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UCD / Art History / HIST 1 / What is the earliest surviving islamic sanctuary?

What is the earliest surviving islamic sanctuary?

What is the earliest surviving islamic sanctuary?


School: University of California - Davis
Department: Art History
Course: Medieval and Renaissance Art
Professor: Ch'ien
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: AHI 1B, Medieval and Renaissance Art, UC Davis Art History, and Dr. Ch'ien
Cost: 25
Name: AHI 1B Week 3 Lecture Notes
Description: These notes were taken during the week 3 lectures.
Uploaded: 01/08/2016
6 Pages 168 Views 5 Unlocks

1/19/16 Islamic Art II  

What is the earliest surviving islamic sanctuary?

Dome of the Rock  

• 687-692 Jerusalem  

• central plan like the Pantheon and San Vitale  

• mosques are generally not a central plan  

• earliest surviving Islamic sanctuary  

• it is on the temple mount in Jerusalem  

• octagonal building with a large dome in the middle  

• bands of multicolored tiles, shimmering gold dome  

• the structure itself is almost simple  

• concentric isles so people can walk around the holy rock in the center  

• people first walk clockwise and then counterclockwise to read the inscriptions on the upper  wall  

What is malwiya minaret, great mosque, samarra, iraq?

• the walls are clad in marble  

• there are vines in blue and green mosaic that represent the gardens of paradise  • object of the center of the dome is a large rock  

• known as the foundation stone and is holy to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam  • site of the first and second Jewish temple  

• site of Mohammad’s night journey  

• for all three religions: site of sacrifice of Isaac (for Muslims it is the sacrifice of Ishmael)  • for Christians: this is where the second temple of Jerusalem needs to be built in order for  Jesus to return to earth again  We also discuss several other topics like Who is richard lenski?

Great Mosque  

• Kairouan, Tunisia  

What is found in an 86ft long ship when excavating at sutton hu in 1939 that was used for burial?

• minaret is a tall tower that is walked through to get to the courtyard  

• there is a hypostyle hall (has many columns)  

• makes visual access more complicated—need to walk through it  If you want to learn more check out Differentiate weather and climate.

• the mihrab dome is at the other far side from the minaret  

• (look at the diagrams on the lecture slides)  

Santa Costanza  

• 337-351  

Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami  

• Isfahan, Iran 1354  

• highly patterned  

• calligraphy between decorated borders  

• differs from other mosaics because the pieces are cut specifically for each part rather than  being all cut the same size  

• there is a union between calligraphy and abstract pattern

• there is a coloristic equivalence between the text and pattern and it all works together— slightly difficult to tell the text and pattern apart  

Great Mosque, Damascus, Syria  

• 706-715  

• walled courtyard that leads to a clearly marked entrance  

• mihrab that is marked by a dome  

• there are many mosaics on the interior  

• had same stylized reliefs as the Byzantium mosaics  

• no people or animals  

• this is not the first building on the holy site—there used to be a Roman pagan temple for  Jupiter  

• incorporates columns and parts from the previous sites  If you want to learn more check out What are the treatments for eating disorders?

• 318 x 512 ft  

• there are 3 minarets  

• minarets are necessary for mosques to call people to prayer  

Mosque of Selim II  

• 1568-1571 Edirne, Turkey  

• architect was Sinan (very famous)  

• built for Suleiman the Magnificent  

• was built to look very similar to Hagia Sophia  

• expects people to know Hagia Sophia  

• very tall very thin minarets  

• had a madrassa (a school), markets, public baths, a burial site  

• was a public space  

• central plan church and the central dome is completely patterned with many colors from the  inside  

• there are voussoirs (arches) that are patterned with stripes  Don't forget about the age old question of How do organisms function?

• all the patterns in one space create movement and create a slight dizziness  • makes it difficult to gauge how tall it is  

• the dome is slightly higher and larger than Hagia Sophia to show that it is better  • the dome survived a bombing  

Malwiya Minaret, Great Mosque, Samarra, Iraq  

• 848-852  

• the mosque that is was part of was destroyed in 1278  

• winding construction, spiral staircase for more than 165 ft  

• too tall to be used for an audible call to prayer—it functions mostly by sight because it can be  seen from a great distance (especially because it is on flat land)  

• scale impresses those who see it and those who manage to make it to the top  • US troops were using it as a lookout and it was bombed in 2005

Great Mosque at Córdoba, Spain  

• 8th-10th century  

• has a hypostyle prayer hall  

• has 514 columns  

• there are short columns made out of Jasper and on top of each, there is a pillar that has a  horseshoe arch that connects to the pillar on the other side  We also discuss several other topics like How do i enforce this court ordered judgment?

• horseshoe arch generally signifies Islam because it is often used in mosques  • is now a Roman Catholic church but it was repurposed many times beforehand  • Dome in front of the mihrab  

• tessellated designs  

• windows with patterned grates  

• dome sits on trefoil openings  

• gold and patterned  

• there are multiple overlapping arches  

• Maqsura  

• completely covered in pattern  

• same horseshoe arches, but they are more ornate and embellished  We also discuss several other topics like What is the principle of negative feedback?

