COM 101 Final Exam notes
COM 101 Final Exam notes 101- Communications
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Chapter 6 Human Communication theory & Research The study of communication can be divided into two major classifications: rhetorical and relational Rhetorical communication: to get others to do what you want/ what you need them to do/ make them think the way you want (persuasion) Relational: examines communication from a transactional or co-orientation perspective. Meaning two people communicate a share perspective satisfactory to all Two divergent orientations: Eastern and Western Eastern (collectivistic and relational) orientation would sacrifice the achievement of influence to protect relationships. Western (individualistic and rhetorical) orientation would sacrifice relationships to accomplish influence Rhetorical tradition began 2,500 years after Kagemni’s early writing during the 5th century BC Aristotle’s Rhetoric Written about 330 BC He defines Rhetoric as “the faculty of discovering in a particular case what are the available means of persuasion. Means of persuasion: ethos, pathos, logos Ethos: nature of the source Pathos: emotion of the audience Logos: nature of the message presented by the source Three types of speaking: deliberative, forensic, and epideictic Deliberative: speaking in legislature Forensic: speaking in the law court Epideictic: speaking in a ceremonial situation Three critical elements of rhetoric: probabilities, adapt to the audience, and amorality Probabilities: based on argumentation. Adapt to the audience: you can’t persuade a person unless you know what will persuade them Amorality: used by anyone-good or bad by a person seeking ends or by seeking unworthy ends. Interpersonal Speech: used to identify the traditional rhetorical orientation of the people who studied human communication, and the field was changing, people sought ways to change the identity of the field Social biology-indicates that personality has a firm genetic base, this one in which we can expect major advances in Basic interpersonal- the study of communication within the family Gender- biological differences Developmental approach- examines how communication orientations and behaviors are likely to change during the individual’s life span "Communibiology"-study of communication and behaviors dominated by the learning paradigm In-class Notes Main purpose of communication is to Inform, persuade and entertain Theories=explanation Theory= conjecture, hypothetical (connotative) Theory= research and evidence (denotative) Communication scholars study the influence of communication on individuals and society Explaining how and why communication does and doesn't work Communication theories should guide message creations to people Aristotle's proofs Artistic Proofs o Ethos: credibility (doctor) o Pathos: emotional appeal o Logos: appeal to reason Inartistic proofs o Outside that we bring into the message o Evidence that exists outside of the message o Statistics, examples, testimonies, quotations, facts, etc.… Like presentational and discursive forms, the types of proofs are most effective when they are combined A sample of some contemporary theories: o Cognitive Dissonance- used as a persuasive strategy Consonance: go together Dissonance: don't go together No relationship o Agenda setting Attention paid to issues implied importance Placement/layout Repetition of coverage News attention influences what we think about (no claims on influence on opinion) Attention makes covered topics and ideas more salient to the audience for example Missouri news o Framing: Setting parameters of a discussion providing a perspective for interpretation o Priming: A memory effect in which exposure to one stimulus influences the response to another stimulus. It activates particular connections o Cultivation: how things like entertainment programming influence how we see reality Theories= expectation Communication scholars study the influence of communications on individuals and society-explaining why and how communication does and doesn't work Chapter 9 Shaping the American Mass Media: A Brief Overview Relationship B/W Mass Media and Society How did we get to have the types of mass COM and the scope of it that we do today? product of history each society has a set of values and expectations for their media system US: cultural values have been the biggest factor in shaping media Ex: American Revolution, Industrialization, Civil Rights Movement While society has a large influence on Mass Com, the opposite is also true Ex: The advertising industry shapes the way we think about products/our decisions to buy them Ex: Patterns of voting are affected by the news 1. Mercantilism: The Importance of Private Enterprise Concept of buying and selling goods to make a profit Exploitation of foreign trade routes = founding of the new world Goal of colonization was to make profit wanted to make claims on foreign territory “Plantations” formed, the goal of which was to exploit foreign goods and sell them back to England 2. A Commitment to Local and Autonomous Government Fundamental Orders: created to establish a commonwealth and republic form of government 3. Separation of the Church and State people who fled to the new world sought religious toleration was important to separate these two factors to create a strong government 4. Individualism: The Frontier Mentality Were not environmentalists exploited the vast array of natural resources around them The idea of “rugged individualists” pitted against nature right to subjugate nature for own use Lacked the aristocratic system that dominated Europe Few social and class distinctions Distaste of government interference ** we believe in private ownership and equal opportunity, and limited government, which influences the way media is utilized and run in our society Influence of the Later Colonial Era: 1700s 1. distrust of big government Britain controlled commerce and elections 2. Growing dissatisfaction with England’s control Taxation 3. Role of newspapers in the independence movement journalists became the “watchdogs” of society made people think about independence Mass Media in the 1800s As opposed to the two previous centuries, this was