypothesis  Research in the laboratory, with careful regulation and observation, may illicit atypical behavior  Field Research, allows you to understand behavior in real world settings, but you lose control and precision of the data  Combine the two  Self report measurements: asks people to report about themselves.  Bias: people report their responses to appear better; and sometimes feelings cannot be portrayed correctly  Behavioral Observations: infer mental life from behavior  Bias: people may be less prone to the action  Archival Records: examining records of past activities instead of ongoing behaviors  Bias: records may not be complete or detailed for use  Levels of Psychological Explanation:  Description- describe a group, person or phenomenon in a systematic way and theorize about it  Correlation- Are the two variable associated? Can they be used to predict one another?  Causation- Explain association between two variable; does one cause the other?  Case studies are conducted with the hope that an in depth look at 1 person will reveal things about people in general  Surveys describe a population by collecting data from many individuals  Naturalistic observation is the observation in participants natural environment  Correlational Research  Correlation  a statistical measure of the extent to which 2 variables are associated  CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION  Correlation coefficients  -1 to +1 (Positive correlation is when variables rise and fall together) (The higher the coefficient they higher they are associated, regardless of direction)  Scatterplots  graphically depicts the two variables  Advantages of correlations  is association exists between 2 variables, the known standing of the first variable can predict the second  CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION  Experimental Research: a type of research that an investigator manipulates a variable while keeping others constant and measures the effect of the manipulated variable on randomly assigned participants (participants have a chance of being in the experimental or control group)  Variables:  Independent: the variable that the experimenter manipulates; the presumed cause of another variable  Dependent: the variable that is being observed; the presumed effect from the independent variable  Two ingredients of a true experiment  1) control over an independent variable 2) random assignment of subjects to conditions  Biological Psychology: the science of behavior and mental life  Focuses on causality  6 factors that effect psychological experience:  biology:  cognition: effects our psychological experience; abstract concrete thoughts or memories; our capacity for memory  motivation  plasticity: learning new things throughout our lives and we change as a function of our experience  development: forces inside and outside of us that organize and direct us  society: everything we do is shaped by the world around us  Biopsychological explanations:  Genetics: influence how we look, feel, think and behave (sets limits on our behavior and mental life)  Nervous system: alteration will change behavior  Endocrine system: our hormones have a profound impact on our behaviors  Immune system: effects our physical health which changes our psychological experience  Case Studies:  Phineas Gage: 25 year old who was impaled through his skull and frontal lobe, damaging it. He lived and his intellectual ability remained, but his behavior changed into irritable and combative o The brain and the nervous system are an integrated and complex system that consists of specialized parts  Julia: suffered from epilepsy which would put her in fits of rage, which caused hard to herself and the people around her. A neurosurgeon stimulated a part of her brain, and destroyed her amygdala, which stopped her violent fits  Henry M.: suffered from epileptic seizures, neurosurgeons operated on his right temporal lobe, and he was unable to remember old memories and also create new ones, but his intelligence was unaffected o Showed that different parts of the brain controlled learning and memories  Genie: child abused and isolated from the world, spent her first 11 years in a straight jacket upstairs from her family. Little language was heard and therefore learned. When discovered by CPS, her growth, language, and motor functions were impaired. Her behavior was also out of control, but she was teachable and improved o Shows that normal, healthy brain development requires adequate environmental supports o Brains are malleable, and can change and improve o The body’s communication networks:  The nervous system: connects the brain and the spinal cord to all the muscles and glands  CNS: the brain and spinal cord  Peripheral nervous system: all the nerves (divided into 2) that radiate from the CNS to the rest of the body o Somatic: responsible for voluntary control of skeletal muscles; transmits signals from the sensory organs to the CNS; relays motor commands from the CNS to the muscles o Autonomic: connects the CNS to involuntary muscles and organs; connects CNS to the body’s