Pyschology Exam 1 Study Guide
Pyschology Exam 1 Study Guide Chem 102
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Bocian on Friday January 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 102 at Western Illinois University taught by Dr. Jin in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 102 in Chemistry at Western Illinois University.
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Date Created: 01/08/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Essay Questions 1. What was Mathes’ definition of adjustment? How does it fit into the framework of evolution? Discuss the concepts of negative and positive adjustment. a. According to Mathes, to be adjusted is the ability to adapt in order to survival and reproduce. Positive adjustment is having traits that facilitate survival and reproduction while negative adjustment is lacking traits that hinder survival. 2. Describe and discuss Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. a. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs begins with physiological needs for survival such as food and water. Safety and security needs follow, which include aids for long term survival such as money and a house. Next are belongingness needs, which are social needs and are satisfied with friends, family, and romance. Esteem needs follow and they are focused on self-status, achievement, and having an education. The final need is Self- actualization, which is the motivation to realize one’s true potential, and the focus shifts from self to a more altruistic perspective. 3. Describe and discuss Maslow’s nine characteristics of the self- actualizing individual. a. The Self-actualizing person has 9 characteristics. First of all, they are efficient in the perception of reality. They are able to detect fakes and dishonest people because they are not motivated by deficiency needs so they are more objective when looking at the world. (2) They accept reality for what it is and make no neurotic demands of it. When things don’t go their way, they don’t see it as detrimental but rather an opportunity to learn. (3) They accept themselves and make an attempt at enjoying life. They pursue higher level pleasures. (4) They have had Peak experiences. (5) They are spontaneous and creative. A Self- Actualizing person thinks outside of the box and comes up with unconventional products. (6) They are problem centered, and not egocentric. They want to get things done and are not focused on what is in it for them. (7) A Self-Actualizing person transcends polarities and realize that those are human creations. (8) They are without inner conflict. When a choice has to be made, they make it and go on with their lives, rather than second guessing themselves constantly. (9) Self-Actualizing people have imperfections and are humble. 4. Describe and discuss the three things individuals learn from peak experiences. a. Peak Experiences are intense, pure happiness that is temporary, but allows one to achieve insight. Peak Experiences can teach people three things. (1) Polarities do not exist in nature, they are a human creation. Good is not the opposite of bad and creation can exist in destruction. (2)The ultimate reality is good and things tend to work out for the best. (3) The ultimate good consists of metavalues, which are universal and can be used to evaluate any culture. 5. Describe and discuss Erikson’s stages of development. a. Erikson’s first stage of development is (1) trust. It involves establishing a trusting relationship with a parent or caregiver and typically occurs in the first year of life. Completing this stage allows you to trust others and gives you the conclusion that people are good. Failure to complete this stage may result in the individual thinking that people are dangerous. Erikson’s second stage is (2) autonomy. This occurs around the ages of two and three and is when an individual learns independence. They assert their will, typically by saying no and trust is a prerequisite. The third stage is (3) initiative. This involves the development of a conscience (internalized social values) and makes social living possible. This occurs around ages four and five. The fourth stage is (4) industry and is when the individual learns cognitive and thinking skills such as writing, reading, and arithmetic. The fifth stage is (5) identity and is when the individual creates and identity for themselves. They choose friends, religion, and a personality, all around the time of adolescence. The sixth stage is (6) intimacy and the focus begins to shift to others. The goal is to achieve some kind of committed romantic relationship that may or may not involve marriage. The seventh stage is (7) generativity when the focus is almost entirely on others and giving back to the world. Many invest in future generations by having kids and also nurturing them. People without kids can succeed in this stage by helping other young children by being teachers or mentors. This is during middle age. The final stage is (8) ego-integrity during old age. The goal is to die happy. By succeeding in the previous seven stages, life was meaningful and death will be good. Failing in the first seven stages will make death tragic. 