a time of rapid change Industrial Revolution Technology and ways to transport information became more progressive Territorial Expansionism Boundaries were growing at a rapid rate Mexican War and its influence on newspapers Influence of the Civil War Created a great demand for news and papers were able to supply it Urbanization Growth of towns and cities Much easier for newspapers to serve Population Increases and Migrations Homestead Actà allowed for 12 acres of free land for Americans Communities were established daily and weekly newspapers became needed in these communities Consequences of the Industrial Revolution 1. Steam as a New Source of Power revolutionized publication 2. Literacy 3. Advertising 4. Revolutions in Transportation 5. New COM technologies New Media in and Urban Industrial Society: 1900s Product of industrialization US becomes a Mass Com Society Rise of the magazine industry “muckrakers” focused on corruption in American society 1. Golden Age of Print Media WW1 lead to great significance in media achievements most ever subscriptions of papers 2. American Movies Dominate the World Market 3. Radio à New Mass COM technology evolved from telegraph helped advertising develop 4. TV challenges other mass media attracted the most advertising dollars quickest and easiest way for Americans to receive information New Technologies and Changing Mass Media Systems Movies and Newspapers declined from the golden age, where TV and radio (talk shows, music) became very popular 1. Increasing Importance of Computers first computer=ENIAC at first, they seemed irrelevant to most Americans because they worked so slowly and were really only used by the government 2. Constant Invention and Replacement of Media large computers became desktops became a part of every day life **What Lies Ahead? More homes will have advanced, HDTV systems Far more channels will be available on our home receivers, including WWW Interactive menus on our TV screens have become the norm. **Advertising becomes voluntary to the viewer Continuing decline of families who subscribe to print media Slow decline of people going to movie theaters because they can watch it at home Continues production and use of traditional books In class notes: Our online selves, our offline selves and how technology interacts with both. Smartphones- personal, individual, we have them all the time The “Triple Revolution”: The Rise of: The Internet (online and plugged in) Social Networks (interacting with people, social reach is much larger) Mobile Technology (connectivity, accessibility) Technological Affordances: Key Questions: How do technological attributes of a platform define, direct and limit its uses? How do users engage with and contribute meaning to these platforms? What is the resulting content of these interactions between user and platform? Defining our terms: the internet: Four key properties: Persistence (once it’s out there it can’t be deleted) Search ability (online content can be accessed through search) Replicability (the online content can be duplicated/manipulated) Scalability (potential visibility of content is much greater; anyone can see it) Three key dynamics: Invisible audiences (you have no idea who’s reading your content, could be anyone who searches for you online)- complicated communication principle of “know your audience” Collapsed contexts Blurring of public and private Network Effects: for every user that the network gains, the value of the network increases exponentially Why are these platforms free? To encourage the highest amount of people to join. Facebook- started in 2004 Technological features of Facebook: photo sharing, status updates, events, messaging, profiles (pictures, pages we like, friends list, profile picture, cover photo, photo albums, tagged photos) - mix of information that you’re giving and that other people put things that represent you. Newsfeed (status updates, advertisements, links, things that people like, things that people are tagged in) Who’s our audience on Facebook: close friends, family What are we getting out of Facebook? A sense of connectedness, we know what our friends are doing, we know what’s happening even though we’re not with them. Boost self esteem based on likes etc. Can make groups, organizational groups. You can brand yourself on Facebook, can curate your image. What does Facebook get from its users? Data collection (what am I liking, what fan pages am I connected to, what ads do I click on), personal information What’s an algorithm? Based on criteria Proprietary information Facebook Edge Rank: (rank=affinity weight Decay) Snapchat Technological features: messaging Who is the audience on Snapchat: more control? What are we getting out of Snapchat: entertainment? What’s Snapchat getting from us? They own our content, geotags, data collection, user preferences Going Mobile: why is Snapchat only available as an app? Integrates itself into your daily life and daily routine Tinder Technological features: pictures, maximum 500 characters, swipe left and right What are we getting out of Tinder: connection, matches, low stakes interaction? What does Tinder get from us? have to be on Facebook to be on Tinder, so gets all the Facebook information Level of anonymity, disinhibition effect, perceived distance online How are these platforms evolving? Snapchat and Tinder - more control, diminish our risks Chapter 10 Understanding Mass Media and the Importance of Media Literacy Varieties of Communication Mass communication worked well until the past few decades when key aspects of traditional definition of mass communication reaching huge, diverse groups of people The reason is because the arrival of media channels- including the growing number of radio and TV stations, the rise of VCR, and multiplication of cable networks and the rise of the Internet led to audience fragmentation Audience fragmentation is people watching or reading new channels and causing media not to reach as many people because there are so many different medias Mass Production process: creates the potential for reaching millions, even billions of diverse, anonymous people at the same time Industrial nature: making mass communication different from other forms of communication