COMM 425 Speechwriting Final Exam Study Guide
COMM 425 Speechwriting Final Exam Study Guide COMM 425
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This 1 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caren Adelsperger on Friday January 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 425 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Beth Messner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 01/08/16
COMM 425: Exam #3 Review Guide Exam scheduled for Weds., Dec. 16 (10-11:45) in Class! Zousmer Chap. 16: Do Some Last-Minute Tailoring Zousmer argues that rewriting entails “a lot more than checking facts and ﬁxing typos” (p. 215). What types of other issues should you address when rewriting a speech? Ask the big questions Is the statement sound? Is the structure right? Does one thing follow the next? Why does Zousmer believe that the middle of a speech is the easiest part of the speech to write, but also the place where the heaviest editing takes place? Explain. There’s the most content in terms of facts and ﬁgures What are the important features of a good closing? a blend of: ethos pathos logos as an opportunity for the speaker to put aside hard business points and express himself personally as a leader and a human being How many minutes should most speeches generally be? There is no particular number of minutes, cover your material and respect the audience’s time not a note too many or too few Why does Zousmer argue that it is sometimes is necessary to “kill your babies” in a speech? How does one go about doing this”? Because it can add to the draft making it more wordy/lengthy/choppy, and you want tight structure If you have any doubt at all, cut it out Why should we read our drafts aloud? Helps you ﬁnd things that will trip the speaker Helps ﬁnd long sentences Helps vary the rhythm Helps application of emphasis Chap. 17: Collaborative Rewriting - - Damage Control What are responsibilities of the writer in the rewriting process? Who is considered the “boss” of the writing process? Why? The boss/client, he is in control What are the 4 general steps involved in the rewriting process? Can you explain each? 1. Submitting draft to boss 2. Client reads and sometimes invites others to comment on ﬁrst draft 3. client and writer discuss revisions 4. rewriting begins-may require multiple drafts Can you explain Zousmer’s “Opinions” on “First Reactions, “Best Writing Unit,” “Third Drafts/Best Drafts,” and “Who Should Rewrite”? Do you agree or disagree? Why? Zousmer’s Opinion on First Reactions: a client’s ﬁrst reaction to a draft are almost always on target Zousmer’s Opinion on Best Writing Unit: The best writing lineup is a threesome, writer, client, and a third person who has the trust of everyone Zousmer’s Opinion on Who Should Rewrite: Tbe client should have every right to pick up a pen and rewrite it all himself How do you know when you’re done writing a speech? When the boss says you’re done Chap. 18: Coll. Rewriting - - The Speaker-Writer Relationship Consider Zousmer’s advice in this chapter: − As a writer, are there things you should not compromise on (e.g., structure)? What and why? Structure, when it’s threatened you’ve changed the integrity and it will collapse, like a house − As a writer, what things can you compromise on? What and why? language, jargon, excessive detail, anecdote, any idiosyncrasies What is Zousmer’s stance on the use of “jargon”? Do you agree or disagree? Against all jargon, but recognizes clients are fond of jargon especially when it’s in-house corporate jargon, so he tries a way to mitigate What are the chief characteristics of the “podium copy”? simple fonts printing on only top-half of page big type any rhythm indenting call for slide gestures page numbers performance reminders such as “sincere” As a speech writer, why is it important to also focus on the performance of the speaker? Because it can have great content but if it’s not delivered well, it may fall ﬂat Chap. 19: Slides (Presentational Aides) Zousmer argues that “leaders don’t use slides” (p. 270). What does he mean by this? He means, audiences will never walk out of a speech saying, “Wow, I’ll never forget those graphics” Why does Zousmer object to the use of slides (i.e., PowerPoint)? Do you agree or disagree? It’s detracting and imposing and you have to endure, and are switching eyes back and forth, and dimming of the lights, and there can be a disaster such as electronic malfunction Disagree! Depends on the topic and the audience. They are a supplement and allow for better communication If slides are so bad, why do people still use them? they add to the speech What is the diﬀerence between a speech and a presentation? A presentation is presenting a new concept that you are probably unfamiliar with Are there occasions when visual aides might be beneﬁcial? How do you determine this? What would “good” visual aides look like? Yes, for a presentation Good visual aids are simple graphs, photos, videos, anything that helps makes numbers, processes, comparisons, or relationships easier to understand by showing something is good Lehrman Chaps. 