Study Guide for Exam #1
Study Guide for Exam #1 HIST 0150
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Cooke on Friday January 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 0150 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Novosel,Anthony Stephen in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see HISTORY OF MODERN IRELAND in History at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/08/16
History of Modern Ireland Exam #1 STUDY GUIDE TIMELINE: 795 First Vikings arrived in Ireland, plundered but eventually formed alliances with the Irish 1100s Strongbow in Ireland; conquered parts and assimilated into the community which angered King Henry II; were not able to fully colonize and subjugate because they were distracted in other areas of the world and were too few in number 1600s Plantation of Ulster begins Lecture #1 Questions: What was Ireland like before the plantation? o Many kingdoms with nobles fighting over land o Warfare How did the English come to Ireland? th o Were there before the plantation in the 17 century o 1166 Political rivalry for supremacy in Ireland Dermot MacMurrough asked Norman king for help (Normans had conquered and ruled England) Henry II (king) recruited men to go to Ireland (including Strongbow) to conquer it for MacMurrough Were never able to fully pacify Ireland (only 75%) Why was Ireland so important to England? o Allowed Spain (and later France) access into Ireland backdoor to England o Old English were already there wanted control over more than just the Pale Who created the first centralized administration in Ireland? o 1603 by Great Britain (James I) with their victory in the 9 Years War What are inherited histories? o Histories passed down o Your belief of history is determined by race, class, education, family, etc. o Ireland because of opposing religions, there are 2 opposing views of history Why did England plant Ireland? o Scared of invasion by Spain or France through Ireland o Wanted to reward friends and punish rebels o “Anglicize” or civilize Ireland and extend control over it (pacify) o Was cheaper to send over settlers than to have to send armies repeatedly if the Irish or Old English rebelled Terms: Reformation o Now England had two different religions and ways of life o English religion becomes Protestant so it is the Protestants that come to Ireland Strongbow o Dermot MacMurrough asked Norman King Henry II (who ruled England) for help in Ireland because there was a political dispute (see question #1 above) o King recruited several men to do this including Richard FitzGilbert (Strongbow) o Married Dermot’s daughter in return for fighting in Ireland for him and the king o Was not able to fully pacify Ireland (only 75%) Picts: the “painted people” of Scotland o Moved between Scotland and Ireland (3% of N. Ireland today have genetic links) o Were in Ireland before the Celts, then left and came back th th Vikings: 8 to 11 centuries o Founded Dublin o Attacked monasteries wealthy, not much of a fight, needed food (Monks farmed) Inherited histories o History is the past viewed through the lens of the present (we impart our own values on it) o Memory is the worst enemy of a historian; history is not objective o Your view of history is influenced by family, education, race, class, political, etc. 9 Years War (15941603) o Ulster had remained opposed to English rule (“holdout against the English); was the most Gaelic place in Ireland o War was led by Hugh O’Neill who wanted to throw the English out and wanted to be High King of Ireland O’Neill was supported by Spain, who landed in Ireland and were defeated o O’Neill was defeated by the British by 1603, giving England full control of Ireland and put it under a central administration o Led to the Plantations of the 1600s England decided in 1608 to do whatever it took to pacify Ireland Tudor Plantation o Two different religions after the Reformation; England was now Protestant o Already constant war with the Gaelic Irish and sometimes the Old English as well o Plantation was a way of extending control, rewarding friends, punishing rebels o Undertakers were given land and had to pay rent, bring in English tenants (could not have Irish working their land), Protestant Were not enough undertakers or English settlers Plantation was overrun by the Native Irish in the 9 Years War The Pale o Near Dublin where the Old English lived; was directly under the control of England since the settlements under Henry II and Strongbow Old English o Were the descendants of the AngloNormans o English settlers who settled in Dublin o Were never forced to convert from Catholicism as long as they pledged their loyalty to the crown Brehon Law o Traditional Irish law dating back to Celtic times which was destroyed by English Common Law o Was passed down orally from one generation to the next o Law was administered by Brehons who acted like judges and interpreted the law Lecture #2 Questions: Why did James decide on a radical plan for plantation? o James was very antiCatholic towards both England and Ireland Catholics were sympathetic to the defeat of the Spanish armada Constant fear of Spanish invasion through Ireland o Guy Fawkes and the Gunpoweder Plot militant Catholic who was opposed to James I; increased the fear that Catholics were plotting against him o Flight of the Earls o O’Doherty’s Rebellion Why did the Flight of the Earls take place? o Earls wanted Spain to send them an