glands, which secretes hormones  Sympathetic nervous system: the “arousal system”; arouses body for reaction, “fight or flight”  Parasympathetic nervous system: the calming system; returns the body to its pre-energized state The endocrine system: a collection of glands that regulates growth, metabolism, mood, and certain aspects of behavior Secretes hormones: chemical messengers can take nay amount of time to take effect; can have strong and profound behaviors on mental life Pituitary gland: responsible for releasing a hormone that stimulates production of other hormones in the system Constant flow of communication between the nervous and endocrine systems o The neuron  Nerve cells: send and receive info throughout the body in the form of electrochemical signals o 3 types:  sensory neurons: send info from the senses, from the skin, muscles, and internal organs to the CNS to be processed  motor neurons: transmit signals from the CNS to the muscles, glands, skins and internal organs  interneurons: neural connectors between sensory and motor neurons Glial cells: structural support, insulation and nutrients glue together the nervous system. Plays a role in the development in the repair of neurons and in the speed of neural transmission Neuron structure: Soma: cell body that stores the nucleus, and maintains the chemical balance in the neuron Dendrites: receives impulses from sensory organs and other neurons, and transmits that into the cell body Axons: send impulses in neuron to other neurons to the muscles to the glands At the end of each axon is an axon terminal which contains neurotransmitters The ends are covered by the myelin sheath: helps to speed the movement of electrical impulses by preventing chemical leakage The neuron in action: when dendrites are stimulated, the electrical balance is disrupted and a burst of electrical activity that surges through the axon Neurons communicate through neurotransmitters o Thresholds: the stimulation of a neurons does not always trigger the firing of an electrical impulse, which then means it did not reach the threshold o The Brain:  3 mini brains: o The brain stem: helps to regulate primitive core functions (breathing, heartbeat, muscle movements)  Medulla: controls our vital involuntary functions  Pons: coordinates our movements, and plays a role in sleep and arousal  The reticular formation: controls sleep and arousal and our attention span  The cerebellum: controls balance and in coordination of movement o The Limbic System: provides an increased capacity for motivation, emotion, learning and memory  Thalamus: directs sensory info from the senses to the cerebral center  Amygdala: controls fear, aggression, and anger  Hippocampus: controls formation of new memories  Hypothalamus: regulates body temperature and the autonomic nervous system, basic emotions, and basic drives such as sex, thirst and hunger o The cerebral cortex: higher mental processes; complex forms of learning, memory, thought and language; the outermost covering of the brain  Frontal lobe: directly behind forehead; involved in planning movements and working memory  Temporal lobe: above the ears; involved in hearing and advanced visual processing  Parietal lobe: at the top of skull; involved in bodily sensations  Occipital lobes: base of skull; involved in visual processing  Sensory cortex: receives info from the touch receptors in the skim  Motor cortex: sends impulses from the CNS to voluntary muscles  Wernicke’s area: “comprehensive center”  Broca’s area: “production area”  o The brain’s plasticity:  The capacity of change in the brain  When certain parts of our brain get damaged, other parts will take over  “enriched” rats developed heavier brains with more dendrites and synapses  for blind individuals, the visual cortex becomes stimulated by sounds and touch, as the same with the auditory cortex  The split brain:  The two hemispheres are structurally similar but are functionally different  One hemisphere receives sensory input and sends motor commands to the opposite side of the body o In split brain patients, an object seen with left eye could not be sent to speech center in left hemisphere  The psychology and biology of consciousness:  Consciousness: an awareness of ourselves and our environment; all sensations, thoughts, and feelings on which we are focused on at a particular time; has a limit capacity and is not observable  Without a stream of consciousness its impossible to plan for the future; we can anticipate rewards/threats  Evolutionary psychology: we evolved consciousness because we have an adaptive advantage; we can consider long term interests  Cognitive neuroscience: how brain activity is linked to mental processes; specific neural activity is responsible for our stream of consciousness  Dual processing:  Conscious info processing: deliberate processing of info; we exert voluntary control of our behavior and communication; slow form of processing  Unconscious info processing: automatic, quick form of processing; process info outside of awareness and multiple types of info at once  Selective attention: the focusing