even when the audience is relatively small and even one on one. Communications Defined Communication: people interacting in ways that at least one of the parties involved understands the message Messages: collections of symbols that appear purposefully organized to those sending or receiving them Interpersonal communication: a form of communication that involves two or three individuals signaling to each other using their voices, facial and hand gestures and other signs that they use to convey a message. Mediated interpersonal communication: a specialized type of interpersonal communication can be described as using device to assist (pen, phone, computer) Intrapersonal communication: individual talking to him/herself Organizational communication: involves interaction of individuals in a formal working environment Public communication: Involves one person who speaks to a large number of people (professor, presidential candidate) Elements to different types of Communication Source: originator of the message (can be one or several) Encoding: source translates the thoughts and ideas so they can be perceived by the human senses -sight and sound mostly but can include smell taste and touch Transmitting: performs the physical activity of actually sending out the message Channel: all communication takes place through channels- mediated or not (pathways which the transmitter sends all features of the message) Decoding: Before the receiver can hear the message it must be converted into signs the brain can understand and perceive as meaningful. Receiver: the receiver is the person or organization that gets the message. Sometimes it reaches an unintended receiver Feedback: occurs when the receiver responds to the message with what the sender perceives as a message Noise: an environmental, mechanical and semantic sound in the communication situation that interferes with the delivery of the message From Communication to Mass Communication Differences in the Source: In mass communication- complex organizations such as companies take responsibility for the activity o The source is an organization (company, not single person) Example: Jon Stewart telling you he read the news paper -interpersonal communication My brother recording that conversation and showing my mom- mediated interpersonal com Jon on the daily show is a visible representation of an organization source when he talks about things on the DS Differences in Transmission: shows up in the transmission of the message. In interpersonal communication, small group, public or individual the sender or committee takes responsibility for transmitting the message. VS mass communication transmission is too complex to be accomplished by an individual or even a few people. Differences in feedback: o Is it immediate or delayed? o Whether or not it goes directly to the initial message creator or to someone else who may or may not pass it on to the creator You could get an instant response or a delayed on Differences in Noise: noise can be at different levels Mass Communication defined Mass media-plural (more than one technological instrument) Mass medium- single Mass Media in our Personal Lives: People use Mass media for… o Enjoyment: personal pleasure o Companionship: mass media brings pleasure to the lonely and the alone o Surveillance: employing people to learn what is going on in the world o Interpretation: supplies only part of what they want to know about the world -why are things happening, the cause and what to do about it? o Multiple use of Mass Media Content: looking to different outlets to seek advice? Mass Media, Culture and Society What is culture? o A culture lays out guidelines about who belongs to the society and what rules apply to them. It provides guideposts about where and what to learn, how much to work- eat and sleep. o Provides people with ideas about kinds of arguments concerning particular subjects that are acceptable o Mass Media create people's common lived experiences, a sense of common culture and varieties of subcultures acceptable to it. o The mass media present ideas of the culture in 3 broad related ways i. They direct people's attention toward codes of acceptable behavior within the society and how to talk about them 1. Culture provides people with notions of how to approach life ii. They tell people what and who counts in their world and why 1. Mass media tells us what is famous, cool and popular ii. They tell people what others think of them and what people like themselves think of them 1. Comparisons Stereotypes: predictable depictions that reflect cultural prejudices Political ideologies: beliefs about who should hold the greatest power within a culture and why Media Literacy: We are influenced by the media Goal is to make you think in an educated manner about the forces that shape the media and your relationship with them o Consider your internet use o Consider you use of the TV o Consider the job at a media firm you are applying for (need to be knowledgeable about trends) Foundations of Media Literacy Literacy: the ability to effectively comprehend and use messages Media literacy: the ability to access, analyze, evaluate and communicate messages in a variety of forms Principles of Media Literacy 1 Media Materials Are Constructed a Human creation presents a kind of script about culture 2 Media Materials Are Created and Distributed within a Commercial Environment a Trying to earn money 2 Media Materials Are Created and Distributed within a Political Environment a The way society is governed b The way government is changing media regulations, etc. 2 Mass Media Present their Ideas within Primary Genres of Entertaining, News, Information, education and Advertising 3 People are active Recipients of Media Messages 4 Media Representations play a role in the way society understands its reality Media Literacy Skills An Understanding of the Commercial forces behind media materials An awareness of political influences that shape media materials An ability to examine media content systematically for broadly cultural as well as specifically commercial and political meanings An ability to think through the ethical implications of media firms' activities An understanding of research on the mass media's