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inr2001

inr2001

Description

School: University of Florida
Department: Political Science
Course: Introduction to International Relations
Professor: Richard nolan
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: international relations
Cost: 50
Name: INR2001 First Exam Notes
Description: Here are my notes on the terms provided, compiled from my notes as well as the textbook
Uploaded: 01/07/2016
15 Pages 9 Views 14 Unlocks
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INR2001 Exam 1 Terms Review:


What is Liberal Idealism?'



1. Realism: Ideal of thought that dominated after World War II

a. More pessimistic view: People are bad, can’t change that, so deal with it b. Don’t try and reform the world’s politics, just accept it and understand it c. The state has a need to survive through acquisition of power

d. International relations are a struggle for power

e. States will try to conquer each other, which leads to a usual balance of power 2. Neorealism/Structural Realism: The system is made up of states

a. These states are anarchical

b. Preaches rationality and understanding of the structure/acquisition of power 3. Liberal idealism: Ideal of thought that preaches progress, change, and doing better a. People and human nature are good, so progress is possible

b. Bad behavior is a product of institutions, not bad human nature

c. It is an international problem, between the nations


What is the idea that states foreign policy decisions are determined by their location, natural resources, and physical environment?



d. Ways to improve the system:

i. International institutions

ii. Legal control of war

iii. Eliminate weapons

4. Neoliberalism: Accounts for the way international institutions promote global change,  cooperation, peace, and prosperity through collective programs for reform a. Emerged at the end of the 20th century

b. Big interest in probing the conditions under which the convergent and  overlapping interests among independent transnational actors may result in  cooperation

c. Focuses on the ways in which influences such as democratic governance, liberal  commercial enterprise, international law and organization, collective security, and  ethnically inspired statecraft can improve life

5. Geopolitics: Idea that states’ foreign policy decisions are determined by their location,  natural resources, and physical environment


What is Feminist Theory?



If you want to learn more check out dr kirifides

a. For example, states with extensive coastlines and ports enjoyed comparative  advantages

b. Nations not near water sources or many natural resources are already at a  disadvantage over others, as they must rely on others for what they need 6. Distribution of power: Power can be concentrated in the hands of a single state (ancient  Mediterranean era/Roman empire) or it may be diffused among several rival states a. Military and economic capabilities are closely tied together in determining the  number of centers of power, or poles, referring to polarity

7. IGOs (Intergovernmental organizations): Most important non-state actor a. EX: United Nations, European Union

b. Purposely created by states to solve problems

c. Most IGOs are small and limit their scope to specific regions

d. Most concentrate their activities on specific economic or social issues of special  concern to them

e. The expansion of IGOs has created a complex network of overlapping  international organizations, thus these organizations can cooperate with each other  to deal with the wide range of global issues

8. NGOs (Nongovernmental organizations): Intersocial organizations that contribute to  negotiations between and among states in hope of reaching agreements for global  governance on nearly every issue of international public policy Don't forget about the age old question of pothic

a. EX: Amnesty International, International Red Cross

b. All non-state and nonprofit organizations that operate as intermediaries to build transnational bridges between those with resources and a targeted group c. There are NGOs, big or small, for practically every and all issues around the  world We also discuss several other topics like uncc geology

d. Many also interact with IGOs hoping to advance issues

9. Anarchy: The units in the global system are subjected to few, if any, overarching  institutions to regulate their conduct  

a. Overall, no authority

10. Supranationalism: When a number of individual states come together to work together  toward common goals.

a. Examples:  

i. Italy, Germany, and Greece all transformed from separate entities into  single countries.  

ii. League of Nations, United Nations, NATO, NAFTA, the Arab League,  and the African Union.

11. Levels of Analysis:  

a. System: Bipolar, 2 powers, distribution of power

b. States/Actors: Looks at the characteristics of the actors and the many different  factors within the actors We also discuss several other topics like soci 1101 gsu

c. Individual: People are really the ones who act, not the states

i. People can have misconceptions

12. Feminist theory: Emphasizes gender in the study of world politics Don't forget about the age old question of stvap

a. Explores how gender identity shapes foreign policy decision making and how  gendered hierarchies reinforce practices that perpetuate inequalities between men  and women Don't forget about the age old question of eas 360 ub

b. Challenges the fundamentals of traditional international relations theory in 4 ways i. Fundamental gender bias

ii. Reformulation of core concepts

iii. Incorporation of the female perspective

iv. The scientific study of world politics

13. Ideology: A set of core philosophic principles that leaders and citizens collectively  construct about politics, the interests of political actors, and the ways people ought to  behave

14. GNP: Gross National Product.

a. Market value of all the products and services produced in one year by labor and  property supplied by the citizens of a country.