army to fight the English o Were afraid that they would be labelled as treasonous because they had been communicating with Spain o Saw the “writing on the wall”; were losing their lands and influence (fight back) How did the Flight of the Earls impact the plantation? o Fear that the earls would return to their lands with an army plantation was a matter of urgency now o More land became available allowing for a more extensive plantation scheme What was the goal of the plantation? o Native Irish would all be moved off of the land; loyal British would replace them o Building would be completed in 3 years (far too ambitious) and therefore, undertakers would be able to defend themselves from the Natives What was the native Irish response to the plantation? o Initial reaction was hostile Some hope however because it was thought that some of the land that had been taken from the earls would be given to the native Irish o 6,000 malcontents were sent to Protestant Sweden (not effective enough) What impact would the plantation have on Ireland? o Led to increased tensions between Catholics and Protestants Terms: James I o King of England from Scotland (same person) o Very antiCatholic; son of Mary Stuart who was Catholic so it was initially thought that he would be more sympathetic to Catholics Didn’t want complete persecution just enforcement of the law o Initiated the idea/plans for the plantation of Ulster Fearful after O’Doherty’s rebellion and the Flight of the Earls that the Irish were plotting and couldn’t be trusted Plantation o Initial goal was stability in Ireland and to protect England from behind This plan is scrapped after O’Doherty’s Rebellion in 1608 o Now want to get rid of the native Irish and have good loyal English on the land Does not really happen in actuality o Result: did not work as planned Irish were not completely driven off the land More Scottish settlers came over than English Not enough planters so the undertakers have to hire the Irish to work land Settlers were scattered throughout Gaelic Ulster so they never got full control like they were supposed to do o For the Irish it destroys their way of life; have no guarantee that they can continue to work the land (could always be kicked off by the English); viewed as an alien race because of religion; forced to be tenant farms (not free men)th o Ultimate result: impacts politics throughout the British isles well into the 20 cen. English view themselves as superior to the Irish Long term: 6 of the 9 counties in Ulster become Northern Ireland Flight of the Earls o Earls Tyrconnell and Tyron leave Ireland suddenly and go to Spain to get an army o This is bad timing because the Spanish have just make peace with England and are not willing to go to war with them Still scares the English; Plantation scheme becomes more strict Now England has a large amount of land to give to loyal subjects Undertakers o Landlords; had enough money to afford to take on extra land o Were supposed to remove the native Irish from their lands and bring over loyal British or Scottish Servitors o Fought in wars for England and were given land because they had served the King o Were allowed to take on Irish tenants o Had to pay much more rent; had less money to begin with Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot o November 5 plan to blow up Parliament and the King o Organized by Catholics o Caused paranoia with James I London Corporations o Getting funding for the Plantation was a problem o Wanted private funding to join in partnership with the Crown / public funding o “O’Cahan’s country” was set aside for 12 London companies for investment Abundant natural resources, fishing, forests o Were persuaded to invest in Ireland but eventually fell out of favor with the crown More concerned with profit from forestry than fulfilling crown’s purpose Allowed the Irish to work the lands (supposed to be driven off) Derry/Londonderry o Was originally called Derry; renamed Londonderry in honor of the London companies o Had Irish tenants working on their lands because they wanted a quick profit and did not have enough English willing to come work O’Doherty’s Rebellion in 1608 o Was very loyal to the Queen o Offended by the actions of the governor of Derry o Broke into sudden insurrection; had no real plan or strategy Campaign garnered no support o Had been killed and his uprising quelled within a few months o Impact Reinforced the idea that all Catholics were traitors; if you can’t trust O’Doherty who has always been loyal, you can’t trust anyone Irish no longer viewed as worthy of assimilation Move away from Chichester’s moderate plan to a new one to get rid of natives completely and bring in loyal English Protestants Presbytery o Scottish church was Presbyterian o Clashed with the Irish Catholics, Parliament, and the Church of England Episcopal o Church of Ireland was episcopal Recusants o Supported the king and were therefore allowed to keep their Catholic religion Lecture #3 Questions: Why did the Catholics of Ireland support the Protestant King Charles I? o King was more willing to negotiate and grant religious freedoms than Parliament, who would never agree to even negotiate o King had promised them the Graces (more religious freedoms); hadn’t really carried through but at least he was willing to negotiate Why did the 1641 Rebellion happen? o Charles was weak; could not stand up to Parliament o Was not giving into Irish Catholic