Influenza A- RNA virus
∙ Hemagglutinin binds host cells
∙ Higher mutation rate in RNA viruses
Theory of Special Creation
∙ Created recently and independently
∙ species do not change, they are created as they are
∙ lineages are independent of one another
∙ expect fossils to look like something that exists today
∙ similarity between animals are said to be due to function
o ex: one bird looks like another because they both fly
Theories of Evolution
∙ Common ancestry (assume that there was one or two common ancestor that gave rise to everything)
∙ Decent with modification
∙ Darwin’s theory is a specific theory that relies on natural selection ∙ Fossil record should show species that are different
∙ Similarities are said to be due to common ancestry not to function Mechanism of Change
∙ Lamarck- inheritance of aquired characters
∙ Selection of most fit forms (Wells-1813, Matthew-1831, Wallace 1858, Darwin-1858)
∙ Demonstrate that species change over time and chare common ancestor Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four layers of atmosphere?
o Readily accepted
∙ Provide a mechanism-natural selection
o Remained controversial until Mendel’s work became well
Before Mendel- ‘blending inheritance’ was readily
∙ Austrian mook who bred some 29,000 pea plants as a hobby ∙ Experiments on Plant Hybridization was published in german in 1865 If you want to learn more check out What is the most common group
therapy for addictions?
∙ Cited three times in the next 35 years (ignored because it was in German) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the study of classifying and grouping organisms?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of muscle fibers?
If you want to learn more check out What are the types of discovery?
We also discuss several other topics like How does biology affect your life?
∙ English translation published in 1901 and biologists quickly adopted his concepts of genotypes and phenotypes
∙ By the 1930’s, synthesis of Darwinian evolution and mendelian genetics known as the modern synthesis
Observed evolutionary Change
∙ Darwin’s main points:
o Decent with modification
o Natural selection is mechanism
∙ Direct observation of evolution
o Large populations evolve more quickly than smaller ones o Short generation times and strong selective pressures allow species to evolve more quickly
∙ Richard Lenski
o E. coli evolution under lab conditions
o Took a set of clones of E. coli and let them grow into a population
o 10,000 generations showed an increase in relative fitness