implications for the individual and society An awareness of ways the public can influence the production and distribution of mass media materials Becoming a media literate person 1 Knowledgeable about the influences that guide media organizations 2 Up to date on political issues 3 Sensitive to ways of seeing media content as a means of learning about culture 4 Sensitive to ethical dimensions of media activities 5 Knowledgeable about scholarship regarding media effects 6 Able to enjoy media materials in sophisticated manner Question media trends! In-Class Notes Media is (insert adjectives) Media literacy: to have a deep understanding of how the media operates and how it influences us Think: critical interpretation and analysis Feel: social and emotional engagement Do: Creative production Perceptions about the media: Media exist in a commercial and political environment People are active recipients of media messages Media play a role in the way we see the world Deconstructing Media messages: (critical interpretation and analysis) Author and audience Economics and consumerism Representation Intertextuality Ethics and responsibility Reconstructing Media messages (creative production) The rise of the prosumer (producer/consumer) -what is our real role? There is not diversity in media How are we the users? We go on and use platform Reading Engaging How are we the product? We take in messages…becoming the product Wouldn’t exist if we didn’t use them We are the capital WE are being used Your role in being a creative producer Social and emotional engagement: For the future o More of a connection o Difficult to disconnect o Less privacy o Online identity more important for networking o Media futures? Chapter 11 Cyberspace, Digital Media and the Internet What is cyberspace? Not merely the hardware but a series of symbolic definitions or "tropes"- constituting a network of ideas as much of the communication of bits. The term cyberspace was invented by William Gibson Cyberspace didn't spring out of no where. It emerged from technical and social innovations that changed our worldview in the 80s and 90s It integrates older communication technologies- the telephone, and draws on theoretical conceptions of information and space that have enabled such things as communication and representation to be digitized and networked. The emergence of cyberspace Fundamentally cyberspace is telecommunication, literally communication over distance Telegraph- mid-nineteenth century Mail and semaphore Telephone Answering machines and fax -1960 Geographical satellite-50s Printing/ color printing Television Radio Computer There are three elements: Computer Telecommunication Entertainment technologies Cyberspace- invented by Gibson owes much to the terms cybernetics- Norbert Wiener in 1948 Cybernetics: science of control theory applied to complex systems and was defined by Wiener as "the science of control or communication, in the animal and the machine" from kubernetes Cybernetics is a theory of machines and systems that treats not things but ways of behaving: any system that is not spiraling out of control or in a state of collapse must be self-regulating to some degree, and it is how such system are controlled and regulated that is of interest to cybernetics Cybernetic theory has been applied far beyond its original application in social sciences Cyberspace and ICT Simply Information and communication technologies (ICT)- is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries. Moore's Law: o Contributed to the computer boom of the 80s and 90s but is perhaps less important overall than Metcalf's law. o In 1964: Gordon Moore, stated the number of transistors that could be etched on to a computer chip would double every eighteen months since then computers powers have doubled every year and a half. Metcalf's Law o Bob Metcalf o Inventor of Ethernet o He observed that the value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of people using it: that is, the rate of return from a network increases exponentially as more and more people connect to it- doubling the number of users from two to four does not merely double its value but increase its eightfold. 'Network effect'-Gilder's Law o George Gilder o Predicted that total bandwidth will triple every year for the next 25 years Cyberspace and Culture Technological determinism: the notion that contact between the two is one-way and that technology shapes- even causes- social interactions. For those interested in technological, economic and behavior issues it is suggested to study new media and ICT Cyber Culture: cyber culture: cyberspace and digital or new media and the significance of cultural studies Different types of stories: Material stories: histories of technology Symbolic story: literary and generic accounts, most notably in cyberpunk but also SF and other forms of speculative fiction Experimental stories: where materials and symbolic stories are followed into their everyday use. In class Notes Digital Distribution The medium is the message: more is communicated by the media that someone delivers that message, than the content Technological Determinism: o Technological Determinism Technology has a billiard ball effect We are passive, and the technology is driving society o Social Constructivism Technology is shaped by social and cultural forces In October 1998, Digital Millennium Copyright Act: Internet service providers are granted a safe harbor provision, that says they are not liable for what anyone on their network does Metcalf's Law: Anytime you have an interpersonal network, the value of the network is the amount of users squared 1999-2003: Illegal torrent sites begin, but iTunes starts in 2003, allowing people to buy singles…singles sales rise, album sales plummet o Online Music Sales Streaming vs Digital (2011): streaming is going up, digital is going down o Day and Date: same day movies are coming out in theaters and now becoming available to stream at home o Day before date: releasing the movie to stream before it is in theaters Chilling effect: policing ourselves (ex. Cancelling other north Korea movies after Sony hack happened with the Interview movie) Social and political consequences of new technologies Piracy Chapter 12 Making Relationships Work EX of a successful relationship: Tandy and Croyn, two Hollywood actors who were married for 52 years goes against the traditional Hollywood tendency to break up marriages Main Reasons for Forming Relationships why are divorce rates so high? we don’t enter relationships expecting them to fail humans have a deep-seated need to belong “social animals” Interpersonal Attraction **What are the factors that attract us to other people? 