15. GDP: Gross Domestic Product

a. Total value of all the goods and services produced in a country within a year

16. GNI: Gross National Income

a. A measure of the production of goods and services within a given time period,  which is used to delimit the geographical scope of production

b. GNI measures production by a state’s citizens or companies, regardless of where  the production occurs  

17. Bush Doctrine: The unilateral positions of the George W. Bush administration  proclaiming that the USA will make decisions to meet the US’s perceived national  interests, not to concede to other countries’ complaints or to gain their acceptance

a. This emphasis of self-interested unilateralism led to a surge of anti-Americanism  between 2003 and 2008

18. Dependency Theory: A theory hypothesizing that less developed nations are exploited  because global capitalism makes them dependent on the rich countries that create  exploitative rules for trade and production

a. These nations had to become dependent on exporting inexpensive raw materials  and agricultural commodities to advance industrial states, while simultaneously  importing expensive manufactured goods from them

19. Third World: A cold war term to describe the less developed countries of Africa, Asia,  the Caribbean, and Latin America

a. ¾ of the worlds population lives in the 3rd world, but only 1/5 of the wealth b. Generalities of these states: Colonization, poverty, low levels of  

education/literacy, weak capacity of the states, lower economic development  (inequality), few democratic successes, political corruption, instability, and ethnic  conflict

20. NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries): The most prosperous members of the global  south, which have become important exporters of manufactured goods as well as  important markers for the major industrialized countries that export capital goods

a. Today, NICs are among the largest exporters of manufactured goods and are the  leaders in the information processing industry

21. Global North: Refers to the world’s wealthy, industrialized nations, located primarily in  the northern hemisphere

22. Global South: Now used instead of the term Third World

a. Refers to the less developed countries located primarily in the southern  hemisphere

23. NIEO (New International Economic Order): A 1974 UN policy resolution that called for  a North-South dialogue to open the way for less developed countries of the Global South  to participate more fully in the making of international economic policy a. This initiative was pushed for mainly by the G-77

b. The global south was motivated by the oil-exporting countries; rising bargaining  powers, thus the Global South wanted the Global North to abandon practices  perceived as perpetuating the Global South’s dependence.  

24. Foreign Direct Investment: A cross-border investment through which a person or  cooperation based in one country purchases or constructs an asset, such as a factory or  bank in another country so that a long-term relationship and control of an enterprise by  non-residents results

a. FDI into the Global South has increased more rapidly than trade and surpassed  foreign aid as the leading source of capital in developing countries

25. MNCs (Multinational corporations): Business enterprises headquartered in one state that  invest and operate extensively in many other states

a. Many claim that Global South nations are very vulnerable to cultural penetration  like this, which saturate them with values alien to their societies

26. Bipolarity: Power is concentrated in two competing centers so that the rest of the states  define their allegiances in terms of their relationships with both rival great power  superstates, or poles

a. Recent example: Cold War b/w the USA and USSR

27. Long Cycle Theory: A theory that focuses on the rise and fall of the leading global power  as the central political process of the modern world system

a. Transitions in world leadership unfold through a series of distinct phases where  periods of global war are followed by relatively stable periods of international  rule making and institution building

b. Shifts in the cycle have occurred alongside changes in the major states’ relative  power, changing their relations with one another

28. Bureaucratic Politics Model: A description of decision making that sees foreign policy  choices as based on bargaining and compromises among competing government agencies a. Highlights the constraints that organizations in policy networks place on decision  makers’ choices and the pulling and hauling that occurs among the key  participants and caucuses of aligned bureaucracies in the decision process.  29. Rational Decision Making: Decision making procedures guided by careful definition of  situations, weighing of goals, consideration of all alternatives, and selection of options  most likely to achieve the highest goals

a. Use the following steps in determining the best options

i. Problem recognition and definition

ii. Goal selection

iii. Identification of alternatives

iv. Choice

30. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs): Rules for reaching decisions about particular  types of situations

a. Participants in the deliberations that lead to policy changes also often define  issues and favor policy alternatives that serve their organizations’ needs 31. International Regimes: Embodies the norms, principles, rules, and institutions around  which global expectations unite regarding a specific international problem a. Various types of regimes have been devised to govern behavior in trade and  monetary affairs, as well as to manage access to common resources such as  fisheries and river water