6: Language People Understand =What does Lehrman mean when he says “style is content”? (p. 71) The language nada sentences structure you choose come part of your message. To say, “we should vote against the measure” is not the same as saying "vote no." What are the 4 elements of good styles? 1. Clarity 2. Appropriateness 3. Ornament (Figures of speech, similes, metaphor) 4. Correctness (using correct grammar, syntax, pronunciation) Can you explain and employ the following 8 means of enhancing the clarity of speech: − Concrete Words: athlete vs. baseball player, written vs. handwritten − Short Words: I have a dream. − Active Verbs: Mistakes were made. − Appropriate Words: per situation/audience, ﬂow vs. harsh and ﬁrm − Short Sentences & Paragraphs: audiences like short because they can be very clear, but not so mature − Brevity: how brief − Simplicity: how simple and concise − Logical Flow: does it make sense? (Blue: short sentences) Chap. 7: Language People Remember Why should speechwriters be concerned with making language “vivid”? Can you recognize the literary tools that can help you do this from examples? How do they function? Vivid language is memorable Below are tools −Simile: without like or as − Metaphor: with like or as − Pun: dumb joke − Understatement: downplay − Irony: funny thing that − Hyperbole: exaggeration − Rhetorical Question: rhetorical question Why should speechwriters be concerned with making language “rhythmic”? Can you recognize the literary tools that can help you do this from examples? How do they function? Rhythmic is appealing to us, we like a beat Below are tools − Parallelism: parellel to structure to present similarity Example: That these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God shall have a a new birth of freedom—and that government: of the people, by the people shall not perish from the earth. −Antithesis: parallel structure to present contrast Example: There’s nothing wrong with America that can’t be ﬁxed by what’s right with America − Alliteration: beginning with same sound We shall not falter, we shall not fail. − Litany: repetitve recital Inﬂation was 13 percent when we came in. WE got it down to 4. Interest rates were more than 1. We cut them in half. Unemployment wasp and climbing and now it’s in the lowest of fourteen years. − Anaphora (beginning of a sentence) − Epistrophe (repeating last part of a sentence) (Purple: parts of litany) Chap. 9: Wit Why is humor important in political speeches? win attention What are the rules of thumb for appropriately using political humor? Use it throughout Use it with oﬀ-ramps Use it with taste Use and re-use • What are the following types of humor? Can you identify them from examples? − Quips: fragment long Example: I want to thank your hosts. I was telling Chairman Yu that I was in 1975 with my mother. Shanghai has ﬁnally recovered. − One-Liners: Worked out, designed to be quoted Example: I’ve learned that in Washington that thats the only place where sound travels faster than light. −Story-Jokes: short or long Example: “Reminds me of a story.." − Hyperbole: broken up by laughter − Analogy: comparison Example: Democrats would throw a hundred foot rope − Quotes: Someone asked He felt He said He said again Chap. 14: Delivery Why is delivery important to a speech? Delivering a speech is diﬀerent than reading it, it involves more What characterizes good “Appearance? stand straight dress better than audience look younger What characterized good “Movement”? use appropriate facial expressions maintain eye contact think three slices of pizza What characterizes good “Voice”? pitch rate volume pauses emphasis pronunciation articulated pause What are the 2 primary types of speech delivery used in political speeches? What advantages are associated with extemporaneous delivery? text speech and extemporaneous speech extemp it will sound relaxed and conversational What are the 5 steps associated with rehearsing a speech text? 1. read speeches through, and market them up 2. rehearse like you mean it 3.rehearse not just to practices what’s there but to include what’s isn’t 4. cut 5. extend eye contact Chap. 16: Speechwriting & Ethics What is plagiarism? Why is it problematic for speechwriters and speakers? How can you avoid plagiarizing? a representation of someone else’s writing avoid by: ﬁnding acknowledgement somehow to put in keep annotated record of sources What ethical diﬃculties arise from the following practices? If your client expected you to engage in these practices, how would you respond? − Distorting Arguments: don’t use info you don’t trust, insert caveats − Writing Something You Oppose: discuss with your superior, look for work elsewhere −Lying: don’t do it Responding
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