1. Physical Attractiveness EX: physically mismatched couples don’t usually stay together long 2. Similarity we are drawn to people who have similar interests as us matching effectà similarity of values, background, jobs, religion, etc. **their worldviews match language similarities EX: college students entered a speed dating study to see who they were compatible with based on their language styles and found they were more attracted to people with a style similar to their own 3. Reciprocal Liking we like those who we perceive to like us EX: males are more attracted to female who will reciprocate eye contact Exchange Theory cost-benefits analysis that weights the benefits of a particular relationship against any costs incurred EX: we deal with annoying behaviors from our partners because they offer us rewards that are equal to or greater than the costs Forming Close Relationships Despite the challenges presented, we desire close relationships and the happiness and satisfaction they bring. Can be casual, professional, loving. Intimacy and Love Friends, family, romantic partners Intimacy: Close Connection Defined by strong emotional bonding and closeness “most intimate” relationship isn’t necessarily with a romantic partner women are better at establishing intimacy than men are miscommunication can arise when people don’t recognize something as an act of affection 1. Kinship (brother-sister) 2. Attraction (lovers and friends) 3. Power Distribution (boss-employee) Three Elements of Love Intimacy, passion, and commitment Seven Types of Love 1. Liking—relationship w/out intimacy or passion 2. Infatuated love—love without intimacy or commitment EX: “puppy love” 3. Empty Love—commitment w/out passion and intimacy 4. Romantic Love—passion and intimacy w/out commitment 5. Companionate Love—intimacy and commitment without passion 6. Fatuous love—passion and commitment without intimacy 7. Consummate love—all three these can be mistaken for each other and go up and down throughout relationships Phases of Relationships Knapp and Vangelisti 5 “Coming Together” Phases: 1. Initiating—surveying interpersonal terrain put our best foot forward communication is often ineffective during this phase 2. Experimenting: auditioning for the part discover commonalities 3. Intensifying: Warming to the relationship approaches: increased contact, relationship negotiation, support or assistance, asking for commitment, suggestive actions, verbal expressions of affection 4. Integrating: Moving Beyond “Just Friends” social circles mix 5. Bonding: Strings, Rings, Other Things showing the world, you are a couple turning point 5 “Coming Apart” Phase: 1. Differentiating: Disintegrating Begins what we thought to be similarities often become differences 2. Circumscribing: Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell when we establish limits and restrictions on communication 3. Stagnating: Treading Water “nothing changes” 4. Avoiding: The end is near 5. Terminating: Stick a fork in it can be traumatic for both parties Sustaining Relationships Is an enormous challenge Competent communication is necessary Connecting Bids: Keeping Us Together Attempt to engage another person in a positive transaction can be at a deep or superficial level verbal or nonverbal Making Bids: Reaching out to Others many different kinds, varying from vague to direct we make them every day so we feel as though we are a part of experiences Responses: Turning this way and that Bids provide 3 responses 1. Turning towardà positive reaction EX: Someone asks for help and you agree without complaint 2. Turning away à we ignore bids or act preoccupied EX: waving dismissively 3. Turning against the bidà negative reaction EX: Ask to do something and they respond harshly and negatively Consequences: The glad, the bad, the sad when we turn away from the bids of others, we dampen the relationship and future contact Emphasize Supportive Communication: How to Talk to Others Need to learn to talk things over so you can prevent defensive, uncooperative communication Evaluation vs. Description Evaluations= value judgments by individuals based on their actions Positiveà statements of praise Negativeà promotes defensiveness 1. Criticism 2. contempt 3. Blame Gottmans’s Thesis Need at least 5 positive evaluations to counteract a negative one Descriptions are the antidote to evaluations Can help us describe what we desire from others without being negative or hurting their feelings Four Steps to help you become more descriptive 1. Praise first, then describe begin with praise, then describe why the behavior is problematic 2. Use I-statements, not you-statements seem less offensive 3. A You-statement of negative evaluation, on the other hand, makes you a target for blame blames and criticizes 4. Make your descriptions specific, not vague I feel “sort of weird” 5. Eliminate editorial comments get rid of offensive adjectives Control Versus Problem Orientation Psychological Reactance à the more someone tries to control our behavior and restrict our choices, the more we are inclined to resist such efforts EX: if someone wants your parking spot, are you inclined to leave faster or slower? something prohibited becomes more desired Manipulation versus assertiveness Manipulation communicationà attempt by one-person maneuver another towards the manipulator’s goal Assertiveness is the antidote Shows exactly how you feel without playing games Indifference versus Empathy Indifference EX: Fatherhood Project NY shows how indifference towards others is a sign of disintegrating relationships Empathyà thinking and feeling what you perceive others are thinking and feeling promoting the positive in your relationships Superiority vs. Equality Superiority à an attitude of something that people don’t live