demands even though he had promised them certain things earlier o Felt that it was time to rise up and take the things that they had demanded while Charles was distracted in London o Plantation had gotten into economic trouble o Religious persecution in the future was expected Preemptive strike by Catholics to overthrow Protestant regime o Long term: built up frustration with the Plantation/subjugation What were the goals of the 1641 rebellion? o Was a preemptive strike intending to overthrow the Protestant regime while the Plantation was in economic trouble o Wanted religious freedoms/Catholic demands o Long term frustration with the plantation possibly Why did the rebellion fail? o Rebels were unable to capture Dublin after the castle was reinforced after rumors of the plan surfaced because of a drunk guy o Looked like they were going to win until they were defeated at Drogheda o Cromwell ultimately ended the rebellion when he landed in Ireland in 1649 What role did Scotland play in the onset of the English Civil War? o Scotland refused to accept the reforms of Laud to the Church o Frustrated the king who tried to raise an army to suppress and subjugate them o Parliament wouldn’t allocated funds for this to happen, increasing the conflict between the king and Parliament Why did the English king and Parliament try to control the Presbyterians in Ireland and Scotland? o Presbyterians would not listen to the church reforms that Charles and Laud had tried to impose Why did the Old English join the 1641 rebellion? o They thought that victory would be inevitable for the Catholic rebels o Wanted to be on the winning side of the rebellion o Wentworth was supposedly planning new plantations that would affect their lands Terms: The War of the Three Kingdoms o Series of intertwined conflicts in England, Scotland, and Ireland after they all came under the rule of the same monarch (Charles I) Conflict with Scotland: James was from Scotland and was very good at ruling Scotland while in England His son Charles I was far less skillful and tried to force religious practices on Scotland and then subjugate them militarily o Includes the Bishops Wars, Cromwell in Ireland, 1641 Rebellion The National Covenant of Scotland 1638 o Charles I and Archbishop Laud wanted to make the Presbyterian Scottish church more similar to the Church of England Instituted book of common prayer which replaced Knox’s system o People became unraged (lady threw her prayer book at a minister) o National Covenant was organized to clarify and centralize the aims of the people and voice their frustrations with the king Declared loyalty to the crown but also stated that any attempts to make the church more similar to the Catholic church would not be tolerated o Dominant political and religious assembly in Scotland; was accepted almost everywhere in Scotland The Solemn League and Covenant 1643 o Sealed an alliance between the Scottish Covenanters and the English Parliamentary forces in the War of the Three Kingdoms o Parliament needed help from Scotland to counter Royalist victories in England Wanted to intimidate Royalists, who were favored to win early on Covenanters wanted to unite England and Scotland under a common Presbyterian religion The Black Oath o Imposed by Wentworth o Protestant Scots have to take an oath to the church of England and renounce the Covenant Irish Catholics do not have to do this; causes tensions to increase The Confederation of Kilkenny o Organized after the 1641 Rebellion to centralize Irish/Catholic efforts o Was joined eventually by the Old English o Formed the Glamorgan Treaty with the Royalist forces Would provide soldiers to the Royalist army in exchange for a removal of some of the restrictions on Catholics (education, public office) Rinuccini attacks this treaty; one cause of why the Confederation fails Old English o English who had been in Ireland since preReformation o Were allowed to remain Catholic as long as they pledged loyalty to the king o Settled in the Pale o Joined the Confederation of Kilkenny when its victory seemed inevitable Again, fear of a unyielding Parliament Roundheads (Parliamentary troops) o Nickname for the New Model Army (Parliamentary troops) under Cromwell Cavaliers (Royalists) o Charles’s forces; claimed the divine right of kings and supreme power of the ruler Rinuccini o Sent over by the Pope to Ireland; papal nuncio o Rejected the Glamorgan Treaty (allied the Confederation of Kilkenny with king) Siege Mentality o Both Catholics and Protestants felt that they were under siege by the other o Especially Protestants after 1641 Rebellion Never trust Catholic neighbors Can’t trust the government either because they were unable to protect the Protestants from the massacres Thirty Years War o Began with the Defenestration of Prague o Series of conflicts fought in multiple phases (Bohemian, Swedish, French, etc.) in Central Europe o Resulted in the Peace of Westphalia princes could choose the religion of the lands they ruled over Sir Phelim O’Neill o Leader of the Catholic forces in the Rebellion of 1641 in Ulster Scottish Covenanters o Background Many Scottish who came over were initially Protestants; became frustrated with the Church of Scotland and merged into Presbyterianism o Scottish Presbyterians; didn’t believe that the King could determine their worship o Sided with the Parliamentary forces during the English civil war because they were frustrated with