Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this...
Federalism - Gov. system in which power is - between nat'l & state govs.
Nat'l (federal) gov has power over some things, state has power over others
- Nat'l gov not necessarily superior;
Simply has clifferent powers from state - Designed to bring together different political
units for one purpose - Individuals are citizens of both state & notion If you want to learn more check out What is the mongol way of war?
→ Example: 1980's
Pres. Reagan wanted to a drinking age to 21. This is a state duty, not a fed, one, but Reagan threatened to take away
We also discuss several other topics like Why is memory considered an associative network?
federal highway funding for states that didn't comply
* Articles of Confederation - First written constit.
of the US, ratified 1781.
→ Very weak. Tried to prevent tyranny but
gave too much power to states Congress could make treatties but can't make
States obey > Cong.could print money, couliot support its value Don't forget about the age old question of Clinical psychologists worked in?
Cong could take on debts, couldn't repay them. couldn't levy taxes, no revenue! unicameral (Single Chamber goy, 2nd Continental Congress. All states must approve changes to constit, but could never agree! No progress!
StudySoup Don't forget about the age old question of What are three methods or tools for finding what is nearby geographic features or for working with distance?
- Shays' Rebellion (1786-87 697 sol- Farmers upset about tax t, petitioned
gov and were ignored. Stopped paying taxes, lost farms. Took over court houses, almost took
over Massachussets, stopped by military - Showed how weak the Articles were If you want to learn more check out What is the specific region involved in expressive language?
Pushed continental Congress to meet
(1781). Decided to scrap AOC completely → Friction blw states added to disaster Rio - Large vs Small states Don't forget about the age old question of Is water and carbon are the same?
- Dispute blw states with & without westem
borders; easy to expand w/o borders - Northern vs Souther states over Slavery
confederation - Equal units come together,
mal uwoh 'sovany IP Jo saprobaj
eg. → NATO, European Union
states were needed to
Constit. was a reachon to
the weak AOC. This is shown by the Preambie, "forma more perfect union" (than AOC)
*US Constitution cratified 1788
> Established by "We the People" not the states, to as in AOC
The people of each state need to vote & approve
constit. Changes, not the states → Estab. a fed, court syst, but doesn't go into detail
For a bill to become law, majonity (3/4) of each house must approve, Send to pres. - Pres.can pass or vett. Veto can be overridden by getting vote of the House of Reps AND Senato
2/3 → Connecticuit Plan - Estab. bicameral legislature
- Senate. 100 members House of Reps 435 motors
I Senators - 6yrterms
surat uhe - SHOH
→ Federalists VS.
-In favor of constit. - Largely supported by
Alexander Hamilton -John Jay
- James Madison las - Federalist papers
Written to urge ratification - Madison, Hamilton, &
Jay wrote papers under the name Publius
opposed constit. Stue Wanted less central gou power
less taxation, - Wanted protection of individ
nights via Bill of Rights largely supported by rural areas, farmers
Patrick Henry : "Give Me Liberty speech
> Federalist No. 51
Madison says Checks & Balances are
needed to prevent one gov branch frem en having too much power of
"ambition must be made to counteract
ambition. The power of one branch
can be checked by the power of another 2901/2 "men were angels, no government
would be necessary," Madison counts
on people being seifish & therefore
needing to be govemed. Post - How do we prevent Oppression by the
majority? Madison says this wont
happen blo ppl have so many differences → Constit. Failed to resolve issue of slavery. on stue - Made it a law to not mention slavery
lows for 20 yrs Constit. held the union together.
) Study Soup
are those who can vote
a Bruyns jos sanium
* What was the Jacksonian Era?