up to “better than” complex no one wants to be viewed as inferior, which is why equality is preferred corrects people in a nicer way, vs. telling them they’re wrong Certainty vs. Provisionalism When you make statements of certainty, you close off possibility of discussion and disagreement Provisionalism is a good substitute, because it qualifies *Avoid defensive spirals EX: Lady Astor and Winston Churchill (coffee) When you stray from the point of the problem, defensiveness is encouraged *keep your eye on the prize! focus on the problem and not the person Address Relationship Deterioration: Beyond Sustaining When a relationship falls apart, the desire to correct it and save it often gets pushed aside by the negative atmosphere Three Suggestions for Sustaining Relationships: 1. Resist the temptation to reciprocate negative communication 2. Seeks opportunities to praise and bolster your partner 3. Avoid at all costs turning-away and turning-against responses to connecting bids Cross-sex relationships: Sustaining the complications Cross-sex friendships are becoming more common, and also controversial Are challenging to sustain because of the ambiguity that exists “Are we friends or more?” Four Types 1. Mutual Romance (you both want the relationship to progress further) 2. Strictly platonic 3. Desires romance (one does but isn’t sure the other does) 4. Reject romance (you want it but your friend doesn’t) Technology and Competent Interpersonal Relationships Benefits: Expanding Social Networks Social media sites allow people to connect Globalization Easier access to what is happening in other cultures Concerns: online addiction and less time spent with face-to-face contact Romantic relationships are affected Easy to meet people online Business is conducted more easily with cell phones Drawbacks: Negative Transactions No escape from your work hinders relationships cell phone use texting and driving lack of personal communication In Class Notes: Interpersonal Communication-Building and Breaking Relationships Contextual definition: 2 people Engaging in and exchange of information Developmental definition: Relationship-based approach Requires potential for longer-term connection Mediated Interpersonal communication Still only two people The social networking complication Through a channel Interpersonal relationships An association between two people Can be fleeting or enduring Includes any number of types of associations Friendly Romantic Professional Familial Formal Causal Motives for interpersonal communication Affection Ranges from seeking to be loved to being hated Inclusion Ranges from total inclusion to complete exclusive Power Ranges from seeking total power to relinquishing it completely Passive aggressiveness More women Three types of interpersonal communication (based on goals) Task oriented Relationship oriented Image oriented Most have 2 if not all 3 Miscommunication Misinterpreting goals Males vs. females Remember, there are generalizations based on decades of research, but do not apply in every situation or every individual Most men by default are task oriented When they hear something they listen and speak from a task oriented perspective Women are not default task oriented. They are relationship oriented Generally speaking, women talk and listen in a relationship oriented manner Interpersonal Communication: Perceptions and Disclosure Six Influences on an Interpersonal Exchange Perception of self (you) Perception of other Perception of others perception of (you) Other self perception Other perception of you Other perception of your perception of him or her How do we build understanding of one another? Perception Of self: Self Concept (harder to change) Self Esteem (easier to change) Of other: based on uncertainty reductions techniques Passive info gathering: info comes to you Active info gathering: when you actively try and get info (without going through the source) Interactive info gathering Perception problems Fundamental attribution error: people are biased towards yourself and the people you know. Negatively biased towards the people we don’t know and don't like. If negative happens to you external forces, positive=it was all me Third-person effect: we are happy to place stereotypes on others but we do not like having other stereotype us Influences on Perception Availability/ Access Primacy/ Recency effect: first and most recent meeting with someone Perceptual Accentuation Levels of Disclosure: Amount: how much do you know about the person Intimacy: how much info is shared Valence (psychological not chemical meaning) positive or negative Intent: is it intentional or unintentional Veracity (truth measure) Mediated vs. Unmediated Exchanges Anonymity Asynchronicity Affects all of the above influences Interpersonal Communication: More Disclosure and Relationship Development Levels/measure of disclosure Amount Intimacy Valence Intent Veracity How are they different online vs. offline? Online people are willing to disclose more information on the internet Personal People don’t post negative The Johari Window and interpersonal disclosure Johari Window Arena: the public stuff The blind spot: what they know about you but you don’t Façade: the stuff you only know Unknown: unknown to you and them Social penetration model Expectations and Disclosure: Norms of reciprocity On each measure Complexity of "appropriate" reciprocity Norms of temporal sequence Turn taking Timing of disclosure (esp. intimacy and valence) Pausation/ Phonation Radio and Speech onset Latency Knapp's Model of Relational Development: Growth and Deterioration Amount: how much/how many Intimacy: how personal the information is Valence: nature of the information (+/-) Intent: Did you mean to share it Veracity: truthfulness Required Stages #1 Initiation The beginning point A very brief stage Only includes the initial meeting Required Stage #2 Terminating The end point of a relationship ending Usually brief Sometimes not explicitly stated All relationships terminate in a communicative sense Disclosure is often low in amount, veracity, intimacy, (although this measure is highly contextual), but high in intent and varies in valence (usually negative, but not always) Growth stage Initiation Low