AHI 1B Midterm 1 Study Guide
AHI 1B Midterm 1 Study Guide AHI 1B
Popular in Medieval and Renaissance Art
Popular in Art History
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Dillard on Thursday January 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AHI 1B at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Ch'ien in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see Medieval and Renaissance Art in Art History at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 01/07/16
AHI 1B Midterm 1 Study Guide Septimius Severus and his family from Egypt, 200 CE • hierarchical size the second son’s face • (Caracalla) is erased because his brother (Geta) murdered him and had all images of him destroyed Four Tetrarchs, 305 CE • 2Augustus emperors and 2 Caesar emperors • made from porphyry—very hard, durable stone found only in 1 stone quarry in Egypt • display of imperial unity because they are all connected, dressed alike, and portraying the same action Restored view of Diocletian’s Palace, 298-306 CE, Split, Croatia • built like a military fortress • has a temple for Jupiter (king of Olympian gods) • there is a mausoleum (building that houses a tomb) Aula Palatina, early 4th century, Trier, Germany • large chancel arch separates the sacred apse from the non sacred part of the building • 2 stories of windows on both sides and in the apse but they are smaller and higher up in the apse to make the emperor look larger (visual manipulation) Colossus of Constantine, 315-330 CE • over 30ft tall (the head is 8’6”) • aligns himself with Jupiter because he is enthroned and not wearing much clothing visible from standing under the • Arch of Constantine outside Basilica Nova aka Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, 306-312 CE, Rome, Italy • started by Maxentius (Constantine’s rival) and finished by Constantine • housed the Colossus of Constantine • ceiling was covered in plates of gilded bronze Arch of Constantine, 312-315 CE, Rome, Italy • built from pieces of the other good emperors’arches (Trajan, Hadrian, MarcusAurelius) • has 3 barrel vaults • had the heads of the emperors re-carved to look like himself Two Coins with portraits of Constantine (Left: 307 CE Right: 315 CE) • establish Constantine as the correct ruler rather than establishing a correct religion • Left: tries to give Constantine legitimacy as a ruler after his father dies • Right: he is a sign of stability, wears ceremonial armor with Christian and pagan imagery Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, 359 CE minor official who converted to • Christianity before his death • high relief sculptures of biblical scenes rather than battle scenes cover the entire sarcophagus (more detail in week 1 notes) • some of the scenes prefigure important moments in Christianity • the man who’s body is inside does not appear in the reliefs Menorahs andArc of the Covenant, wall painting in a Jewish catacomb, 3rd century, Villa Torlonia, Rome • a catacomb is an underground cemetery • features 2 menorahs • has some pattern The Good Shepherd, the Story of Jonah, Catacomb of St.s Peter and Marcellinus, early 4th century, Rome Italy • prefigure’s Christ’s death and resurrection • Jonah is swallowed by the whale when he tries to run away from what God asked of him and is spit out 3 days later Christ as Good Shepherd, 300-350 CE only about 3 ft tall • • people are not supposed to worship statues themselves and “accidentally become pagan”, so figures are small Old St. Peter’s, begun 319 CE • this is where St. Peter is said to be buried, so it became the center of Catholicism • longitudinal space • type of building used for law and they kept the ides of order Basilica of Santa Sabina, 422-432 CE • similar to theAule Palatina • built after Rome was sad for the first time in 800 years • Christians were blamed for abandoning pagan gods, so this building does not stand out as different from other basilicas Santa Costanza, 337-351 CE • began as a mausoleum for the emperor’s daughter who’s porphyry tomb used to be inside • central plan church • columns are positioned alined towards the epicenter—asks people to walk around the circle • there are mosaics around the entire interior • wine depicted in one of the scenes can lean towards Christianity or paganism Church of the HolyApostles, 330 CE, (Constantinople) Istanbul, Turkey • was a church in the form of a cross • dedicated to the 12 apostles Constantine made 12 fake ceremonial tombs (called cenotaphs) and put them all inside for them and made a 13th one for himself Hagia Sophia, 532-537 CE, (Constantinople) Istanbul, Turkey • architects:Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus • central access plan (quincunx plan—meaning 5 domes) • central dome has visual weightlessness • light enters from above— metaphorical relationship to God • covered in shimmering gold and multicolored marble was converted to a mosque later • on Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, 425 CE, Ravenna • cross shaped building (cruciform) • covered in mosaics inside • top of the dome has a starry sky with a cross in the center • mosaic of Christ as the Good Shepherd Transfiguration of Christ with Saint Apollinaris, First Bishop