32. Intermestic politics: Political affairs and issues that play a major role in both domestic  and international politics

33. Social Constructivism: Emphasizes the role of social discourse in the development of  ideas and identities

a. Emphasizes collective identity formations

b. Ideational construction of the self and the other are critical

c. See the structure of the international system in terms of the distribution of shared  ideas

34. European Union: Group of 28 European nations

a. Started mainly to combat economic issues, but has many functions

b. Continues to become a supranational organization (power over its states) c. Started to group nations together economically in hopes of avoiding another war d. Initial 6: Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Italy

35. Hegemon: A preponderant state capable of dominating the conduct of international  political and economic relations

a. Each recent global war has led to the emergence of a hegemon

b. With its unrivaled power, the hegemon has reshaped the rules and institutions of  the global system in order to preserve its preeminent position

c. Hegemony always imposes an extraordinary burden on a world leader 36. Mirror Images: The tendency of states and people in competitive interaction to perceive  each other similarly- to see others the same hostile way others see them a. On the individual level of analysis, it’s important to take this into account, as  people are the real actors, and the general public often times has misperceptions  37. Truman Doctrine: Declaration by President Harry S. Truman that US Foreign policy  would use intervention to support peoples who allied with the US against communist  external subjugation

a. This strategy, known as containment, sought to prevent the expansion of Soviet  influence by encircling the Soviet Union and intimidating it with the threat of a  military attack

38. Multipolarity: The distribution of global power into three or more global power centers,  with most other states allied with one of the rivals

a. This was a key factor in the start of WWII, as economic ruin as well as a doubling  in the number of nations in Europe led to the major centers of powers, ending up  in another war breaking out

39. Pooled Sovereignty (EU): Links states together as one to gain more power a. EX: The EU combined the European states together as one and as a collective  unit, they gain more power

40. Nonstate Actors: IGOs, NGOs, etc. Groups/organizations not directly within the state that  play a major role in international politics by forwarding their major interests

41. Nonstate Nations: A nation is a collectivity whose people see themselves as members of  the same group because they share the same ethnicity, culture, or language 42. Nationalism: The strong belief that the interests of a particular nation-state are of primary  importance.  

a. Also, the belief that a people who share a common language, history, and culture  should constitute an independent nation, free of foreign domination.  

b. These strong beliefs often lead to wars between nations as public opinions  become so strong that they can boil over into political issue

43. Xenophobia: The suspicious dislike, disrespect, and disregard for members of a foreign  nationality, ethnic, or linguistic group

a. High levels are often felt during wars in which nationalistic values are on the rise b. EX- There was a ton of xenophobia throughout the Cold War

44. Liberal Democratic Tradition: A history within a nation of freedoms, basic rights, and  overall democracy

a. It is a representative democracy in which the ability of the elected representatives  to exercise decision-making power is subject to the rule of law, and usually  moderated by a constitution that emphasizes the protection of the rights and  freedoms of individuals, and which places constraints on the leaders and on the  extent to which the will of the majority can be exercised against the rights of  minorities.

45. Self-determination: The liberal doctrine that people should be able to determine  government that will rule them

a. Advocated giving indigenous nationalists the moral right to decide which  authority would rule them

b. This idea was championed by President Woodrow Wilson after WWI as the world  embraced the ideals of liberalism

46. Terrorism: Predetermined violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets, by  subnational, transnational groups, or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an  audience. Now seen as:

a. Global, in the sense that with new technology redefining limitations of distance,  borders no longer serve as barriers to terrorism

b. Lethal, because now terrorists have shifted their tactics from theatrical violent  acts to gain media attention to purposeful destruction of a target’s civilian  noncombatants, to kill as many people as possible to instill fear in as many people  as possible

c. Waged by civilians without state sanction as a way to erase classic boundaries  between terrorism and a formal declaration of war

d. Reliant on the most advanced technology of modern civilization

e. Orchestrated by transnational nonstate organizations through global conspiratorial  networks of terrorist cells located in many countries, involving unprecedented  levels of communication and coordination

47. Militant Religious Movements: Politically active organizations based on strong religious  convictions, whose members are fanatically devoted to the global promotion of their  religious beliefs

a. Leaders of these extreme groups are convinced that those who do not share their  convictions mist be punished and compromise is not acceptable

b. These groups hold some common beliefs and perceptions:

i. View existing government authority as corrupt and illegitimate because its  secular and not rigorous in upholding religious authority

ii. Attack the inability of government to address domestic-ills of society iii. Believe that their behaviors and opinions should be reflected in political  authority

iv. They’re universalists who tend to see their views as part of the inheritance  of every believer

v. They’re exclusionists in that they regulate all conflicting opinions on  appropriate political and social order  