amount, low intimacy-most measures insignificant Experimenting High amount, low intimacy, positive valence, high intent, veracity varies Intensifying Medium amount, increased intimacy, mixed valence, mixed intent, increasing veracity, Integrating Medium amount, higher intimacy, mixed valence, mixed intent, higher veracity Bonding Moderate amount, high intimacy, mixed valence, mixed intent, high veracity Deterioration Stages Differentiating (disclosure varies based on +/- differentiation) Positive: moderate amount, high intimacy, mixed valence, mixed intent, high veracity Negative: moderate amount, moderate intimacy, mixed valence, high intent, medium veracity Circumscribing Lower amount and intimacy, more neg. valence, higher intent, lower veracity Stagnating Low amount and intimacy, more neg. valence, low intent, low veracity Avoiding Low amount to the point where no measures The vast majorities of relationships will not go through every stage Can't skip the coming together steps but can skip the coming apart steps. Relational Caveats: Not all relationships will or should cover all stages Terminating is a viable move from any stage Ending a relationship is not necessarily "bad" nor does it constitute "failure" Aside from initiating and terminating, there is no real time limit to any of these stages Disagreements in stage determination=lowest and rightmost is correct Relationships can only be "repaired if both members are willing to work at it Sometimes relationships can change and the cycle starts again with new roles Interpersonal Communication Contextual definition: two people engaged in an exchange of information Developmental definition: a relationship based approach that requires the potential for a longer term connection Three motives: Affection, Inclusion, Power Three types (based on goals): Task oriented, relationship oriented, image oriented Interpersonal Relationships An association between two people that can be fleeting or enduring Associations include: friendly, romantic, profession, familial, formal, casual Uncertainty Reduction Use techniques to gage your perceptions of others. 3 Techniques: Passive information gathering (noticing someone) Active information gathering (getting info on someone without talking to them) Interactive info gathering (actually talking to the person and sharing info) Perception Six Influences on an Interpersonal Exchange (Dean Barnlund) • Perception of Self ("you") • Perception of Others • Perception of Other's Perception of "you" (how I think you perceive me) • Other's Self Perception • Other's perception of "you" • Other's perception of "your" perception of him/her Perception problems Fundamental attribution: argues that we have a self-serving bias Third person effect: tendency to think that you are less influenced by others but others are influenced by others Influences on Perceptions • Availability/access -The more time you spend with someone, the more you know them -Ex. HS Friends coming to visit you: you act differently than you would on a normal basis • Primacy/recently effect -Argues that the first impression is a lasting influence and the most recent interaction is a dominant influence • Perceptual accentuation -If we're looking for something, we're going to find it • Mediated v. Unmediated exchanges: changes the way perception is influenced -Anonymity ‣ Ex. If you're online with a screen name that isn't your name, you may be unlike your typical self -Asynchronicity ‣ Delay before responses. More strategic. Ex. Texting and emails ????Affects all of the above influences ‣ May have a more polished or planned perspective Interpersonal Communication - communication between 2 people (only two people). Measures of Disclosure: the information that one makes available to someone else Amount - how much do you know about a person Intimacy- how personal the type of information shared Valence (psychological not chemical meaning)- is it positive or negative Intent- whether it’s intentional or unintentional Veracity- truthfulness/ honesty Disclosure can be verbal or nonverbal How are these different or the same online vs offline? Valence: People do tend on Facebook (where they know the friend) to focus on positive experiences. Veracity: Less honest online because there’s a level of anonymity. The Johari Window and Interpersonal Disclosure Social Penetration Model: levels of intimacy in a disclosure setting. (superficial, intimate, personal, core) Expectations and Disclosure: Norms of Reciprocity: On Each Measure Complexity of “Appropriate” Reciprocity Norm of Temporal Sequence: Turn Taking Timing of Disclosure (Esp. intimacy and valence) Pausation/Phonation Ratio and Speech Onset Latency: amount of time you pause vs. amount of time you respond; how long your response is in relation to the pause (Pausation) How long it takes you to start speaking (Speech Onset latency) Discussion Review: Interpersonal Communication Key Terms: Similar Attraction Theory: Attraction to people who are similar to you (personality), values, goals. Psychological Reactance: not wanting to do something because someone told you to do it. 3 Elements of love * Intimacy *Commitment *Passion 7 Types of Love: *Liking (intimacy alone) *Infatuated Love (just passion) *Empty Love (commitment alone) unhappy marriage *Fatuous(passion and commitment) *Romantic Love (intimacy and passion) e.g. an affair *Companionate Love (intimacy and commitment) long term marriage where the people are like friends *Consummate Love (intimacy, passion and commitment) Mediated vs. Unmediated? Effective Interpersonal Communication: Praise first, then describe Use I-statements, not you-statements Negative you-statements can be turned back around Descriptions should be specific, not vague Don’t editorialize Influences on Perceptions: Availability/access: the more access and availability the more data point you have about them in order to form a perception of them. Primacy/recency effect: most recent perception and first impression of someone are going to be the strongest influences of your current impression of someone, most salient in your mind Perceptual accentuation: when forming a perception, we’re going to be looking for something specific in a person Levels of Disclosure