Charles’s actions (Bishops Wars, etc.) The Graces o 1603: Promises to the Irish Catholics to assure them that they would be able to keep their lands and that recusants would have freedom of worship Failed to meet these promises, but instead… Strengthened Protestant control in Ireland (Dublin specifically) Took more of their lands and property Threatened the position of the Old English and many landowners o Why were these promises withdrawn? Fighting within the British Parliament and government War with Spain (Irish and Spanish were Catholic) The English Civil War o Parliament had grievances against the king; wanted Parliamentary supremacy o Charles ordered the Parliamentarians to be arrested but they ignored his order o 19 Propositions new constitution drawn up giving supremacy to Parliament over the king in religious, military matters, etc. o Ends with the execution of Charles I Modernization o Was the conquest of Ireland one of modernization and globalization? o According to Marx’s theories, yes it probably was Civilizing mission o English felt themselves to be superior to the Irish “White Man’s Burden” o Anglicize/ civilize Ireland Thomas Wentworth o One of Charles’s religious ministers (most trusted, along with Laud) o Executed by the Long Parliament o Move towards sacramental worship o Advocated for the Book of Common Prayer o Created a split in the Anglican church; some would not accept these practices o Executed by the Long Parliament which tried to curb royal power Archbishop William Laud o Charles’s most trusted Churchman o Attempted to streamline Protestant worship; uniformity o Advocated for the Book of Common Prayer o Created a split in the Anglican church; some would not accept his book Led to the first Bishops War when Presbyterians would not accept this o Executed by the Long Parliament The Bishops War o Caused by Laud/Wentworth’s church reforms; not accepted by Scottish o Two conflicts over Charles’s attempts to reform the Scottish church Both campaigns were brought to an end by Charles’s inability to raise enough funds or an army o Created problems with the Irish as well because… Charles tries to raise an army in Ireland to deal with the Covenanters who won’t take the Black Oath Irish Parliament supports Charles over the Scots Calls Parliament to authorize money for this and they refuse (“Short Parliament”) Charles then is forced to negotiate with Spain to fund the war Is defeated at the Battle of Newburn; signing of the Treaty of London which brings an end to the second Bishop’s War Long Parliament is summoned to ratify this o Long Parliament thinks that Charles, Laud, and Wentworth are going to “Catholicize” the Church which leads to a fear of the return of the divine right of kings Works to restrain royal power Establishes the Triennial Act (Parliament must meet every 3 years) Parliament over king (in essence) Lecture #4 Questions: What is Cromwell’s legacy in Ireland? o Slaughter (Drogheda and Wexford) o Transplantation (To Hell or Connacht) o Irish people hate both him and England o Brought with him to Ireland those who would be the intellectual forefathers of Irish Republicanism First republican in Ireland Why did the slaughter at Drogheda make it more difficult for Cromwell to subdue the Irish? o Was an example of Cromwell’s extreme cruelty (remembered today still) o First (and permanent) stain on Cromwell’s reputation with the Irish o Lived on in folk memory; one of the most hated people in all of Irish history Explain the Putney Debates. o Debates between factions of the New Model Army regarding a new Constitution for England Levellers (Rainsborough, Sexby, Overton) Want a Constitution based on “one man, one vote” and a fairer reorganization of Parliamentary constituencies (gerrymandering) o Didn’t extend this right to vote to women, servants, etc. No drafts for army, everyone equal under the law, no penalty for not going to church or attending a different religious service Want to make peace / coexist with the native Irish cause of the Irish is the same as their own cause Agitators (New agents represented the rank and file soldiers in the New Model Army) Grandees (Cromwell, Fairfax, Ireton) Negotiate a settlement with Charles I Want strong monarchy, House of Lords Opposed universal suffrage in favor of property qualifications What role did the Putney debates play in the evolution of “republicanism” in the west? o Ideas of the Levellers and “one man, one vote” failed in the debates but they were implemented in the United States and later England Who benefitted from the Cromwellian settlement in Ireland? o Those who had funded and served in the war were given land o Land was taken from the rebels and sympathizers o Most soldiers who were given land as a gift for fighting sold it and returned to England No real attempts were made to establish Protestant communities (like the Plantation had done) except in the towns Less complete than the Plantation o Loyal Irish got to keep their land but were transplanted so they didn’t benefit Was Cromwell the first Republican to set foot on Irish soil? o Yes Terms: Cromwell o Rose from midrank to become Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland o Was a Puritan; hated pomp and circumstance in religion o Member of Parliament; very outspoken; wanted Church reform and Parliamentary supremacy over the King o Sent to Ireland in 1649 to end the Rebellion that had started in 1641 Massacred many people payback