6. Describe and discuss Marcia’s four identity statuses. a. Marcia’s first identity status is diffusion. An individual of this identity status is not looking for an identity and they have not committed to one either. They do not want to grow up and watch a lot of Netflix, party, and play videogames. Foreclosure is a typically historical status where there is no search for identity but they have committed to one, typically given to them by a parent. Moratorium is the search for an identity without commitment. There may be anxiety associated with this status. Finally, the achieved identity status search for an identity and they committed to it. 7. Describe and discuss Orlofsky’s four intimacy statuses. a. Orlafsky’s four statuses start with an extreme case, the loner. This person is introverted and uncomfortable around people. They have few if any close friends and no romantic partners. After that are stereotyped relationships. These are impersonal, culturally scripted relationships. They feel safe because you don’t actually get to know the other person. After that is preintimate, and in this status there is caring, sharing, and self-disclosure. The individual is serious about this relationship and trust is involved. The final status is intimacy and it is similar to preintimacy but it involves commitment and monogamy. 8. Describe and discuss Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. a. Kohlberg’s 6 stages of moral development fall into three categories. Preconventional morality encompasses the first two stages, and individuals in this spot are not moral. (1) The first stage is Heteronomous and they are 100% selfish. The only time they act morally is to avoid punishment. (2) The second stage is individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange. This individual is also 100% selfish and immoral. They may sometimes act morally to achieve rewards. Instrumental purpose is the skill of using others to get a rewards and exchange is bartering to get what they want. After that is Conventional Morality, where the group is more important than the individual. (3) The third stage of moral development is mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity. These people are moral, but it only extend to friends and family. It is a very tribal morality and it is adaptive. They are empathetic towards members of their group and mutual interpersonal expectations (rules between people) makes it possible to be altruistic towards them. (4) The fourth stage is social systems and conscience. This system encompasses nations and you treat everyone within your governmental unit altruistically. This is based on inflexible laws and allows everybody to get along. The conscience is developed here and is internalized laws. The downfall of this authoritarian stage is ethnocentrism, which is the belief that your culture or nation is superior to all others. Following this is Post Conventional Morality, where you realize that the conventions of your time are not eternal and they can be changed. (5) The fifth stage is Social Contract or Utility and Individual Rights. In this this stage, the higher authority is the will of the majority. The dignity of the individual is very important and they follow the Utilitarian political philosophy, that happiness is the purpose of life. Laws are based on consensus and it follows democracy. (6) The final stage is Universal Ethical Principles, where justice is extremely important. You are obligated to disobey unjust laws, and you must do it publicly and accept the punishment (civil disobedience). 9. Describe and discuss Mathes’ theory of expanding concerns. a. In Mathes’s theory of expanding concerns, the immediate concern is survival. Once that is taken care of, the individual is focused on competence and learning skills such as writing that may aid survival. Once the individual is competent, they work on Self- Enhancement and finding their unique style and niche in the world. After that, the individual focuses on love and work. This is when the focus shifts from the self to others, particularly the spouse and children. Finally, the individual focuses on the Universe, and may experience religious transcendence. 10. Discuss the similarities and differences between Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and Mathes’ expanding concerns theory. a. Mathes and Maslow have comparable bottom two needs/focuses and the final need/focus. Mathe’s third concern, Self- Enhancement, is comparable to Maslow’s fourth need, Esteem. Similarly, Mathes’s fourth concern, love and work, is comparable to Maslow’s third need, belongingness. 11. Discuss the similarities and differences between Erikson’s stages of development theory and Mathes’ expanding concern theory. a. Erikson’s Trust stage would fit into Mathes’s concern of survival. Mathes’s second concern, competence, encompasses, Erikson’s next three stages which are autonomy, initiative, and industry. Mathes’s concern of self- enhancement compares to Erikson’s identity stage. Mathes’s fourth concern of love and work encompass Erikson’s stages of intimacy and generativity. Erikson’s final stage of ego integrity is comparable to Mathes’s concern of Universe. 