• The Mihrab is marked by an arch  

• blue on gold and gold on blue  

• reflects lights  

• highly patterned  

• embedded columns  

Maqsud of Kashan  

• carpet from the funerary mosque of Shaykh Safi al-Din in Ardabil, Iran, 1540 • wool and silk

• 34’6” x 17’7”  

• has a large sunburst medallion in the center  

• gives the worshipper a sense of the space above him while he is praying

1/21/16 Early Medieval Europe  

Barbarians aren’t very Barbaric  

Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk, England, 625 CE  • made out of gold, glass, garnet, and cloisonné  

• 4 figural groups arranged symmetrically  

• eagles attacking ducks that almost appear to be shapes instead of animals  • man (frontal) between 2 beasts (profile)  

• human caught between the forces of the animal world and the animals are as large as  he is  

• found in an 86ft long ship when excavating at Sutton Hu in 1939 that was used for burial  • imperial plates from the Byzantine empire and 2 silver spoons were found there also  • 25 burials at 33 sites were found in Sutton Hoo (drinking vessels were found with men and  pots were found with women)  

Oseburg Ship Burial, ship and Animal head post, 825 CE  

• was a Viking ship  

• they seized Paris and reached havoc everywhere  

• their targets were usually isolated, wealthy Christian monarchies  

• entirely made out of oak, 70 ft long  

• 15 pairs of oar holes for rowing, but it was probably not used in water  

• burial for 2 women  

• ships are great for burials because they are metaphoric for journeys and travel—one takes a  journey into the unknown when they die  

• had a lot of expensive stuff buried with them, but a lot had been taken by grave robbers  • animal head  

• detailed pattern that looks like lace on the side  

• several of them were found—all were carved with a lot of attention and time  • called “gripping beasts”  

• the zoomorphic detail is found on the head of the ship also  

Wooden Portal of the stave church at Urnes, Norway 1050-1070  

• is decorated with a vine detail made of snakes and vines on the sides  

• deep relief carving  

• the church has a post and lintel construction and very steep roofs  

• sits on top of 3 other churches  

Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805 CE  

• Charles the Great was king of the Lombards in 774 and King of the Franks in 768  • crowned emperor of Rome on Christmas day 800 CE at Old St. Peter’s—becomes the first  holy Roman emperor  

• he was a Christian, he wanted to be Roman, and Rome was an empire

• puts himself in Constantine’s legacy  

• he tried to make his empire as good as ancient Rome and publicly declared it was the renewal  of the Roman empire  

• statue is similar to the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius  

• he is seated on horseback  

Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, 792-805 CE, Aachen, Germany

• had imported columns and capitals from Rome (original capitol) and Ravenna (capitol  Constantine established)  

• some things were new but were made to look old and were so good that art historians thought  they were actually from Rome and Ravenna  

• his body was there after he died  

• 3 stories high, central plan  

• the inside dome is gold  

• was made to look similar to San Vitale  

Schematic plan for a monastery, from Saint Gall, Switzerland, c. 819  

• ideal monastery plan (fantasy)  

• hourly schedule to make sure people are productive at all times of the day  • should be self-sufficient, stable  

• there are 2 churches, bakeries, craftsmans house, barn, guest house, heating room, dormitory,  and much more  

• community holds over 100 people  

• scriptorium is inside the church in the apse—books were covered in gold and jewels  

Man (symbol of St. Matthew), Book of Durrow, 660-680  

• from somewhere in the British Isles  

• ink and tempera on parchment  

• complete gospel book (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John)  

• 248 pages and 6 are carpet pages—participates in a tradition that looks like a carpet (emphasis  on pattern and rectangularity)  

• Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John are represented as avatars  

• feet are presented in profile, the hair and skin are the same color as the parchment  • the robe is completely decorated with colorful pattern  

Cross-inscribed carpet page, Lindisfarne Gospels  

• page without text  

• goes right up to the borders but doesn't cross it  

• very detailed  

• cross in the center that extends to each side  

St. Matthew, Lindisfarne Gospels  

• St. Matthew is sitting on a bench and his feet do not overlap to avoid confusion

• the red curtain causes confusion because it is hard to tell if it is in front of the scene or part of  it  

• the man behind the curtain is probably any figure from the old testament because he holds a  closed book (the old testament) while Matthew is writing in an open book (the new testament)  • Matthew is accompanied by an angel  

• “Saint” is in Greek and “Matthew” is in Latin  

Saint Matthew, Coronation Gospels, 800-810 CE  

• royal purple, gold border, halo, chair, and desk  

• there are shadows between his legs showing that the fabric sags as well as at his elbow  • there is a clear light source  

• he is wearing Roman clothing that has no sleeves (toga)

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