Passive information gathering: information just comes to you Active information gathering: actively seeking information without going to the person directly Interactive information gathering: actively gathering information from the person COM 101 December 8, 2015. Dialectical Tensions When two forms of thought conflict with each other Autonomy vs. Correctness: struggle to balance being independent and individuals and dependent partners Openness vs. Closedness: struggle of balancing shared information and info that is kept private. Different relationships get different depths of information Predictability vs. Novelty: struggle to find the balance between routines and spontaneity External (between partners and outsiders) or Internal (within the relationship) Social Penetration Theory Proposes that, as relationship develop, interpersonal communication moves from relatively shallow, non-intimate levels to deeper, more intimate ones. The highest number of relationships you have is superficial. The core includes the people you can tell anything to with high honesty. Each layer becomes less obvious At each layer, costs and rewards are assessed Knapp’s Model Required Stages Initiation: The beginning point A very brief stage Only includes the initial meeting Terminating: The ending point Usually brief Sometimes not explicitly stated All relationships terminate Growth Stages Initiation: brief connection that starts things off Experimenting: getting to know you stage. High amounts of low intimacy info Intensifying: increase in honesty of disclosure Integrating: coming together i.e. moving in together. Unintentional disclosure Bonding: very rare. Ritually are brought together i.e. marriage This helps understand where the relationship stands Deteriorating Stages Differentiation: don’t want to be just part of a couple-individualize Circumscribing: low levels of amount of disclosure Stagnating: not growing Avoiding: avoiding someone else Terminating: end point Termination Strategies Over and down, never over and up. When in avoiding stage, go back to initiating/experimenting and try to get to know each other again. Positive tone messages: Fairness: “it wouldn’t be fair to you” Compromise: “we can still see each other” Fatalism: “we both knew this relationship was doomed” Descendation Implied possible reconciliation: “we need time apart” Blame the relationship “the relationship is bringing us down” Appeal to independence “we don’t need to be tied down right now” Withdrawal or Avoidance Avoid contact as much as possible “I don’t think I’ll be able to see you this weekend” Justification Emphasize positive consequences: “it’s better since we’ve both changed” Emphasize negative consequences of staying together: “we’ll miss too many opportunities” Electronic Era Radio, television, internet Oral Tradition ????Close relationship between source and receiver ????Highly malleable info ????Community focus ????Active Receivers ????Hearing dominates (sight secondary) Literate Tradition ????Evolutionary Considerations: • Spread of Technology • Learning/Teaching: learning to read/teaching people to read is better for the economy • Socioeconomics influences ????Weakened relationship between source and receiver. ex. authors of books ????Significantly less malleable-- i.e. 1996 Romeo and Juliet movie ????Individual Focus ‣ yet allows for creation of groups (i.e. nation-building) ????Active audience ????Sight dominates Medium is the Message • Marshall McLuhan ????wrote "understanding media: the extension of man" ‣ all of the media we create is a way of extending our voice out to others ????argued that we don't pay enough attention to the medium or the tool we use to communicate--the medium is the message ????Picture is a medium because it is different than a word • Basic influence of individual medium ????hand written card vs. e-card • Broader social impact of dominant media Dominant Media Shift relationship btw source & receiver; malleability of info; community v individual focus; active v. passive receiver; dominant sense Dialectical Tensions When two forms of thought conflict with each other Autonomy vs. Correctness: struggle to balance being independent and individuals and dependent partners Openness vs. Closedness: struggle of balancing shared information and info that is kept private. Different relationships get different depths of information Predictability vs. Novelty: struggle to find the balance between routines and spontaneity External (between partners and outsiders) or Internal (within the relationship) Social Penetration Theory Proposes that, as relationship develop, interpersonal communication moves from relatively shallow, non-intimate levels to deeper, more intimate ones. The highest number of relationships you have is superficial. The core includes the people you can tell anything to with high honesty. Each layer becomes less obvious At each layer, costs and rewards are assessed Knapp’s Model Required Stages Initiation: The beginning point A very brief stage Only includes the initial meeting Terminating: The ending point Usually brief Sometimes not explicitly stated All relationships terminate Growth Stages Initiation: brief connection that starts things off Experimenting: getting to know you stage. High amounts of low intimacy info Intensifying: increase in honesty of disclosure Integrating: coming together ie moving in together. Unintentional disclosure Bonding: very rare. Ritually are brought together i.e. marriage This helps understand where the relationship stands Deteriorating Stages Differentiation: don’t want to be just part of a couple-individualize Circumscribing: low levels of amount of disclosure Stagnating: not growing Avoiding: avoiding someone else Terminating: end point Termination Strategies Over and down, never over and up. When in avoiding stage, go back to initiating/experimenting and try to get to know each other again. Positive tone messages: Fairness: “it wouldn’t be fair to you” Compromise: “we can still see each other” Fatalism: “we both knew this relationship was doomed” Descendation Implied possible reconciliation: “we need time apart” Blame the relationship “the relationship is bringing us down”
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