was the Jacksonian Era) 1820-1840 ish
• Followed the era of Good Feelings
7 only one political party during that time;
everyone agrees on everything (or so they thought)
• Preceded Antebellum Era (before civil war era)
• Characterized by growth of democracy
- People should get what they want
Emphasis on the common man" Gruevs — Andrew Jackson most dominant political figure
Since Washington → Ciniversal Suffrage: refers to extension of
voting to those who didn't own land - Used to be a law that only men w/ land
could vote Prejudice, Why was it eliminded? - Demographic & Social Change . The # of
people who weren't allowed to vote was
becoming too large. Elites feared riots. - Elites realized an advantage 4 themselves @
in letting more ppl vote. e.g. more voters,
more ppl to serve in military - Political Competition allowing mone ©
people to wote means greater potential
votes in your favor as a candidate los → Increased popularity of the idea of democracy
et dans won 1824 Corrupt bargain
• During the 1824 election, Jackson wan
Popular vote of the people but didrit win majonity of electoral college, Henry Clay, Specker of the House, attacked Jackson, Adams named Clay as his Secretary of State
pshowed the people great compnen, so Jackson
Sac Andrew Jackson - Pres. 1829-37. Dem
1. War of 1812 : US was defeated, but Jackson o
Won Battle of New Orleans, was considered a
hero even though buttle accomplished nothing
→ War had already ended by the start of the
battle, aside from Jackson's knowledige Annexed FL took it from Spain, added to us 01824 - Buns 4 Pres. against John Quincy Adams
and loses, but wins next Pres election 3. Campaigned as the common man, got all the lates 0
-> You should vote for me bc I'm like you
This started a chain for future candidates
• As Pres., presided over in capitalism
Jackson supported making $, but didn't like that elites used it as a gov.advantage Opposed 2nd Bank of us, which was supposed to open during his term
- Viewed bank as being an instrument of
the wealthy Indian Removal, us wanted Indians to move so it could expand. (Removal Act of 1830)
→ Tribes signed treaties to switch their land
for other land signed out of fear that individ.
Amencans would take their land eventually e > Jackson pushed senate to approve a treaty wl
small group of cherokees, getting them to move Cherokees forced out by millary, many clieclas result
Exchanged land was supposed to be protected by mirary, so inclivid. Americans couldn't take it
from Indians, but this didn't last. Americans to eager to expand.
Trail of Tears (1838-39) Cherokees forced to give up land E of MS River, migrate to area in present-day OK.Many died op hunger disease, exposure.
Politics of slavery 1820-1859
* Political status of slavery.
Constitution did not resolve slavery
- Made a law to not create slavery laws 420 yrs. Wanted issue of slavery to disappear, but it kept
coming up blc us Kept expanding to land
*Slavery in the scrith, Economics Suicysor
• Slave trade brought almost as much as growing
cotton! Buying & selling slaves became a major business for the South
> Owners bought Slaves, made them stronger,
sold them for profit
* Missouri compromise (1820) Solved LA Purchase
• Louisiana Purchase (1803) - us bought Louisiana teritory from France, doubling its size, donng
Thomas Jefferson's Presidency
• Missouri Comp. preserved balance blu slave a
free states. After LA joined union, as there was an = # of slave & Free states.
→ ME came into union as free state,
MO joined as slave State - No Slavery allowed above bottom MO border,
except in mo
1846 * Mexican War (1890) leads to next big us expansion
• TX was originally part of Mx, got independence 1836,
wanted to join union but us refused bic of balance between free slave states
- James K. Polk becomes Pres. in 1845,
Signs bill to annex TX & bring it into onon Tension blw TX & Mx over berder First war us fought on foreign anta
> Shows grecit change for us ; Will to expand
• MX Lost CA, UT, NY, AZ. ANM, us gave
MX $15 mill in exchange under Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848).
* Compromise of 1850 - Resolved divisions over
Slavery in territory gained from Mexican War.
• CA admitted as free State UT NM would use popular Sovereignty
(vote of the ppi) to determine slaveny status
• Banned slave trade in Washington, DC, but
not slavery k o
• Fugitive Slave law : Made it easier for Southerners to recover escaped slaves you
> Anyone accussed of escaping was denied stues thal by jury. Any black person (including freemen)
could be accused claimed falsely
) Study Soup
This decision made by Chief Justice
Taney (Taw-nee), enraged abolitionists increased tension bw N&S
Popular Sovereignty - Intended to alleviate tension but only caused more controversy
Only applied to newly acquired territones South becomes more Democratic, more proslavery. North becomes more anti-slavery - Antislavery at this time meant opposed to
expansion *Moving Toward avil war
• Kansas - Nebraska Act 1854
→ Mandated Popular sov., proposed by Stephen Sivas Douglas, overturned missoun compromise
→ Ceads to Bleeding Ransas, contributes to avil Wor → Bleeding Kansas period of violence during
Selling of KS. Pro slavery a antislavery settlers flooded the new territory to influence the decision on whether KS would be slave or free
- Abolitionist John Brown led antislavery soup
• John Brown & Harpers Ferry (1859).
→ Brown seized the federal arsenal @ Harpers Ferry
in effort to build an army to set slaves free across
plantations → Stopped by Robert E. Lee, but Brown seen as martyr
• Dred Scott Case (857) Stue
Scott lived w/his owner in a free state before moving to a slave state, sued for his freedom & lost.. Court ruled that blacks could not petition courts for freedom bio they werent citizens.