48. Irredentism: A movement by an ethnic national group to recover control of lost territory  by force so that the new state boundaries will no longer divide the group a. EX: Germany before WWII, Russia today

49. Secession/Separatist Revolts: A religious or ethnic minority’s efforts, often by violent  means, to gain independent statehood by separating territory from an established  sovereign state

50. Diasporas: The migration of religious or ethnic groups to foreign lands despite their  continuation of affiliation with the land and customs of their origin

a. EX: Jewish people fleeing from Western Europe around WWII

51. Near Abroad: Refers to the newly independent republics which emerged after the  dissolution of the Soviet Union and the constant struggles between their independence  and Russia’s continued interests to gain back its former territory

52. Taiwan Issue: Most sensitive issue for China

a. Was a part of China until 1895, when Japan seized it. After WWII, communists  (led by Mao Zedong) defeated the nationalists, and the nationalists (led by Chiang  Kai-shek) fled to Taiwan. The US backed the nationalists from day one b. China still wants Taiwan back as a part of china

c. However, their mutual economic benefit keeps the US and China from making  this a large issue, and, China and Taiwan are economically interdependent d. Over time, most nations shifted their diplomatic recognition to Beijing e. This would’ve easily escalated to a military issue, but Taiwan’s prospered, which  has kept things level (19th largest economy, 11th largest trader in the world) f. However, they still continue to feel inferior. As time has passed, alliance to china  have weakened as the first generation of natural born Taiwanese are born without  this past alliance

g. Taiwan elected its first post-separation president in Lee Teng-hui.  

h. China continues to state that it will use military force to reincorporate Taiwan if  the island declares independence

i. China has conducted numerous fear campaigns by testing missiles in the Taiwan  straight, but these campaigns failed

j. Under President George W. Bush, the US promised to back Taiwan and  threatened China that it would face incalculable consequences if it took military  action

k. Talks of independence have quieted, returning a calmness to the Taiwan straight.  This still remains a key issue, as Taiwan just sits there, not as a state nor as a  dependent territory

53. Status Quo: States can be classified by whether they accept the international status quo,  or are revisionist, or they want change. Revisionist states seek to fundamentally change  the rules and practices of international relations, feeling disadvantaged by the status quo.  

a. They see the international system as a largely western creation which serves to  reinforce current realities.  

b. Japan is an example of a state that has gone from being a revisionist state to one  that is satisfied with the status quo, because the status quo is now beneficial to it. 54. League of Nations: Woodrow Wilson’s famous idea to create a league of nations that  would guarantee the independence and territory integrity of all states

a. This idea was a key cornerstone of the liberal idealism theory

b. He hopes to prevent future wars by organizing this system of collective security  that would mobilize the entire international community against would-be  aggressors.  

c. While this was later passed, ironically, the US congress voted not to join 55. Collective Security: A security regime agreed to by the great powers that set rules for  keeping peace, guided by the principle that an act of aggression by any state will be met  by a collective response from the rest. Key thinking of liberal idealistic thought 56. United Nations: Most famous and prominent example of a powerful IGO a. Membership by most nations throughout the world (today, 193 independent  member states from across the Global north and global south)

b. Began with membership from 51 states in 1945

c. UN’s objectives are centered on:

i. Maintaining international peace and security

ii. Developing friendly relations among states based on respect for the  principle of equal rights and the self-determination of peoples

iii. Achieving international cooperation in solving international problems of  an economic, cultural, or humanitarian character and in promoting and  encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedom for all

iv. Functioning as a center for harmonizing the actions of countries to attain  these common ends

d. Has many, many functions and parts, including the general assembly and security  council

e. Security Council: Major part of the UN; Has 5 permanent members: Russia, USA,  Great Britain, China, and France

i. All 5 permanent members have absolute veto power

ii. Its main responsibility is to deal with threats to international peace and  security

iii. 10 other nonpermanent members are elected by the general assembly for  staggered two-year terms

f. General Assembly: Established as the main deliberative body of the UN. All  members are equally represented according to a one nation/one vote formula.  Decisions are reached by a simple majority vote, except on so called important  questions, which requires a two-thirds majority. However, the resolutions it  passes are only recommendations for the security council and others to enforce