of awareness on a limiting amount; an ability to focus on one voice among many  Selective inattention: many stimuli in the environment go by unnoticed  Inattentional blindness: when our attention is focused elsewhere, many stimuli pass by unnoticed  Change blindness: failing to notice changes in the environment  Sleep  Consciousness is never completely turned off  Circadian rhythm: governed by a biological clock, our bodies synchronize to a 24 hour cycle of waking and sleeping  Sleep stages: o Stage 1: characterized by hallucinations (wishes and drives) o Stage 2: sleep spindles, rapid, rhythmic, brain activity o Stage 3: transitional stage o Stage 4: large, low delta waves o Stage 5: REM sleep  dreaming stage,10 minutes, heart rate and breathing increases, rapid eye movements, muscle relaxed Why do we sleep? o Restores brain tissues o Restore and rebuild memories o Facilitate creative thinking and growth process o Pituitary gland releases a growth hormone Sleep deprivation can cause: depressed immune functioning, and impairs memory, creativity, concentration and communication  Dreams  Hallucinations of the sleeping mind  Sigmund Freud: o Types of dreams:  Manifest content: the remembered content of dreams  Latent content: the true meaning of the dream  Dream Mechanisms:  Dreamwork: latent content gets converted to manifest content Dream interpretation: manifest content gets interpreted and analyzed by a psychoanalyst  Dreams- functions  Sigmund Freud: wish fulfillment  our existence is driven by our drives, urges and wishes. Unfulfilled wishes, (pent up sexual and aggressive drives) are pent up energies needed to be released into dreams o Information processing: dreams help up to sort our and encode previous experiences from the previous day o Brain stimulation: REM sleep provides necessary physiological arousal for the brain to operate at an optimal level o Activation synthesis theory: during sleep, neural stimulation spreads from the brain stem to the cerebral cortex. Dreams are an attempt to make sense of neural activation o Cognitive development: represents our level of development, knowledge and understanding  Hypnosis: a social interaction in which a hypnotist suggests a certain thought, feeling, perception, and/or behavior will spontaneously occur  Cannot be hypnotized against your will o Can be used to treat headaches, asthma, stress skin disorders, and pain  A hypnotized state is a social phenomenon: reflect normal conscious functioning that is susceptible to suggestions  Brain activity differs when in and out of hypnotized states  As a divided consciousness: a break between normal states and hypnotic states of consciousness  Sensation and perception:  Bottom up processing: an analysis of sensory info that begins with sensory receptors and proceeds to the brain for integration of experience  Top down processing: an analysis of sensory info that is guided by our higher level mental processes which involve our experiences and expectations  Thresholds: o Absolute thresholds: minimum stimulation necessary to detect sensory info 50% of the time o Signal detection theory: assumes that there is no single absolute threshold (we hear a faint noise, but refuse to process it as a stimuli) which is effected by personality, expectations, experience, motivation, and fatigue o Difference threshold: minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time (can detect small differences in the stimuli)  Sensory adaptation: we experience diminished sensitivity to a stimulus as a consequence of constant adaptation (allows us to attend to informative changes in the environment)  Sensation: vision  when our eyes receive sensory input, it is in the form of light energy o Wavelength: influences the lights hue/ color o Intensity: the amount of energy in light waves; influences brightness o Purity: the number of wavelengths that make up the light; influences the lights saturation/ richness o Transduction: light enters through the cornea, and passes through the pupil, the lenses focus incoming light waves into an image on the retina  Retina: o Rods: detects black, white and grey; good for peripheral and twilight vision o Cones: detects fine details and used in color vision; functions in daylight or well lit conditions  Processing: visual info: o Feature detection: feature detection cells respond to specific features of a visual stimuli (head angles, gazes, postures, faces) o Parallel processing: our brain constructs parallel aspects of the visual scene -Color -Motion -Form -Depth  Colorvision: the colors we see reside in our brains, not in the objects we’re seeing -Colorvision theory (Young Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory): the retina contains 3 different color receptors sensitive to red, green, and blue -Colorvision theory (Hering Opponent Process Theory): 3 types of visual receptors and each type is sensitive to a pair of opponent colors  Sensation: Hearing  when our ears receive sensory input, it is in the form of changes in pressure  Amplitude: the strength of sound wave; influences the sounds loudness  Wavelength: the length in the sound wave; it influences sound pitch  Purity: influences the tonal quality  Transduction: the outer ear channels sound waves through the auditory canal into the ear drum, which the middle ear translates the vibrations of the eardrum into the cochlea, the vibration of the cochlea causes impulses to adjacent nerve cells and the nerve cells converge to send messages though neural messages  Loudness is detected by the number of activated hair cells in the cochlea; increased loudness = increased number of hair cells on cochlea  Pitch detection: o Place theory  we hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger different activity in different places along the cochlear membrane; but neural signals sounds are not localized (how we perceive high pitch) o Frequency theory  we hear different pitches because those sounds produce different rates of neural impulses; but there is no account of how we perceive sounds that are greater than 1000 waves/sec (how we perceive low pitch)  Sound Location: stereophonic hearing  because of the location of our ears, sounds that come from 1 direction are received more intensely in one ear than the other. The sounds from 1 direction are perceived sooner in 1 ear than the other  The Gestalt Approach: when people are given a cluster of sensations, we tend to organize those sensations into a “hole”  Form perception: basic distinction between figure and ground; we first perceive any object as distinct from its surroundings; the same stimulus can trigger more than 1 perception o Grouping principles: proximity(we group nearby lines together), similarity (we group similar figures together), continuity (perceive smooth and continuous patterns instead of discontinuous), connectedness (when stimuli are uniform and linked, we perceive them as a single unit)  Learning: relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience (NOT CHANGE IN THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, OR ATTITUDE)  It’s the modification of our behaviors, and is adaptive and promotes survival  Basic law of learning: stimuli in the environment naturally illicit behavioral responses through learning  Habituation: the tendency to become familiar with a stimulus in a repeated exposure to the stimulus  Classical Conditioning: the process of learning associations between 2 stimuli that occur in a sequence o Ivan Pavlov: studied animals digestive systems; found that when you place food in a dogs mouth, it salivates, as it does at the sight of food, the food bowl, the person bringing it to them, and the sound of said persons footsteps o Found that neutral stimuli can take on a conditioned response o Unconditioned response (UR)= an unlearned, naturally occurring response to a stimulus o Unconditioned stimulus (US) = a stimulus that naturally triggers a response o Conditioned response (CR)= a learned response to a neutral stimulus o Conditioned stimulus (CS)= stimulus that comes to trigger a response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US or neutral stimulus) o Forward classical conditioning: the conditioned stimulus is presented before the desired conditioned response o Backward classical conditioning: the conditioned stimulus is presented after unconditioned stimulus, causing learning to not always occur  Extinction: the conditioned response is weakened over time is the conditioned stimuli is not paired with the conditioned stimuli  Generalization: the tendency for similar stimuli to illicit a conditioned response  Discrimination: the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimuli and stimuli that do not illicit a response  Little Albert: -Watson and Raynor -Banged bars near albert causing him to cry, but this was an unconditioned response -Then they slammed bars while he was playing with a white rat, and then he was afraid of the white rat, which was a conditioned stimulus with a conditioned response  Operant conditioning: a learning association between a spontaneously emitted action and its consequences  Behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcement and diminished by a punishment  Positive reinforcement: the presentation of a pleasurable consequence after a response (reward)  negative reinforcement: the reduction of an unpleasurable consequence after a response (not being hit)  positive punishment: the presentation of an unpleasurable consequence after an event (being hit)  negative punishment: the reduction/removal of a pleasurable reward for a behavior (taking candy away)  Reinforcement schedules:  continuous: every desired behavior is reinforced  partial: desired responses are reinforced but not always  fixed ratio: the behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses  variable ratio: desired behaviors are reinforced after varying numbers of responses  fixed interval: a period of time must pass and the first response gets reinforced, the period of time is constant  variable interval: first response is reinforced after varying amounts of time  Modeling: learning by observing and imitating others


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