of Ravenna, Sant’Apollinare in Classe, dedicated 549,Apse mosaics 6th century • large apse mosaic • Jesus as God on earth is revealed • Moses and Elijah are on the sides of the cross and the hand of God comes down from the top center • the apostles are depicted as sheep • Sant’Apollinare is in the center below the large cross Church of San Vitale, 526-47, Ravenna, Italy • central plan church with bent access approach • tomb that houses San Vitale’s body • gold mosaics above make it difficult to figure out where you are because of the light refracted back at you • labyrinth experience walking through the building Emperor Justinian and His Attendants, Church of San Vitale (above) • north wall of the apse • Justinian is in the center carrying a ceremonial plate that holds bread during mass • Priest Maximianvs holds a golden, jeweled book • Justinian is dressed in the same clothes as Jesus is on the center wall of the apse • he comes with soldiers and the chi rho is on his shield Empress Theodora and Her Attendants, Church of San Vitale (above) • south wall of the apse • Theodora is in the center carrying a jeweled chalice for the wine (drank from to remember the blood of Christ) • the fabrics each woman wears is very patterned and colorful, and Theodora is wearing many jewels • this mosaic and the one of Justinian display imperial power Christ Enthroned, Church of San Vitale (above) • center wall of the apse • Christ is in the center hovering over green earth fed by the 4 rivers of biblical Eden • St. Vitalis is on the far left (labeled) and Ecclesius is on the far right (labeled) Ascension of Christ, Rabbula Gospels, 586 CE • Christ is being lifted up in an aureole • the Virgin Mary is below • angels tell the apostles that it is okay Crucifixion and Resurrection, Rabble Gospels, 586 (same book as above) • Christ appears twice once on top and once on the bottom • he is alive, hanging on the cross on top • the resurrection scene in on the bottom • left bottom: angel tells Mary He has risen • right bottom: Mary finds Christ in the forest Virgin (Theotokos) and Child with Saints Theodore and George, icon, early 6th or 7th century • made out of encaustic • Virign Mary is enthroned in the center with Christ on her lap • 2 Saints on either said of her, 2 angels behind who are looking up towards where the hand of God is coming from • gold halos make image appear flat, but Mary’body is more 3D than the others Large Buddha of Bamiyan • was destroyed in 2001 • (this was discussed very briefly in class but is bolded on the slide list) Virgin (Theotokos) and Child enthroned, Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), dedicated 867 • mosaic on the ceiling of the apse • statement of replacement from what was previously destroyed— reconstructing the past • Virgin Mary is enthroned with Christ on her lap “Vladimir Virgin”, Virgin of Compassion, late 11th or early 12th century • icon that was repainted many times because the forms are very simple and tempera can be painted over • used in a church or at home with a candle Christ the Savior of Souls, early 14th century • icon that is painted on both sides —crucifixion is on the other side • refers back to 9th c tradition • Christ is giving a blessing • this was carried in processions Christ as Pantokrator, Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece, 1080-1100 CE • mosaic that covers the entire dome • figure has the youthful brown hair of God the son, and the age of God the father Crucifixion, Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece, 1090-1100 CE • Christ is on the cross and there are 5 wounds where blood spurts out which is both red and white (blood and water) • blood from his feet falls onto Adam’s skull (original sin) • upturned hands—active movement • St. John is on the right, Mary is on the left Basilica San Marco, Venice, Italy, begun 1063 • declaration of international importance • has central dome surrounded by 4 others (quincunx plan) • 40,000 sq ft of mosaics on the interior which obliterate the sense of weight • the Pala d’Oro and Pala Feriale are inside • in 1204, Venice sacked Constantinople and stole porphry columns, capitals window screens, relief panels, and the Quadrica and put them on the Basilica San Marco “we won we have your stuff it is now ours” • Quadrica (set of 4 bronze horses) is a symbol of power The Prophet Mohammad and His Companions Traveling to the Fair, from a copy of the 14th c Siyar-i-Nabi (Life of the Prophet) of al-Zarir, 1594 • Mohammad’s figure is a silhouette which describes his status as the divine prophet • very cartoon-like—the camels have expressions and the background is flat Qur’an page with beginning of surah 18, 9th or early 10th century • ink and gold on vellum • Arabic calligraphic script • calligraphy makes people pause and ponder the words and meaning • reenacting the prophet’s words Blue Koran, from Kairouan, 9th to mid 10th century • made on parchment that was dyed blue (associated with royalty) • shimmering gold writing slows down the reading Dish withArabic Proverb, from Nishapur, Iran, 10th century • painted and glazed earthenware— mimics highly prized Chinese porcelain • the lines are drawn out, “luxury of beauty