12. How does a correlational study differ from an experimental study? a. A correlational study shows a relationship between two variables, an experimental study seeks to prove causation. Terms Adjustment 1. Positive Definition of adjustment a. Having traits that facilitate survival and reproduction b. Ex. Being intelligent, having social skills 2. Negative definition of adjustment a. Being free of traits that hinder survival and reproduction b. Ex. Being free of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety Maslow 1. Physiological Needs: a. Immediate survival b. Ex. Food, water, oxygen 2. Safety/security needs a. Long term survival b. Ex. Money, house, health care 3. Belongingness needs a. Social b. Friends, family, romance, church 4. Esteem needs a. Self-status, achievement, appearance, having an education 5. Self-actualization a. Motivation to realize one’s true potential and achieve meta values b. Focus shifts from self to a more altruistic perspective 6. Prepotency a. Maslow’s lower needs are more urgent than his higher needs 7. Deficiency needs a. The first four of Maslow’s needs b. When unsatisfied, it leads to discomfort 8. Being needs 9. Transcendence of polarities a. The realization that polarities are a human creation 10. Peak experiences a. Intense, pure happiness where you may achieve insight 11. Meta values a. Truth, beauty, justice, goodness, wholeness, perfection, completion, aliveness, simplicity, uniqueness, effortlessness, playfulness, self-sufficiency b. Transcend cultures and are universal 12. Cultural relativity a. You can only judge a culture by its own values 13. Universal moral values a. Truth, beauty, justice, goodness, wholeness, perfection, completion, aliveness, simplicity, uniqueness, effortlessness, playfulness, self-sufficiency Erikson 1. Trust a. Establishing a trusting relationship with a parent or caregiver b. Typically in first year of life c. Completing this stage allows you to trust others 2. Autonomy a. Two or three years old b. Learning independence and asserting their will (usually by saying no) c. Toilet training d. Trust is a pre requisite 3. Initiative a. 4 or 5 years old b. Developing a conscience c. Makes social living possible 4. Identification 5. Socialization 6. Conscience vs Conscious a. Conscience: internalized social values b. Conscious: being awake 7. Industry a. Learning cognitive/thinking skills i. Writing, reading, and arithmetic 8. Identity Diffusion a. Marcia’s stage of identity with no search and no commitment to a particular identity 9. Foreclosure a. Marcia’s stage of identity with no search for identity but commitment to an identity that was already handed to you 10. Moratorium a. Marcia’s stage of identity with search for but no commitment to a particular identity 11. Identity Achievement a. Marcia’s stage of identity where you searched for and committed to a particular identity 12. Isolate a. Orlafsky’s stage of intimacy where one is a loner with few friends and no romantic interests b. Very extreme 13. Stereotyped relationships a. Orlafsky’s stage of intimate relationships where relationships are culturally scripted and very impersonal 14. Pre intimate relationships a. Orlafsky’s stage of intimate relationships where one is trying to search for love and wants to know the other’s morals and values 15. Intimate relationships a. Orlafsky’s stage of intimate relationships involving commitment and possible marriage 16. Generativity a. Erikson’s stage of development where the focus is giving back to the world by having and raising children 17. Ego-integrity a. Erikson’s stage of development where the goal is to die happy Kohlberg 1. Heteronomous morality a. Pre-conventional morality b. Immoral c. May behave moral to avoid punishment 2. Individualism, Instrumental purpose, and exchange morality a. Pre-conventional morality b. Immoral c. May behave moral to achieve reward 3. Mutual Interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity morality a. Conventional Morality b. Morality extends to friends and family c. Adaptive d. Tribal morality e. Morality of criminal groups 4. Social system and conscience morality a. Conventional morality b. Authoritarian c. Downfall is ethnocentrism i. belief that your culture or nation is superior to all others d. Conscience: laws are internalized e. System that encompasses nations i. Treat everyone within your governmental unit altruistically 5. Social contract or utility and individual rights morality a. Dignity of the individual is very important b. The higher authority is the will of the majority (democracy) c. Follows a utilitarian political philosophy (happiness is the purpose of life) d. Promotes tolerance e. Laws are based on consensus 6. Universal Ethical Principles morality a. Human life and justice is valued b. Civil Disobedience i. You are obligated to disobey unjust laws publicly and accept the punishment Science 1. Variable a. Anything that varies 2. Mean a. The average 3. Sample a. Subset of a whole b. Representative sample i. Random selection to represent the whole population 4. Operational Definition a. The specific way in which you measure a variable 5. Correlational Studies a. The study of the relationship between two variables 6. Positive Relationship a. When one variable increases, so does the other 7. Negative Relationship a. When one variable increases, the other decreases 8. Experimental Studies a. Designed to demonstrate causation 9. Independent Variable a. Causal variable (causes change in the dependent variable) 10. Dependent Variable a. Effect variable (is changed by the independent variable) 11. Experimental Group a. Group with a manipulated independent variable to test causation 12. Control Group a. Group with an un manipulated independent variable to serve as comparison for experimental group 13. Causation a. Correlation does not prove causation b. Causation can only be demonstrated by experiment
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