for 1641 Ultimately escalated the longterm instability of Ireland o Championed religious liberty and ruler’s accountability to the people Ironsides o The cavalry in Cromwell’s Parliamentary army o Named after one of the nicknames that Cromwell had (“Old Ironsides”) Ireton o Argued against the Levellers in the Putney debates (have property to vote) o Was related to Cromwell Drogheda o Located just north of Dublin; strategic point that provided a direct route to Ulster o No quarter was given; 3,500 people killed; 2,700 Royalist soldiers Wexford o 2,000 Irish soldiers and 1,500 civilians killed o Cromwell was negotiating the surrender of the city when his men attacked and destroyed it completely o Cromwell was blamed because he was the commander even though he did not order the attack or know of their actions (probably) Levellers o Were a faction of the New Model Army; became the center of the Putney Debates o Argue that military power should only be used to give power back to the people Were labelled by opponents as “anarchists” Diggers o Group of Protestant English farmers who were socialists and wanted to farm community lands o Called themselves “True Levellers” because they wanted to level property Similar to the Levellers but more radical Putney Debates o Three factions: Levellers (Rainsborough, Sexby, Overton) Want a Constitution based on “one man, one vote” and a fairer reorganization of Parliamentary constituencies (gerrymandering) o Didn’t extend this right to vote to women, servants, etc. No drafts for army, everyone equal under the law, no penalty for not going to church or attending a different religious service Want to make peace / coexist with the native Irish cause of the Irish is the same as their own cause Agitators (New agents represented the rank and file soldiers in the New Model Army) Grandees (Cromwell, Fairfax, Ireton) Negotiate a settlement with Charles I Want strong monarchy, House of Lords Opposed universal suffrage in favor of property qualifications KEY conflict: Democracy? Rainsborough: poorest he in England is equal to richest he Ireton: no property = no fixed interest in country = no voting RESULT: Charles escapes; Cromwell and Ireton suppress the Levellers Victory for “men of property” However, Leveller ideas are fulfilled in the United States later An Agreement of the People o List of demands and reformed that the English (?) wanted Current representation in Parliament was very unequally distributed Essentially gerrymandering in today’s terms wanted this fixed Same people have been in Parliament for too long; wanted the current Parliament to be dissolved and reelected Parliament would meet at least every 2 years; elections would be held more frequently Forcing people into the army was now banned Laws would be equal and apply to all people To Hell or Connaught o Act for the Settlement of Ireland was passed in 1652 by the Rump Parliament Act punished the participants and sympathizers of the 1641 Rebellion and confiscated all of their lands; also lands of Catholic clergy Passed after Cromwell had left Ireland and put it in the hands of Ireton Had been subjugated; in Parliamentary hands now rebellion over Divided Catholic landowners into guilty and innocent Guilty lost all of their land Innocent got to “keep” land but were transplanted to Connacht o Cromwell’s infamous phrase to the still resisting Irish who did not want to move o Other confiscated land that was not used for transplanting the Irish went to those who had fought in and funded the war Lord Protector o Title that Cromwell took because he did not want to be known as “king” o Emphasized the ruler’s accountability to the people The Commonwealth Thomas Rainsborough o Believed in the equality of men; advocate for the Agreement of the People Other men who supported these views: Edward Sexby Richard Overton o Ultimate sin is to become God (King and Parliament were both guilty of this) New Model Army o Cromwell’s army created in 1645 o Viewed the native Irish as savage, subhuman, etc. o Had the same goals as the Agreement of the People but forth but less radical Puritan o Only the grace of God can save you o Emphasis was on the individual because you could read the Bible on your own and interpret it yourself (no priests necessary) o Deeplyrooted radicalism / revolutionary tendencies Dissenters o Came to Dublin with Cromwell o Encompass a wide range on the religious spectrum o Essentially all who would not accept the king’s authority over their religion Man could find his way to God through scripture; didn’t need priests Hated pomp and circumstance in religion (ex. Catholic/ Anglican) o “Radical Republicans” Believe in… Freedom of religion State has no role in religion; people can make up their own minds No established church and absolute freedom of thought o Impact of the dissenter ideas American Revolution French Revolution Glorious Revolution United Irishmen Col. Prides’s Purge o New Model Army wanted to prevent a treaty which would reinstall Charles I o On the day that the treaty was to be signed, Col. Pride prevented 200some members of Parliament from entering; some were arrested in order to do this Rump Parliament o Parliament that existed after Col. Pride purged the Long Parliament of all of the members who favored the treaty which would reinstate Charles as king o About 240some people (approximately half of the actual Parliament)
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