Middle Eastern History and Civilization Exam 1 Study Guide
Middle Eastern History and Civilization Exam 1 Study Guide ASH 1044
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by clb13m on Friday January 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASH 1044 at Florida State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Middle Eastern History and Civilization in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/08/16
Exam 1 Study Guide The Middle East is east of Europe. o Population size : Three largest countries: Egypt, Turkey, and Iran the “core” of the Middle East Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Syria. The smaller countries are Israel, Jordan, United Arabic Emirates, Lebanon, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. These countries are considered to be in the Middle East in the political geography viewpoint, not linguistic or cultural. o Middle East geographical boundaries are not clearly stated. o Some consider countries to be a part of the Middle East if the state is in the Arab League. However, Turkey, Israel, and Iran are not members of this League. o Sudan, Morocco, Libya, and Afghanistan are sometimes grouped into the Middle East as well. o One cannot automatically assume an Arabic speaking, Islamic state is in the Middle East. For example, Indonesia is in Southeast Asia, yet has the largest Muslim population in the world, according to Michael Low. Mesopotamia as the “fertile crescent” due to its lush soil. o There are mountains in Iran and Turkey, with fluctuation in the amount of rain from 7.9 to 15.7 inches. o The Mediterranean climate changes throughout the year o The summers are dry, while the winters are wet, with colder temperatures. The three core countries speak different languages o Egypt speaks Arabic o Turkey speaks Turkish o Iran speaks Persian. o Sudan alone has over 400 languages and dialects o Arabic and Hebrew are Semitic languages o Turkish is a Turkic language half the amount of speakers as those of Arabic o The Persian language, as well as Kurdish, is derived from IndoEuropean language Nomadism Symbols of preislamic Arabian memory: tent, desert, honor, revenge, the tribe o Endure present day stereotypes of the middle east Three kinds of settlement in the middle east: townspeople, peasants, nomads o Townspeople and nomads were never settled. o Nomads weren’t constantly roaming though (had sheep, cattle, camels) Had tents – circle of tents marked kinship Bedouin heritage – nomadic heritage o Tribalism is important symbol – strong kin o Resistance to imperial integration; ancient antagonist; couldn’t be pinned down by the byzantine empire Empires needed to spend more resources than what they would get in return. Settled merchants and nomads teamed up (Commonwealth of the Mecca) Monotheism Became state religion of byzantine empire (Christian empire) Persian empire (Zoroastrian empire) Arabia – extensively pagan Persian empire is resistant to monotheism, Arabia is not o Arabs were originally polytheist Jews were a long standing influence to the hijas, Christians were a new influence. Hijas was an area in Arabia that began to accept monotheism Ethiopia was highly Christianized Pagan religion idols – animals and astrology o Practice : no temples, elaborate cosmology Jahiliya – period of ignorance o Ignorance of the one god Shirk – putting partners with god – considered a big sin o Monotheism is one of the areas of greatest distinction between modern day Arabia and preislamic Arabia God replaced the many god of the pagans and the one god of the Jews/Christians Middle eastern polytheistic religion, gods were anthropomorphic (resembling humans) God of old testament resembled humans in actions and appearance God that replaced the others was more transcendent, less humanlike People of the book – jewish and Christian monotheists o Seen as wrong, but okay to muslims Polytheists – seen as the worst of the worst o “The ignorant ones” Qur’an – “he is god, alone” o Cultural confidence in gender and monotheism is clear
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