in words” • the inscription is inArabic Textile with elephants and camels, 960 CE • dyed silk, luxury good • this fragment of cloth shows two elephants that are clothed in decorated textiles has an inscription inArabic • Mosque lamp of Sayf al-Din Tuquztimur, from Egypt, 1340 • made of glass, hung in a mosque • the inscription says who donated it to the mosque • the emblem is a shield with an eagle on it which also appears on the Bottle with Coat ofArms Bottle with Coat ofArms, Syria or Egypt, mid 14th century • 20 inches tall • required multiple firings to make • mythical birds are entwined around the neck of the bottle Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 687-692 • central plan (mosques are generally not central plan) • earliest surviving Islamic sanctuary • located on the temple mount • octagonal building with a large dome in the middle • bands of multicolored tiles, shimmering gold dome, walls clad in marble • people first walk clockwise and then counterclockwise to read the inscriptions on the upper wall • the rock in the center is known as the foundation stone and is holy to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Great Mosque, 706-715 CE • walled courtyard leads to a clearly marked entrance • incorporates columns and parts from the previous sites • mihrab that is marked by a dome • 3 minarets (necessary for mosques to call people to prayer) Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami, Ifsfahan, Iran 1354 CE • highly patterned with coloristic equivalence between the text and pattern which creates unity • calligraphic border differs from other mosaics because • the pieces are cut specifically for each part rather than being all cut the same size Mosque of Selim II, Edirne, Turkey, 1568-1575 • architect: Sinan (very famous) • built for Suleiman the Magnificent • built to look like Hagia Sophia • has very tall minarets • there are voussoirs (arches) that are patterned with stripes • all the patterns in one space create movement and make it difficult to gauge the height • slightly higher and larger than Hagia Sophia Malwiya Minaret, Great Mosque, Samarra, Iraq, 848-852 CE • mosque that this was part of was destroyed in 1278 • winding construction, spiral staircase for more than 165 ft • to tall to be used for an audible call to prayer • the scale impresses people Great Mosque at Córdoba, Spain, 8th-10th century • hypostyle prayer hall has 514 columns that have horseshoe arches (generally signify Islam) • Dome in front of the mihrab has tessellated designs, overlapping arches, and gold patterns • Maqsura has more ornate and embellished arches • Mihrab is marked by an arch and has blue on gold and gold on blue patterns Maqsud of Kashan, carpet from the funerary mosque of Shaykh Safi al-Din inArdabil, Iran, 1540 • wool and silk • large sunburst medallion in the center that gives the worshipper and sense of the space above Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk, England, 625 CE • made out of gold, glass, garnet, and cloisonné • 4 figural groups arranged symmetrically • found in an 86 ft long burial ship Oseburg Ship Burial, ship andAnimal head post, 825 CE • viking ship entirely made out of oak • burial site for 2 women—ships are great for burials because they are metaphoric for journeys and travel (one takes a journey into the unknown when they die) the animal head called “gripping • beasts” has a zoomorphic detailed pattern on the sides that looks like lace Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805 CE • Charlemagne was crowned emperor of Rome on Christmas day 800 CE at Old St. Peter’s • he put himself in Constantine’s legacy and wanted to make the empire as good as ancient Rome • statue is similar to the equestrian statue of MarcusAurelius Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, 792-805 CE,Aachen, Germany • had imported columns and capitols from Rome and Ravenna some things were intentionally made to • look old • central plan, 3 stories high • made to look similar to San Vitale Schematic plan for a monastery, from Saint Gall, Switzerland, c. 819 • ideal monastery (fantasy) • community holds over 100 people • scriptorium in the church in the apse • hourly schedule to make sure people are productive at all times of the day Man (symbol of St. Matthew), Book of Durrow, 660-680 • ink and tempura on parchment • 248 pages (6 are carpet pages) • robe is completely decorated with colorful pattern, hair and skin is the same color as the parchment • feet are in profile Cross-inscribed carpet page, Lindisfarne Gospels • very detailed page without text • cross in the center extends to each side but doesn't go over the border St. Matthew, Lindisfarne Gospels • St. Matthew is sitting on a bench, his feet do not overlap • red curtain causes confusion on where exactly it is located • man behind the curtain is probably any figure from the old testament because he holds a closed book (the old testament) while Matthew is writing in an open book (the new testament) Saint Matthew, Coronation Gospels, 800-810 CE • royal purple, gold border, halo, chair and desk • shadows on his robes make him appear 3D • he wears Roman clothing
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