57. Group of 77 (G-77): Coalition of Third world countries that sponsored the 1963 Joint  Declaration of Developing Countries calling for reform to allow greater inequality in  North-South trade

a. These nations aimed to group together as one in better hopes of advancing their  collective self-interests

58. Technological Dependence: The Global North and Global South have long been defined  by their access to technology and as time has gone on, nations are more and more  dependent on technology for security, economic issues, national issues, etc.

a. The Global North has always had the edge on technology, but the global south has  recently begun to develop their own technology

b. However, it is still unequally distributed, as the lowest density of computer  connections to the internet is in the Global South

c. Critics fear that the Digital Divide, or division b/w internet-technology rich  Global North and Global South, is not closing quick enough, which will put a  strain on small entrepreneurs in the Global South

d. However, much of the growth in the media and telecommunications industries is  expected to occur in the Global South

59. Host State: The nation in which MNCs invest, often because of weak laws, cheap labor,  etc., all in hopes of making profits

a. MNCs have often got in the way of politics in host nations, notably in Chile in the  1970s

i. Chile elected a new socialist president, who was unfavorable to big  business, so US MNCs fed money to the opposition, who eventually  

staged a coup and assassinated the leader

60. Russian Expansionism: Has a long history of expansion, contraction, expansion again,  etc.

a. After expanding to create the USSR empire, almost overnight, it disbanded into  almost 15 separate nations

b. Overall, Russia is a massive nation, stretching 10 time zones

c. Because of a lack of natural boundaries, it is constantly being threatened d. Germany invaded 2x, in 1914 and 1941

e. After the cold war, the USSR disintegrated overnight

f. Russia underwent a negative decline in their economy

g. Has never had a liberal democratic tradition

61. UNCTAD (United Nations Conference of Trade and Development): UN organization created out of the fight of the Group of 77 in which Global South nations expressed the  concerns and issues of developing nations

62. World Bank: 44 nations created the world bank in 1944, which was originally established to support reconstruction efforts in Europe after WWI

a. Over the next decade, however, the bank shifted attention from reconstruction to  developmental assistance

b. Because the Global South countries often have difficulty borrowing money to  finance projects aimed at promoting economic growth, the bank offers them loans  with lower interest rates and longer repayment plans than they could get from  commercial banks

c. Most recently, the world bank has set a goal to end extreme poverty throughout  the world by 2030

d. Administratively, the ultimate decision-making authority in the world bank is vested in a board of governors, consisting of a governor and an alternate  appointed by each of the Bank’s 188 member countries

63. Transnational Terrorist Groups: The ability of terrorists and terrorist states to spread their  efforts and ideas around the globe thanks to improving technology and communication a. These groups can now more easily and more effectively communicate and recruit  members around the world without being detected and/or tracked as easily 64. US National Style (Generalizations):

a. Isolationism/Interventionism:

i. US policy has swung between this two ideals, between the War of 1812  then to isolationism, to WWI and interventionism, then back to  

isolationism, then towards WWII and more interventionism

ii. US has only turned attention outward when provoked by the outside 1. WWI = Germany threating US through Mexico as well as attacks  

on Americans on British ships/close ties to the UK

2. WWII = Japan attacking Pearl Harbor

iii. US has a pattern of being reactive, not proactive

b. American moralism/crusadism:

i. Americans have always felt morally superior (EX: Old world vs new  world)

ii. US gets involved b/c we feel a moral obligation, not b/c we feel a balance  of power is threatened

iii. EX: Making the world safer for democracy in WWI

iv. US went out to fight evil and be a missionary for the world

c. Depreciation of Power Politics:

i. Use freedom and democracy as means and reasons for power

ii. Think nature and peace are key- going outside to fight is abnormal iii. Very hard to find an effective middle ground

d. Distinction between peace and war:

i. Americans can’t see the difference between the two

1. Generalization: Isolation = Peace while Intervention = War

e. Divorce of diplomacy from use of force:

i. An external threat immediately becomes a political problem ii. “War is the extension of politics by other means” –Carl von Clausewitz iii. War becomes a contest of good vs evil, not seen as a political took f. Belief in US omnipotence:

i. We have what it takes, so we can solve virtually anything

ii. This has been modified rapidly since the Vietnam war

g. American pragmatism:

i. Americans see themselves as the problem-solves of the world ii. Engineering approach: Fix every problem as it arises

1. Greatest example: Vietnam War

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